Streptococcus Mutans
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2021 ◽  
Vol 901 ◽  
pp. 48-54
Nattaporn Amornopparattanakul ◽  
Neti Waranuch ◽  
Supaporn Lamlertthon ◽  
Wudtichai Wisuitiprot ◽  
Kornkanok Ingkaninan

“Mild” oral care products are needed by some groups of people, such as radiotherapy patients. This study developed oral cleansing products containing green tea (Camelia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) extracts with antibacterial activities and Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. extracts with a wound healing activity. We found that 3.13 mg/ml of green tea extract inhibited both Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, which can cause dental caries and oral candidiasis, respectively. Also, a 16 μg/ml C. asiatica extract promoted fibroblast migration in a wound healing study. The products were developed in 2 dosage forms, i.e. a solution and an impregnated gauze, which were isotonic, alcohol and volatile oil free formulations to prevent irritation and burning sensations. The products showed acceptable physical stability after testing under stressed conditions with post-test retention of antimicrobial activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Sahal Alforaidi ◽  
Andrea Bresin ◽  
Naif Almosa ◽  
Anna Lehrkinder ◽  
Peter Lingström

Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on biofilm acidogenicity and on the number of salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in orthodontic patients. Methods This RCT was conducted on 28 young adults who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. The short-term prospective clinical trial lasted for three weeks. The test group rinsed daily with drops containing two Lactobacillus reuteri strains diluted in water, while the placebo group used drops without probiotics. The subjects were enrolled eight months since the beginning of orthodontic treatment. Plaque-pH, saliva and dental biofilm samples were obtained at baseline, one week and three weeks post intervention. Results Twenty-seven subjects successfully completed the trial period, only one drop out in the test group. No side effects were reported. A statistically significant increase in plaque pH at three weeks post-intervention was found for the test group (p < 0.05), while insignificant changes in the pH value were found for the placebo group in comparison to baseline (p > 0.05). In addition, the AUC7.0 showed a significant difference at three weeks between the test and placebo (p = 0.00002). The three-week samples of stimulated whole saliva showed a statistically insignificant difference in the number of S. mutans and lactobacilli between the two groups (p > 0.05). The qPCR analysis showed the ability of the two strains to get colonized in the dental biofilm without a significant effect on the microbial counts. Conclusion/clinical implications A mixture of Lactobacillus reuteri has the ability to reduce the pH fall at the three-week follow-up. However, the short-term use of probiotics does not appear to have an effect on the number of salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in saliva and on the dental biofilm. Trial registration (Identifier: NCT04593017/ (19/10/2020)).

mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
Britta E. Rued ◽  
Brett C. Covington ◽  
Leah B. Bushin ◽  
Gabriella Szewczyk ◽  
Irina Laczkovich ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 198-208
Chua Sheng Da Jason ◽  
Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne ◽  
Hung Chew Wong ◽  
Mimi Yow

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of various removable orthodontic retainer materials on clinical and microbiological parameters, specifically on saliva characteristics, oral hygiene, and salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Materials and Methods: This study consists of two parts: An in vitro study and in vivo prospective clinical pilot study. The in vitro study measures surface roughness and S. mutans adhesion of three orthodontic retainer materials: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) used in traditional Hawley removable retainers, polypropylene (PP), and polyurethane (PU) used in vacuum-formed retainers. In the clinical pilot study, 20 subjects, on completion of orthodontic treatment were randomized into three groups to receive PMMA, PP, or PU removable orthodontic retainers. They were compared with control subjects with no orthodontic treatment and retainers. Quantitative analysis of salivary S. mutans using real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to screen for differences during retainer issue (T0) and 8–15 weeks later (T1). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and plaque scores were also recorded at these two periods for comparison. Results: PMMA had significantly greater surface roughness and S. mutans adhesion than PP and PU (P = 0.027). The PMMA group displayed significantly greater amounts of salivary S. mutans count when compared to the PP (0.001) and PU (P = 0.011) groups. Conclusion: PMMA retainers showed increased S. mutans adhesion and intra-oral colonization of S. mutans compared to PP and PU retainers. The results validate further clinical testing for a relationship between caries risk and type of retainer prescribed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yun Liu ◽  
Yusheng Meng ◽  
Min Wu ◽  
Qian Zhang

