Puccinia Coronata
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Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Suraj Sapkota ◽  
Paul Raymer ◽  
Alfredo Martinez-Espinoza ◽  
Bochra Amina Bahri

Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by P. coronata, are common rust diseases on cool-season grasses (Karakkat et al. 2018), for which long-distance spore dispersal was recorded in northern US (Harder and Haber 1992). During the summers of 2019 and 2020, severe infection of stem rust and crown rust was observed on > 60% of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) germplasm plants in a breeding nursery located at the University of Georgia, Griffin GA. Rust-infected leaves first presented uredinia pustules, then black telia towards the end of the season. The uredinia pustules of stem rust and crown rust were brick-red and, yellow and arranged along the host veins, respectively. The urediniospores were one-celled, round to ovoid and measured from 20.75±2.44 μm (crown rust) to 27±3.60 μm long (stem rust). The teliospores were two-celled and measured from 45.75±10.14 μm (stem rust) to 51.60±4.0 μm long (crown rust) (Leonard et al. 2005; Cummins 1971). Urediniospores of both rusts were collected from infected plants in the field in April of 2020 using a Piston vacuum pump (Welch by Gardner Denver Ltd.) and stored at -80 °C in 1.5 ml Eppendorf tubes. Genomic DNA was extracted by grinding the urediniospores in liquid nitrogen using mortar and pestle, followed by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method (Doyle and Doyle 1987). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA was amplified using the ITS5-ITS4 primers (White et al. 1990). BLASTn and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the sequence of stem rust (GenBank acc. no. MW430963) and crown rust (GenBank acc. no. MW431324) pathogens had >99% similarity with P. graminis (GenBank acc. no. HQ317538) and P. coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae (clade V; Liu and Hambleton 2013) (GenBank acc. no. EU014044), respectively. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on the tall fescue cultivar ‘Bandit’. For each rust, 12 pots (10 cm × 10 cm) were planted, each containing 13 seeds in a Sungro professional growing mix soil (Sun Gro Horticulture Distribution Inc.). The plant materials were kept in the greenhouse at 20°C/ 25°C (night/day),15-hrs of light, and watered twice a week for 4-weeks. Urediniospores were recovered from -80°C and allowed to acclimate at room temperature for 1 h. For each rust, 20 ml of suspension containing 1×105 urediniospores ml−1 and 5 μl of Tween-twenty (Agdia Inc. Elkhart, IN) were used to inoculate 6 pots; while 6 control pots were sprayed with sterile water. After inoculation, plants were allowed to dry for 1 h and then transferred to a dark chamber at 20°C and 90% of humidity for 12-15 h. At 10-days post inoculation, all inoculated plants developed rust symptoms identical to those observed in the field, whereas control plants had no symptoms. Stem and crown rust pathogens were re-isolated from the artificially inoculated tall fescue plants. Based on form, size, color and numbers of cells forming the spores, a 1947 Festuca elatior specimen from Georgia mentioning Puccinia coronata (Hanlin 1966), held at the Julian H. Miller Mycological Herbarium (Catalog No. GAM00013162), was discarded as an earlier record of P. coronata var. avenae and could have been misdiagnosed. Due to the fragile integrity of the original infected plant sample as well as the incipient infection, DNA identification was unsuccessful. To our knowledge, this is the first morphological, genetic and taxonomic report of P. graminis and P. coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae on tall fescue in Georgia, USA


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Philip Taylor

Abstract A disease almost unknown prior to 1944 (Romanko, 1957), Bipolaris victoriae is a potentially destructive disease of oats (it reduced the Iowa oat crop by 32% in 1947) (Anon, 1965) that currently has a limited host range and geographical spread. It has been reported from several continents and associated with several crops, however its status as a pathogen on crops could be questioned in all cases with the exception of oats, timothy grass and switch grass. It is seedborne and thus any trade in seed both for cultivation or for livestock feed is a potential means of spread. The virulence of the fungus is due to the production of a peptide often called a host-specific toxin 'victorin'. The disease has generally been controlled through the use of genetically resistant lines but the resistance gene which confers resistance to victorin actually causes plants to become susceptible to crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata (Lorang et al., 2007).


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Philip Taylor

Abstract A disease almost unknown prior to 1944 (Romanko, 1957), Bipolaris victoriae is a potentially destructive disease of oats (it reduced the Iowa oat crop by 32% in 1947) (Anon, 1965) that currently has a limited host range and geographical spread. It has been reported from several continents and associated with several crops, however its status as a pathogen on crops could be questioned in all cases with the exception of oats, timothy grass and switch grass. It is seedborne and thus any trade in seed both for cultivation or for livestock feed is a potential means of spread. The virulence of the fungus is due to the production of a peptide often called a host-specific toxin 'victorin'. The disease has generally been controlled through the use of genetically resistant lines but the resistance gene which confers resistance to victorin actually causes plants to become susceptible to crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata (Lorang et al., 2007).


Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaxia Tian ◽  
Qiang Yao ◽  
Zedong Zhang ◽  
Xiangrui Cheng ◽  
Jianfeng Qin ◽  
...  

