Vascular Aging
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2021 ◽  
Boyu Zhang ◽  
Zidong Yang ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Bei Wang ◽  
Huazheng Shi ◽  

Background Ample evidence has suggested that vascular modifications are associated with aging. To expand previous understanding of age-related vascular changes, we examined the association between aging and cerebrovascular morphologies.Methods1176 participants aged 35 to 75 years recruited from Shanghai, China were included in this study. Cerebrovascular morphological features comprising arterial branch density, radius, and tortuosity were quantified using three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography. Linear regression was used to examine the association between age and vasculature features.ResultsAge was found to be a significant predictor for cerebrovascular morphological alterations after adjusting for vascular risk factors. However, after dividing subjects into subgroups based on their age, aging was found to be significantly correlated with all three morphometric features only in the 45-54 subgroup after adjusting for the other vascular risk factors. Smoking gives rise to a more rapid age-related changes in vascular morphologies, while alcohol consumption could decelerate those age-related alterations.ConclusionsRapid alternations in all three morphological features assessed have been noticed to be associated with aging in the 45-54 subgroup, suggesting the potential importance of the 5th decade for early preservation method of vascular aging.FundingNational Natural Science Foundation of China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 139 ◽  
pp. 104240
Hsin Hsiu ◽  
Ju-Chi Liu ◽  
Chang-Jen Yang ◽  
Hsi-Sheng Chen ◽  
Mai-Szu Wu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Ernest Diez Benavente ◽  
Francisco Lopez-Jimenez ◽  
Olena Iakunchykova ◽  
Sofia Malyutina ◽  
Alexander Kudryavstev ◽  

Background: Cardiovascular event rates increase with age in all populations. This is thought to be the result of multiple underlying molecular and cellular processes that lead to cumulative vascular damage. Apart from arterial stiffness based on pulse wave velocity there are few other non-invasive measures of this process of vascular aging. We have developed a potential biomarker of vascular aging using deep-learning to predict age from a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). The difference between ECG predicted and chronological age (δ-age) can be interpreted as a measure of vascular aging. <br />Methods: We use data collected in two cross-sectional studies of adults aged 40-69 years in Norway and Russia to test the hypothesis that mean levels of δ-age, derived from a deep-learning model trained on a US population, correspond to the known large differences in cardiovascular mortality between the two countries. <br />Findings: Substantial differences were found in mean δ-age between populations: Russia-USA (+5·2 years; 0·7, 10 IQR) and Norway-USA (-2·6 years; -7, 2 IQR). These differences were only marginally explained when accounting for differences in established cardiovascular disease risk factors. <br />Interpretation: δ-age may be an important biomarker of fundamental differences in cardiovascular disease risk between populations as well as between individuals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Tino Yurdadogan ◽  
Carolin Malsch ◽  
Kornelia Kotseva ◽  
David Wood ◽  
Rainer Leyh ◽  

AbstractCommunicating cardiovascular risk based on individual vascular age (VA) is a well acknowledged concept in patient education and disease prevention. VA may be derived functionally, e.g. by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), or morphologically, e.g. by assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether both approaches produce similar results. Within the context of the German subset of the EUROASPIRE IV survey, 501 patients with coronary heart disease underwent (a) oscillometric PWV measurement at the aortic, carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle site (PWVao, PWVcf, PWVba) and derivation of the aortic augmentation index (AIao); (b) bilateral cIMT assessment by high-resolution ultrasound at three sites (common, bulb, internal). Respective VA was calculated using published equations. According to VA derived from PWV, most patients exhibited values below chronological age indicating a counterintuitive healthier-than-anticipated vascular status: for VAPWVao in 68% of patients; for VAAIao in 52% of patients. By contrast, VA derived from cIMT delivered opposite results: e.g. according to VAtotal-cIMT accelerated vascular aging in 75% of patients. To strengthen the concept of VA, further efforts are needed to better standardise the current approaches to estimate VA and, thereby, to improve comparability and clinical utility.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (5) ◽  
pp. 2970
O. P. Rotar ◽  
M. A. Boiarinova ◽  
K. M. Tolkunova ◽  
E. V. Moguchaia ◽  
A. S. Alievа ◽  

