protein function
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Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 169
Jon M. Fukuto ◽  
Cristina Perez-Ternero ◽  
Jessica Zarenkiewicz ◽  
Joseph Lin ◽  
Adrian J. Hobbs ◽  

S-Nitrosothiol (RS-NO) formation in proteins and peptides have been implicated as factors in the etiology of many diseases and as possible regulators of thiol protein function. They have also been proposed as possible storage forms of nitric oxide (NO). However, despite their proposed functions/roles, there appears to be little consensus regarding the physiological mechanisms of RS-NO formation and degradation. Hydropersulfides (RSSH) have recently been discovered as endogenously generated species with unique reactivity. One important reaction of RSSH is with RS-NO, which leads to the degradation of RS-NO as well as the release of NO. Thus, it can be speculated that RSSH can be a factor in the regulation of steady-state RS-NO levels, and therefore may be important in RS-NO (patho)physiology. Moreover, RSSH-mediated NO release from RS-NO may be a possible mechanism allowing RS-NO to serve as a storage form of NO.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Hongjuan You ◽  
Qi Li ◽  
Delong Kong ◽  
Xiangye Liu ◽  
Fanyun Kong ◽  

AbstractCanonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a complex cell-communication mechanism that has a central role in the progression of various cancers. The cellular factors that participate in the regulation of this signaling are still not fully elucidated. Lysine acetylation is a significant protein modification which facilitates reversible regulation of the target protein function dependent on the activity of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and the catalytic function of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). Protein lysine acetylation has been classified into histone acetylation and non-histone protein acetylation. Histone acetylation is a kind of epigenetic modification, and it can modulate the transcription of important biological molecules in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Additionally, as a type of post-translational modification, non-histone acetylation directly alters the function of the core molecules in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Conversely, this signaling can regulate the expression and function of target molecules based on histone or non-histone protein acetylation. To date, various inhibitors targeting KATs and KDACs have been discovered, and some of these inhibitors exert their anti-tumor activity via blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Here, we discuss the available evidence in understanding the complicated interaction of protein lysine acetylation with Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and lysine acetylation as a new target for cancer therapy via controlling this signaling.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Anna V. Bulankina ◽  
Rebecca M. Richter ◽  
Christoph Welsch

Positive-strand RNA viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) hijack key factors of lipid metabolism of infected cells and extensively modify intracellular membranes to support the viral lifecycle. While lipid metabolism plays key roles in viral particle assembly and maturation, viral RNA synthesis is closely linked to the remodeling of intracellular membranes. The formation of viral replication factories requires a number of interactions between virus proteins and host factors including lipids. The structure–function relationship of those proteins is influenced by their lipid environments and lipids that selectively modulate protein function. Here, we review our current understanding on the roles of phospholipids in HCV replication and of lipid–protein interactions in the structure–function relationship of the NS5A protein. NS5A is a key factor in membrane remodeling in HCV-infected cells and is known to recruit phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III alpha to generate phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate at the sites of replication. The dynamic interplay between lipids and viral proteins within intracellular membranes is likely key towards understanding basic mechanisms in the pathobiology of virus diseases, the mode of action of specific antiviral agents and related drug resistance mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Elena Rojano ◽  
Fernando M. Jabato ◽  
James R. Perkins ◽  
José Córdoba-Caballero ◽  
Federico García-Criado ◽  