Crown rust of barley, caused by Puccinia coronata var. hordei (Pch), was first reported by Jin and Steffenson in 1992, and the fungus has been reported only in the United States and Hungary. In China, stripe, stem, and leaf rusts have been reported on barley, but not for crown rust. Recently, a sample (HZJ0004) of rust collected from barley in Qilian county, Qinghai, China, appeared different from the three rusts based on color, size, arrangements of uredinia and/or telia. Teliospores had crown-shaped appendages on the top. Based on the disease symptoms and morphology of urediniospores and teliospores, the fungus was identified as Pch. Using the internal transcribed spacer sequences, the isolates HZJ0004 from barley and POR3 from buckthorn (Rhamnus sp.) were clustered in one clade with Pch isolates from barley and Elymus repens but in a different clade from the isolate POC8 from wild oat and the varieties of P. coronata from oats and grasses. At the seedling stage, most of the tested cultivars of barley and rye were susceptible to Pch isolates HZJ0004 and POR3, but the cultivars of oats, triticale, wheat, and the most grasses of Aegilops, Brachypodium, Bromus, Calamagrostis, Deschampsia, Elymus, Festuca, and Phleum were resistant, indicating their host specialization on barley. This is the first report of crown rust on barley in China.


PLoS Genetics ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e1009291
Author(s):  
Marisa E. Miller ◽  
Eric S. Nazareno ◽  
Susan M. Rottschaefer ◽  
Jakob Riddle ◽  
Danilo Dos Santos Pereira ◽  
...  

Pathogen populations are expected to evolve virulence traits in response to resistance deployed in agricultural settings. However, few temporal datasets have been available to characterize this process at the population level. Here, we examined two temporally separated populations of Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Pca), which causes crown rust disease in oat (Avena sativa) sampled from 1990 to 2015. We show that a substantial increase in virulence occurred from 1990 to 2015 and this was associated with a genetic differentiation between populations detected by genome-wide sequencing. We found strong evidence for genetic recombination in these populations, showing the importance of the alternate host in generating genotypic variation through sexual reproduction. However, asexual expansion of some clonal lineages was also observed within years. Genome-wide association analysis identified seven Avr loci associated with virulence towards fifteen Pc resistance genes in oat and suggests that some groups of Pc genes recognize the same pathogen effectors. The temporal shift in virulence patterns in the Pca populations between 1990 and 2015 is associated with changes in allele frequency in these genomic regions. Nucleotide diversity patterns at a single Avr locus corresponding to Pc38, Pc39, Pc55, Pc63, Pc70, and Pc71 showed evidence of a selective sweep associated with the shift to virulence towards these resistance genes in all 2015 collected isolates.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sylwia Sowa ◽  
Edyta Paczos-Grzeda

Crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae is one of the most destructive diseases of oat, regularly occurring worldwide and leading to significant yield losses. This paper characterises the pathotype structure of P. coronata in Poland and evaluates the potential of crown rust race-specific resistance genes for use in practical breeding conditions in this region. Four hundred sixty-six isolates were derived from four locations of intensive oat breeding in Poland during 2017-2019, representing P. coronata populations from West, East, South and Central Poland. Their virulence structure was determined on 35 Pc differential lines in laboratory conditions. In each year and location, high pathotype diversity was observed. In total, 347 (75%) pathotypes were detected. On average P. coronata isolates collected in 2017 and 2018 were virulent to 11% of the oat differentials. In 2019 isolates from East and South of Poland were able to overcome 18.3% and 18.5% of the oat differentials, respectively. There was no isolate virulent against Pc51, Pc52 and Pc91 crown rust resistance genes. P. coronata isolates displayed modest virulence levels, high diversity, and no prevailing pathotype. The information provided here may be helpful for development of resistance breeding strategies, as well as in choosing the most effective major genes for pyramiding into cultivars.


Author(s):  
Weikai Yan ◽  
Judith Fregeau-Reid ◽  
Brad deHann ◽  
Stephen Thomas ◽  
Matthew Hayes ◽  
...  

AAC Banner is a white-hulled spring oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivar developed at the Ottawa Research and Development Centre (ORDC), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. It was supported for registration by the Ontario Cereal Crops Committee (OCCC) in January 2017 and was registered by the Variety Registration Office of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency on Aug 11, 2017 (Registration #8340). It yielded well in both Ontario and Quebec, but is particularly adapted to eastern and southern Ontario, where crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) is a key yield-limiting factor. It has high β-glucan content and is a miller approved milling oat cultivar. It also has superior post-maturation standability.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Selçuk SUNULU ◽  
Ziya DUMLUPINAR ◽  
Mustafa YILDIRIM
Keyword(s):  

2020 ◽  
Vol 75 (2) ◽  
pp. 37-45
Author(s):  
SYLWIA SOWA

The best source of crown rust resistance genes (Pc) in genus Avena is a wild hexaploid A. sterilis L. In this study, accessions of A. sterilis gathered from European and North American gene banks, originated from 21 countries were evaluated at the seedling stage for crown rust reaction using the host–pathogen test and two Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae isolates. Of the 45 oat accessions analyzed, 12 were resistant to one crown rust race (3.2). Resistance to both pathotypes used in the study was observed in two of the accessions, first of which was collected in Libya (AVE 2532) and second in Portugal (CN 26036). Further research is required to evaluate the genetic background of the discovered resistance, however, obtained results provide a valuable first step in the identification of new promising crown rust resistance sources.


2020 ◽  
Vol 133 ◽  
pp. 105144
Author(s):  
W.H.P. Boshoff ◽  
Z.A. Pretorius ◽  
T. Terefe ◽  
B. Visser

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