Aim. To assess the association of cardiovascular risk factors with various vascular aging phenotypes using the St. Petersburg population sample as part of the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases and their Risk Factors in Regions of Russian Federation (ESSE-RF) study.Material and methods. The current analysis, performed within the ESSE-RF multicenter observational study, included 1600 St. Petersburg residents. The participants filled out a questionnaire to assess risk factors. In addition, blood biochemical parameters, anthropometric characteristics, and blood pressure were evaluated. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was assessed by applanation tonometry using the SphygmoCor device (AtCor, Australia) in 524 people. For analysis, 485 participants without prior cardiovascular events were selected. PWV ≤10 percentile of PWV for healthy individuals in each age group was considered as the criterion for supernormal vascular aging (SUPERNOVA) phenotype, the PWV ≥90 percentile — early vascular aging (EVA), the PWV of 10-90 percentile — normal vascular aging (NVA).Results. The prevalence of SUPERNOVA phenotype was 9,7%, EVA — 18,8%, NVA — 71,5%. Patients with EVA phenotype were more likely to have HTN (60,4%) in comparison with those with SUPERNOVA phenotype (17%) and, less likely — high physical activity (39,6 vs 53,2%). Obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypercholesterolemia, dyslipoproteinemia, and excessive alcohol consumption were significantly less common in participants with SUPERNOVA phenotype compared with those with EVA phenotype.Conclusion. In addition to HTN and dyslipoproteinemia, a significant predictor of premature aging was the cumulative effect of obesity, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. Among behavioral risk factors, higher physical activity and adequate alcohol consumption were factors associated with supernormal aging.

Pulse ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Kyriaki Papadopoulou-Legbelou ◽  
Areti Triantafyllou ◽  
Olga Vampertzi ◽  
Nikolaos Koletsos ◽  
Stella Douma ◽  

<b><i>Background and Aims:</i></b> This study investigated the possible correlation between elevated lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels and early vascular aging biomarkers in healthy children and adolescents. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Twenty-seven healthy children/adolescents, mean age 9.9 ± 3.7 years, with high Lp(a) levels without other lipid abnormalities and 27 age- and sex-matched controls with normal Lp(a) levels, were included in the study. The investigation of possible early vascular aging was assessed by measuring vascular function indices: carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR). <b><i>Results:</i></b> Although serum lipid values were within normal levels, mean values of total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were higher in the group of children with high Lp(a) levels than controls (<i>p</i> = 0.006 and <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001, respectively). Vascular function indices did not show significant differences, neither between the 2 groups nor in the subgroups of children with increased Lp(a) levels. These subgroups were defined by the presence or absence of family history of premature coronary artery disease. Lp(a) levels did not show a significant correlation with the other parameters studied, both regarding the whole sample (patients and controls), as well as in the subgroups of elevated Lp(a) levels. However, in the group of children with high Lp(a) levels, c-IMT and PWV were positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure (<i>r</i> = 0.427, <i>p</i> = 0.026 and <i>r</i> = 0.425, <i>p</i> = 0.030, respectively), while SEVR was negatively correlated with AIx (<i>r</i> = −0.455, <i>p</i> = 0.017). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Healthy children and adolescents with high Lp(a) levels do not yet have impaired vascular indices, compared to controls. However, in order to prevent early atherosclerosis, it is crucial to early identify and follow up children with high Lp(a) levels and positive family history of premature coronary disease or other cardiovascular risk factors.

Diem Duong Ngoc Nguyen ◽  
Shamsul Mohd Zain ◽  
Mohd Hamzah Kamarulzaman ◽  
Teck Yew Low ◽  
William M. Chilian ◽  