Abstract Background Protein function prediction remains a key challenge. Domain composition affects protein function. Here we present DomFun, a Ruby gem that uses associations between protein domains and functions, calculated using multiple indices based on tripartite network analysis. These domain-function associations are combined at the protein level, to generate protein-function predictions. Results We analysed 16 tripartite networks connecting homologous superfamily and FunFam domains from CATH-Gene3D with functional annotations from the three Gene Ontology (GO) sub-ontologies, KEGG, and Reactome. We validated the results using the CAFA 3 benchmark platform for GO annotation, finding that out of the multiple association metrics and domain datasets tested, Simpson index for FunFam domain-function associations combined with Stouffer’s method leads to the best performance in almost all scenarios. We also found that using FunFams led to better performance than superfamilies, and better results were found for GO molecular function compared to GO biological process terms. DomFun performed as well as the highest-performing method in certain CAFA 3 evaluation procedures in terms of $$F_{max}$$ F max and $$S_{min}$$ S min We also implemented our own benchmark procedure, Pathway Prediction Performance (PPP), which can be used to validate function prediction for additional annotations sources, such as KEGG and Reactome. Using PPP, we found similar results to those found with CAFA 3 for GO, moreover we found good performance for the other annotation sources. As with CAFA 3, Simpson index with Stouffer’s method led to the top performance in almost all scenarios. Conclusions DomFun shows competitive performance with other methods evaluated in CAFA 3 when predicting proteins function with GO, although results vary depending on the evaluation procedure. Through our own benchmark procedure, PPP, we have shown it can also make accurate predictions for KEGG and Reactome. It performs best when using FunFams, combining Simpson index derived domain-function associations using Stouffer’s method. The tool has been implemented so that it can be easily adapted to incorporate other protein features, such as domain data from other sources, amino acid k-mers and motifs. The DomFun Ruby gem is available from Code maintained at Validation procedure scripts can be found at

2022 ◽  
Maxat Kulmanov ◽  
Robert Hoehndorf

Motivation: Protein functions are often described using the Gene Ontology (GO) which is an ontology consisting of over 50,000 classes and a large set of formal axioms. Predicting the functions of proteins is one of the key challenges in computational biology and a variety of machine learning methods have been developed for this purpose. However, these methods usually require significant amount of training data and cannot make predictions for GO classes which have only few or no experimental annotations. Results: We developed DeepGOZero, a machine learning model which improves predictions for functions with no or only a small number of annotations. To achieve this goal, we rely on a model-theoretic approach for learning ontology embeddings and combine it with neural networks for protein function prediction. DeepGOZero can exploit formal axioms in the GO to make zero-shot predictions, i.e., predict protein functions even if not a single protein in the training phase was associated with that function. Furthermore, the zero-shot prediction method employed by DeepGOZero is generic and can be applied whenever associations with ontology classes need to be predicted. Availability:

Bazhena Bahatyrevich-Kharitonik ◽  
Rafael Medina-Guzman ◽  
Alicia Flores-Cortes ◽  
Marta García-Cruzado ◽  
Edel Kavanagh ◽  

Cell death related (CDR) proteins are a diverse group of proteins whose original function was ascribed to apoptotic cell death signaling. Recently, descriptions of non-apoptotic functions for CDR proteins have increased. In this minireview, we comment on recent studies of CDR proteins outside the field of apoptosis in the CNS, encompassing areas such as the inflammasome and non-apoptotic cell death, cytoskeleton reorganization, synaptic plasticity, mitophagy, neurodegeneration and calcium signaling among others. Furthermore, we discuss the evolution of proteomic techniques used to predict caspase substrates that could potentially explain their non-apoptotic roles. Finally, we address new concepts in the field of non-apoptotic functions of CDR proteins that require further research such the effect of sexual dimorphism on non-apoptotic CDR protein function and the emergence of zymogen-specific caspase functions.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 140
Max Cowan ◽  
Birger Lindberg Møller ◽  
Sally Norton ◽  
Camilla Knudsen ◽  
Christoph Crocoll ◽  

Domestication has resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in our major food crops, leading to susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses linked with climate change. Crop wild relatives (CWR) may provide a source of novel genes potentially important for re-gaining climate resilience. Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal crop with wild relatives that are endemic to Australia. Sorghum bicolor is cyanogenic, but the cyanogenic status of wild Sorghum species is not well known. In this study, leaves of wild species endemic in Australia are screened for the presence of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. The direct measurement of dhurrin content and the potential for dhurrin-derived HCN release (HCNp) showed that all the tested Australian wild species were essentially phenotypically acyanogenic. The unexpected low dhurrin content may reflect the variable and generally nutrient-poor environments in which they are growing in nature. Genome sequencing of six CWR and PCR amplification of the CYP79A1 gene from additional species showed that a high conservation of key amino acids is required for correct protein function and dhurrin synthesis, pointing to the transcriptional regulation of the cyanogenic phenotype in wild sorghum as previously shown in elite sorghum.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262360
Mathias Rass ◽  
Laura Gizler ◽  
Florian Bayersdorfer ◽  
Christoph Irlbeck ◽  
Matthias Schramm ◽  

