ecological conditions
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Author(s):  
Fatih Karaosmanoglu

On the ecological conditions and distribution of vegetation in any geographical area; The mutual interaction of factors such as climate (temperature-precipitation), topography (altitude-mountain extent), soil plays an important role. In addition, these factors also determine the ecological and geographical distribution of vegetation at micro and macro levels. In this study, geographic information systems (GIS) are used as a method and here; Digital elevation model of the basin (30x30), multi-year climate data (precipitation, temperature), Erinc climate type results, soil distribution, stand distribution, plant profiles and field photographs are the materials used in the study. By processing these data, the type and distribution of vegetation in the Goksu basin were determined. According to these findings, physical factors such as altitude and the extent of the mountains have created significant differences in the precipitation and temperature distribution of the basin. This difference was clearly observed in the Erinc climate classification results, and the south of the basin presented humid and semihumid climate characteristics, and the north presented semi-arid climate characteristics. These climatic conditions also affected the soil formation and type,causing a wide distribution of non-calcareous brown soils and non-calcareous brown forest soils in the field. As a result of all these conditions, plant species showed different vertical and spatial distribution. In the part from the south of the basin to Saimbeyli, plant species such maquis, pinus brutia, pinus nigra, Cedrus libani, Abies, Juniperus are distributed, while in the north, oak species such as oak, Bromus torhentallus, Astragalus, Thymus have been distributed. Thus, factors such as climate, topography and soil played an important role in the spread of vegetation and species in the Goksu Basin.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liam Heffernan ◽  
Maria A. Cavaco ◽  
Maya P. Bhatia ◽  
Cristian Estop-Aragonés ◽  
Klaus-Holger Knorr ◽  
...  

Abstract. Permafrost thaw in northern peatlands often leads to increased methane (CH4) emissions, but gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying controls responsible for increased emissions and the duration for which they persist. We assessed how shifting ecological conditions affect microbial communities, and the magnitude and stable isotopic signature (δ13C) of CH4 emissions along a thermokarst bog transect in boreal western Canada. Thermokarst bogs develop following permafrost thaw when dry, elevated peat plateaus collapse and become saturated and dominated by Sphagnum mosses. We differentiated between a young and a mature thermokarst bog stage (~30 and years ~200 since thaw, respectively). The young bog located along the thermokarst edge, was wetter, warmer and dominated by hydrophilic vegetation compared to the mature bog. Using 16S rRNA gene high throughput sequencing, we show that microbial communities were distinct near the surface and converged with depth, but lesser differences remained down to the lowest depth (160 cm). Microbial community analysis and δ13C data from CH4 surface emissions and dissolved gas depth profiles show that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway at both sites. However, the young bog was found to have isotopically heavier δ13C-CH4 in both dissolved gases profiles and surface CH4 emissions, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenesis was relatively more enhanced throughout the young bog peat profile. Furthermore, young bog CH4 emissions were three times greater than the mature bog. Our study suggests that interactions between ecological conditions and methanogenic communities enhance CH4 emissions in young thermokarst bogs, but these favorable conditions only persist for the initial decades after permafrost thaw.


2022 ◽  
Vol 275 ◽  
pp. 108337
Author(s):  
Jianlong Dai ◽  
Liwen Tian ◽  
Yanjun Zhang ◽  
Dongmei Zhang ◽  
Shizhen Xu ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 105903
Author(s):  
Xin Xiong ◽  
Lixiao Zhang ◽  
Yan Hao ◽  
Pengpeng Zhang ◽  
Zhimin Shi ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 01005
Author(s):  
Vladimir Ivanovich Rossokha ◽  
Ivan Andreevich Pomitun ◽  
Alexandr Vladimirovich Tkachev ◽  
Olga Leonidovna Tkacheva ◽  
Tatyana Vladimir Zubova ◽  
...  

The article presents the results of the cytogenetic monitoring in the breeding, selection and reproduction of sheep in the ecological conditions of Ukraine. A cytogenetic analysis of sheep with low and high vigor and different levels of fertility was carried out. In the ecological conditions of Ukraine, the individual level of chromosomal abnormalities in all the studied animals of the Tsigai breed and prekos is within the natural background. No translocations were found. Among the violations, such as single and paired fragments, hypo- and hyperploidy (mainly hypoploidy), polyploidy were encountered. The maximum average level of chromosomal abnormalities was found in local lambs (5.5 ±1.73%). The minimum average level of chromosomal abnormalities (2.0 ±1.41%) was recorded in lambs with high growth intensity. Among the structural changes, mutations of the chromosomal type prevailed in the 3-year-old group of rams - 0.46%, in the 8-year-old group - 0.59%. Chromatid disturbances were 0.37% and 0.34%, respectively. The average level of chromosomal abnormalities in rams by groups was 0.84 ±0.14 and 0.93 ±0.13, respectively. In the group of ewes with low fertility (n = 4), the level of chromosomal abnormalities was 3.5%, which is lower than ewes (n = 7) with high fertility by 0.79%.