Vascular aging is highly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been well-established as a major contributor to vascular aging, intracellular and exosomal micro-RNA (miRNA) signaling pathways in senescent VSMCs have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to identify the differential expression of intracellular and exosomal miRNA in human VSMCs (hVSMCs) during replicative senescence (RS). To achieve this aim, intracellular and exosomal miRNAs were isolated from hVSMCs and subsequently subjected to whole-genome small RNA next-generation sequencing, bioinformatics analyses and qPCR validation. Three significant findings were obtained. First, senescent hVSMC-derived exosomes tended to cluster together during RS and the molecular weight of the exosomal protein tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG-101) increased relative to the intracellular TSG101, suggesting potential posttranslational modifications of exosomal TSG-101. Secondly, there was a significant decrease in both intracellular and exosomal hsa-miR-155-5p expression (n = 3, FDR < 0.05), potentially being a cell type-specific biomarker of hVSMCs during RS. Importantly, hsa-miR-155-5p was found to associate with cell cycle arrest and elevated oxidative stress. Lastly, miRNAs from the intracellular pool, i.e. hsa-miR-664a-3p, hsa-miR-664a-5p, hsa-miR-664b-3p, hsa-miR-4485-3p, hsa-miR-10527-5p and hsa-miR-12136,and that from the exosomal pool, i.e. hsa-miR-7704, were upregulated in hVSMCs during RS (n = 3, FDR < 0.05). Interestingly, these novel upregulated miRNAs were not functionally well-annotated in hVSMCs to date. In conclusion, hVSMC- specific miRNA expression profiles during RS potentially provide valuable insights into the signaling pathways leading to vascular aging.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Paula R. Barros ◽  
Tiago J. Costa ◽  
Eliana H. Akamine ◽  
Rita C. Tostes

Increasing scientific interest has been directed to sex as a biological and decisive factor on several diseases. Several different mechanisms orchestrate vascular function, as well as vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in males and females. Certain vascular sex differences are present throughout life, while others are more evident before the menopause, suggesting two important and correlated drivers: genetic and hormonal factors. With the increasing life expectancy and aging population, studies on aging-related diseases and aging-related physiological changes have steeply grown and, with them, the use of aging animal models. Mouse and rat models of aging, the most studied laboratory animals in aging research, exhibit sex differences in many systems and physiological functions, as well as sex differences in the aging process and aging-associated cardiovascular changes. In the present review, we introduce the most common aging and senescence-accelerated animal models and emphasize that sex is a biological variable that should be considered in aging studies. Sex differences in the cardiovascular system, with a focus on sex differences in aging-associated vascular alterations (endothelial dysfunction, remodeling and oxidative and inflammatory processes) in these animal models are reviewed and discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 619-627
A. N. Sumin ◽  
A. V. Shcheglova

Currently, the importance of assessing arterial stiffness as an integral indicator of cardiovascular risk, an indicator of arteriosclerosis, and a predictor of cardiovascular events has been demonstrated. The traditional indicator of arterial stiffness-pulse wave velocity-depends on the level of blood pressure, which makes it difficult to use it for dynamic assessment. The proposed new arterial stiffness index-the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), does not depend on the level of blood pressure and is more convenient in practical use. CAVI has been widely used in clinical medicine for the past 15 years as an index for assessing cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, which has allowed for the expansion and deepening of research on this topic. This review focuses primarily on recent publications and new opportunities for evaluating vascular function using CAVI. The review provides information on solving methodological problems in evaluating CAVI, highlights the relationship between CAVI and future cardiovascular events, and provides cross-sectional data on the Association of CAVI with the presence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The results of studies on the effect of drug therapy and measures to control risk factors for cardiovascular diseases on CAVI are presented. While it remains unclear how much changes in CAVI over time can affect the forecast, research is currently being conducted in this direction. The use of CAVI also opens up new perspectives in the assessment of cardiovascular interactions, the study of vascular function in vasculitis and vascular injuries, as well as in geriatric medicine (concepts of premature vascular aging and excess vascular aging).

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
Amro M. Soliman ◽  
Srijit Das ◽  
Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh

: There is an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases with aging and it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The main cardiovascular pathologies include atherosclerosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension and stroke. Chronic inflammation is one of the significant contributors to the age-related vascular diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of the persistent inflammatory conditions occurring in the blood vessels as well as the signaling pathways involved. Herein, we performed an extant search of literature involving PubMed, ISI, WoS and Scopus databases for retrieving all relevant articles with the most recent findings illustrating the potential role of various inflammatory mediators along with their proposed activated pathways in the pathogenesis and progression of vascular aging. We also highlight the major pathways contributing to age-related vascular disorders. The outlined molecular mechanisms, pathways and mediators of vascular aging represent potential drug targets that can be utilized to inhibit and/or slow the pathogenesis and progression of vascular aging.

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