Over the years Ski and Sno have been found to be involved in cancer progression e.g. in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, oestrogen receptor-positive breast carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, and leukaemia. Often, their prooncogenic features have been linked to their ability of inhibiting the anti-proliferative action of TGF-ß signalling. Recently, not only pro-oncogenic but also anti-oncogenic functions of Ski/Sno proteins have been revealed. Besides Ski and Sno, which are ubiquitously expressed other members of Ski/Sno proteins exist which show highly specific neuronal expression, the SKI Family Transcriptional Corepressors (Skor). Among others Skor1 and Skor2 are involved in the development of Purkinje neurons and a mutation of Skor1 has been found to be associated with restless legs syndrome. But neither Skor1 nor Skor2 have been reported to be involved in cancer progression. Using overexpression studies in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc, we analysed if the Drosophila Skor homologue Fuss has retained the potential to inhibit differentiation and induce increased proliferation. Fuss expressed in cells posterior to the morphogenetic furrow, impairs photoreceptor axon pathfinding and inhibits differentiation of accessory cells. However, if its expression is induced prior to eye differentiation, Fuss might inhibit the differentiating function of Dpp signalling and might maintain proliferative action of Wg signalling, which is reminiscent of the Ski/Sno protein function in cancer.

2022 ◽  
Jin Li ◽  
William David Jamieson ◽  
Pantelitsa Dimitriou ◽  
Wen Xu ◽  
Paul Rohde ◽  

Intracellular compartments are functional units that support the metabolic processes within living cells, through spatiotemporal regulation of chemical reactions and biological processes. Consequently, as a step forward in the bottom-up creation of artificial cells, building analogous intracellular architectures is essential for the expansion of cell-mimicking functionality. Herein, we report the development of a droplet laboratory platform to engineer customised complex emulsion droplets as a multicompartment artificial cell chassis, using multiphase microfluidics and acoustic levitation. Such levitated constructs provide free-standing, dynamic, definable droplet networks for the encapsulation and organisation of chemical species. Equally, they can be remotely operated with pneumatic, heating, and magnetic elements for post-processing, including the incorporation of membrane proteins; alpha-hemolysin; and large-conductance mechanosensitive channel (MscL) and their activation. The assembly of droplet networks is three-dimensionally patterned with fluidic inputs configurations determining droplet contents and connectivity. Whilst acoustic manipulation can be harnessed to reconfigure the droplet network in situ. In addition, a mechanosensitive channel, MscL, can be repeatedly activated and deactivated in the levitated artificial cell by the application of acoustic and magnetic fields to modulate membrane tension on demand. This offers possibilities beyond one-time chemically mediated activation to provide repeated, non-contact control of membrane protein function. Collectively, this will expand our capability to program and operate increasingly sophisticated artificial cells as life-like materials.

2022 ◽  
Lewis A Macdonald ◽  
Gillian C A Taylor ◽  
Jennifer M Brisbane ◽  
Ersi Christodoulou ◽  
Lucy Scott ◽  

Auxin-inducible degrons are a chemical genetic tool for targeted protein degradation and are widely used to study protein function in cultured mammalian cells. Here we develop CRISPR-engineered mouse lines that enable rapid and highly specific degradation of tagged endogenous proteins in vivo. Most but not all cell types are competent for degradation. Using mouse genetics, we show that degradation kinetics depend upon the dose of the tagged protein, ligand, and the E3 ligase subunit Tir1. Rapid degradation of condensin I and condensin II, two essential regulators of mitotic chromosome structure, revealed that both complexes are individually required for cell division in precursor lymphocytes, but not in their differentiated peripheral lymphocyte derivatives. This generalisable approach provides unprecedented temporal control over the dose of endogenous proteins in mouse models, with implications for studying essential biological pathways and modelling drug activity in mammalian tissues.

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