yield losses
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2022 ◽  
Vol 261 ◽  
pp. 107391
Pei Li ◽  
Qiang Huang ◽  
Shengzhi Huang ◽  
Guoyong Leng ◽  
Jian Peng ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 326 ◽  
pp. 107821
Qingqing Zhang ◽  
Xingyuan Men ◽  
Cang Hui ◽  
Feng Ge ◽  
Fang Ouyang

Darcy E. P. Telenko ◽  
Martin I. Chilvers ◽  
Adam Byrne ◽  
Jill Check ◽  
Camila Rocco Da Silva ◽  

Tar spot of corn caused by Phyllachora maydis has recently led to significant yield losses in the eastern corn belt of the Midwestern United States. Foliar fungicides containing quinone outside inhibitors(QoI), demethylation inhibitors(DMI), and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors(SDHI) are commonly used to manage foliar diseases in corn. To mitigate the losses from tar spot thirteen foliar fungicides containing single or multiple modes of action (MOA/FRAC groups) were applied at their recommended rates in a single application at the standard tassel/silk growth stage timing to evaluate their efficacy against tar spot in a total of eight field trials in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin during 2019 and 2020. The single MOA fungicides included either a QoI or DMI. The dual MOA fungicides included a DMI with either a QoI or SDHI, and fungicides containing three MOAs included a QoI, DMI, and SDHI. Tar spot severity estimated as the percentage of leaf area covered by P. maydis stroma of the non-treated control at dent growth stage ranged from 1.6 to 23.3% on the ear leaf. Averaged across eight field trials all foliar fungicide treatments reduced tar spot severity, but only prothioconazole+trifloxystrobin, mefentrifluconazole+pyraclostrobin+fluxapyroxad, and mefentrifluconazole+pyraclostrobin significantly increased yield over the non-treated control. When comparing fungicide treatments by the number of MOAs foliar fungicide products that had two or three MOAs decreased tar spot severity over not treating and products with one MOA. The fungicide group that contained all three MOAs significantly increased yield over not treating with a fungicide or using a single MOA.

2022 ◽  
Gemma María Clemente-Orta ◽  
Hugo Alejandro Álvarez ◽  
Filipe Madeira ◽  
Ramon Albajes

Knowledge of the specific insect densities during crop development is necessary to perform appropriate measures for the control of insect pests and to minimize yield losses. In a previous study, both spatial and temporal approaches were adopted to analyse the influence of landscape structure and field variables on herbivore and predatory insects on maize. Both types of variables influenced insect abundance, but the highest effect was found with maize phenology. Given that the field planting date could modulate the influence produced by the structure of the landscape on herbivores and predatory insects, analyses of population dynamics must be performed at both the local and landscape levels. The anterior prompted us to study these aspects in the two common planting periods (early and late) in northern Spain. The present study tests the hypothesis that the period of maize planting could have a higher effect than phenology or interannual variation on the abundance of natural enemies and herbivores on maize. Our results showed that only the abundances of other herbivore thrips and Syrphidae were significantly different between the two planting periods. Moreover, we found significant effects of planting period when we performed yearly analysis in 2015 for Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae and in 2016 and 2017 for Aeolothrips sp. Most of the taxa had abundance peaks in earlier growth stages, which are related to pollination (before or during), while only Stethorus punctillum and Syrphidae increased later in the season. Furthermore, Frankliniella occidentalis, aphids, Syrphidae and Coccinellidae registered higher abundances in fields sown in the late planting period than in the rest of the insect species. The results of the present study highlight the effects of sowing dates on insect dynamics in maize.

2022 ◽  
Yanqing Wang ◽  
Yuqing HOU ◽  
Yanchao XU ◽  
Teame Gereziher MEHARI ◽  

Verticillium wilt is the most devastating disease of cotton and it results in huge yield losses every year in the fields. The underlying mechanisms of VW in cotton are not well explored yet. In the current approach we used the transcriptome data from G. australe in response to Verticillium wilt attack to mine the ERF TFs and prove their potential role in resistance against VW attack in cotton. We identified 23 ERFs in total, and on the basis of expression at different time points i.e., 24h, 48h and 72h post inoculation and selected GauERF105 for further validation. We performed VIGS in cotton and over expression in Arabidopsis respectively. Moreover, DAB and trypan staining also suggests that the impact of disease was more in the wildtype as compared to transgene lines. On the basis of our results, we confirmed that GauERF105 is the key candidate and playing a key role for defending cotton against VW attack. Current finding might be helpful for generating resistance germplasm in cotton and it will be beneficial to recover the yield losses in field.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Erik Micael da Silva Souza ◽  
Leonardo Aparecido Brandão da Silva ◽  
Francisco Álef Carlos Pinto ◽  
Jerônimo Constantino Borel ◽  
Alexandre Sandri Capucho ◽  

ABSTRACT: The fungi Macrophomina phaseolina is the charcoal rot causal agent, one of the most important cowpea crop disease in semiarid regions can causes 100% yield losses. The search for resistant genotypes requires efficient phenotyping. In addition, there is the problem of great variation in aggressiveness between isolates. This study aimed to 1) test three methods of inoculation in semiarid conditions, and 2) to evaluate the aggressiveness of isolates of M. phaseolina. In the first experiment carried out in greenhouse, the inoculations methods were evaluated, using two cowpea lines, three inoculation methods and three pathogen isolates. On the second experiment, fifteen M. phaseolina isolates were inoculated in one cultivar to evaluate their aggressiveness. By assessing the length of the lesions and the severity of the disease using an index, we identified the toothpick inoculation method as the most efficient. Toothpick method allowed to discriminate the genotypes and the aggressiveness of the pathogen.

2022 ◽  
Vol 803 ◽  
pp. 149929
Jingwei Zhang ◽  
Haiyan Ran ◽  
Yitian Guo ◽  
Chaoyang Xue ◽  
Xingang Liu ◽  

Shweta Singh ◽  
Jaiganesh Rengarajan ◽  
Iyappan Sellamuthu

The adverse effect of pesticides used for controlling pests and the diseases caused by them is extensively rising. To overcome this harmful environmental impact, alternative methods are being studied and developed. Out of many possible methods, one effective method is to use plant extracts which embodies natural substances having antifungal properties. In an attempt towards enhancement of sustainable antifungal approach, four different concentrations of four plant extracts Citrus limon, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum gratissimum and Acalypha indica, were tested for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, which is a serious threat for plants, and is responsible for considerable crop and yield losses. The aim of this study is to minimize yield losses and to regain the attention of formers towards exploiting natural resources for diseases control. From the results, it can be concluded that different concentrations of plant extracts have caused substantial inhibition in the mycelial growth of R. solani. The leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum was highly effective in inhibiting mycelial growth, at the concentration of 500mg/ml of extract followed by Citrus limon, Azadirachta indica, and Acalypha indica. These plants might have potential for the development of natural fungicide for the management of diseases caused by fungal pathogens. Also, fungicides developed from these botanical extracts can prove to be highly effective for the management of plant diseases and would be simply obtainable, nonpolluting, biodegradable and economical.

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