Author(s):  
O. M. Shpak ◽  
R. B. Havryliuk ◽  
O. G. Kurilo ◽  
L. Y. Pleskach

Within the territory of the Dendrological park Oleksandriya subsurface contamination with petroleum prod- ucts, the source of which is a former aircraft repair plant, has existed for a long time. The circumstances of the formation of ecological and hydrogeological situation on the territory of the dendrological park under the influence of petroleum con- tamination from the technogenic loaded area are considered in order to create the system of control of potentially negative impact on the environment and planning of remediation actions. The creation of the eco-industrial park Bila Tserkva will minimize the man-made impact on the state of the underground hydrosphere of the dendrological park.


Author(s):  
Kamil Kara ◽  
Taşkın Erol ◽  
Aykut Şener

Vermicompost fertilizers have started to attract attention in agriculture last years. Various liquid vermicompost fertilizers are produced and used in agriculture and some of them known as vermiliquer, vermi leachate, vermi tea or vermicast with little differences. This study is aimed to determine the effects of foliar application of liquid vermicompost fertilizer on yield and some yield components on some Turkey triticale varieties under Central Anatolian conditions in Kırıkkale province during the growing period 2014-15 and 2015-16. Six different (control, 75, 150, 250, 350 and 450 cc da-1) liquid vermicompost fertilizer doses were applied by the foliar spraying method at the beginning and end of March in both years to the five Turkey triticale varieties (Alperbey, Mikham 2002, Tatlıcak 97, Karma 2000 and Ümranhanım). According to the results, plant height, grain number and grain yield in spike, grain yield per decare, harvest index and protein content results were found to be significant in fertilizer × variety × year interaction. There is also a statistically significant difference between thousand-grain weight and the variety x fertilizer doses interaction, and between varieties and fertilizer doses in terms of spike length. The positive effects of liquid vermicompost fertilizer doses, except 450 cc da-1, were determined in varieties. It was observed that a satisfactory yield can be obtained from 250 cc da-1 in the absence of nitrogen fertilizers as the top fertilizer. It could be deduced that 250-350 cc da-1 doses of vermicompost fertilizer can be applied in triticale based on varying ecological conditions and varieties in Central Anatolian ecological conditions.


Author(s):  
Usman Hassan ◽  
Muhammad Shahbaz ◽  
Muhammad Saleem Kashif ◽  
Liaqat Ali ◽  
Muhammd Tariq Chaudhary ◽  
...  

Tillage is an important factor affecting different soil properties and crop yields. Tillage relates to applying forces to soil using different implements for preparation of a proper seed bed. For rice crop, land preparation is a rigorous and time consuming operation that needs special attention for preparing a puddled soil condition to transplant the weak and tender rice seedlings. A field experiment was established under agro-ecological conditions of Sheikhupura to evaluate different land preparation techniques during fall in 2017 and 2018 years. The experiment was performed at Adaptive Research Farm Sheikhupura. It was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four different land preparation techniques including T1= Cultivator (4 times) + Planking (2 times) (Farmer’s Practice), T2=MB plough (1 time) + Disc Harrow (1 time) + Planking (2 Times), T3=MB plough (1 time) + Cultivator (2 times) + Planking (2 Times) and T4= Rotavator (1 time) + Disc Harrow (1 time) + Planking (2 Times), each treatment replicated thrice during both the years. All the other agronomic and crop husbandry operations were kept uniform throughout the growing season every year. The results revealed that preparing land with MB plough (1 time), Disc Harrow (1 time) and Planking (2 times) is the best land preparation method can increase the paddy yield 13.5-17.5% as compared to the traditional method practised by the farmers. Moreover, highest plant height (134.00 cm and 132.00 cm), number of tillers (224 and 220 m-2), number of grains per spike (130 and 116) and 1000-grain weight (23.0 and 22.0 g) respectively during Kharif-18 and Kharif-19 was also recorded in the same treatment. So, preparation of land for paddy in agro-ecological conditions of Sheikhupura using MB plough (1 time), Disc Harrow (1 time) and Planking (2 times) can significantly enhance the paddy yield.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Iosif Ivanov ◽  
Vladimir Zolotarev ◽  
Anna Chekmareva

In recent decades, a new feed crop, festulolium, has been widely used in the feed production of Russia. In this regard, an important task is the permanent creation of a line of festulolium varieties that ensure high efficiency of using this crop in various climatic and ecological conditions. The article presents the material on the assessment of the initial material of the festulolium in the steppe conditions of the Central Chernozem region.


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