Objective. To study the correlation between the level of infection with Streptococcus mutans (SM) and lactobacilli (LB) in saliva with existing status and the development of primary dental caries in 3-year-old children and to evaluate the results of CRT® bacteria as a Caries Risk Test. Methods. A total of 140 3-year-old children were selected for the study. Oral examination was conducted and the levels of infection with SM and LB in saliva were measured using a CRT® bacteria test. Oral reexamination was conducted after two years. The prevalence rate of caries, the decayed-missing-filled tooth (dmft) and decayed-missing-filled surface (dmfs) indices, and Caries Severity Index (CSI) were calculated at the start and end of the two years. The indices were statistically analyzed. Results. The caries prevalence rate, dmft, dmfs, and CSI increased with increasing levels of CRT-SM and CRT-LB at the start and end of the two years; the increases in dmft, dmfs, and CSI over the period were consistent with the increases in CRT-SM and CRT-LB levels, with all differences being highly statistically significant. The increase in caries prevalence rate over the two years was not statistically different for different CRT-SM and CRT-LB levels. CRT-SM and CRT-LB levels were highly positively correlated with dmft, dmfs, CSI and their increases over the two years. Levels of infection with oral SM and LB were found to be independent risk factors for primary dental caries, respectively. For an SM concentration in saliva of ≥104 CFU/mL and an LB concentration of <104 CFU/mL, the risk of caries increased by approximately 2.8-fold. When the concentration of LB in saliva was ≥104 CFU/mL and that of SM <104 CFU/mL, the risk of caries increased by approximately 3.9-fold. When the concentration of both SM and LB was ≥104 CFU/mL, the risk increased by approximately 10.9-fold. Conclusions. Significant positive correlations were found between the level of infection with oral SM and LB and existing oral decay status and the trend in the development of primary dental caries. Infection with SM and LB significantly increased the risk of caries in primary teeth. The CRT® bacteria is a simple, convenient, reliable, and effective Caries Risk Test.

Merve SALMANLI ◽  
Gizem TATAR ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 103844
Thamires Priscila Cavazana ◽  
Thayse Yumi Hosida ◽  
Caio Sampaio ◽  
Leonardo Antônio de Morais ◽  
Douglas Roberto Monteiro ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 1381-1387
Nining Kurniati

Papaya leaves contain several active substances that are thought to inhibit bacterial adhesion. This study aims to determine the inhibitory power of papaya leaf extraction and papaya leaf infusion to the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans bacteria to neutrophils and differences in inhibition in various concentrations. The method used is an in vitro experimental laboratory with a post-test-only control group design. The sample consisted of several concentrations of papaya leaf extraction and papaya leaf infusion (control, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). The treatment group was added with neutrophil isolates and incubated for 3 hours, then exposed to Streptococcus mutans for 2.5 hours. Knowing the adhesion index can be done by calculating the average number of Streptococcus mutans attached to 100 neutrophils. The results showed successively with rounding in control, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% papaya leaf infusion, adhesion of 9237, 8929, 7436, 3870, 3162 bacteria to neutrophils occurred. The minimum concentration of 25% papaya leaf extraction and 50% papaya leaf infusion can inhibit the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to neutrophils. There is a difference in the ability between papaya leaf extraction and papaya leaf infusion in inhibiting the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to neutrophils as follows: papaya leaf extraction 25% to papaya leaf infusion 25% obtained sig value ≥0.001* with a mean square of -16.38, papaya leaf extraction 50% to Papaya leaf infusion 50% got a sig value of ≥0.001* with a mean square of -42.91, 75% papaya leaf extraction to 75% papaya leaf infusion got a sig value of ≥0.001* with a mean square of -28.85 and 100% papaya leaf extraction to 100% papaya leaf infusion obtained a sig value of ≥0.001* with a mean square of -26.11.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yucui Liu ◽  
Yanxin Huang ◽  
Cong Fan ◽  
Zhongmei Chi ◽  
Miao Bai ◽  

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the prime pathogen of dental caries, can secrete glucosyltransferases (GTFs) to synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), which are the virulence determinants of cariogenic biofilms. Ursolic acid, a type of pentacyclic triterpene natural compound, has shown potential antibiofilm effects on S. mutans. To investigate the mechanisms of ursolic acid-mediated inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation, we first demonstrated that ursolic acid could decrease the viability and structural integrity of biofilms, as evidenced by XTT, crystal violet, and live/dead staining assays. Then, we further revealed that ursolic acid could compete with the inherent substrate to occupy the catalytic center of GTFs to inhibit EPS formation, and this was confirmed by GTF activity assays, computer simulations, site-directed mutagenesis, and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In conclusion, ursolic acid can decrease bacterial viability and prevent S. mutans biofilm formation by binding and inhibiting the activity of GTFs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 144 ◽  
pp. 355-363
Sineenart Sanpinit ◽  
Kotchakorn Moosigapong ◽  
Siriporn Jarukitsakul ◽  
Kawinsak Jatutasri ◽  
Acharaporn Issuriya ◽  

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