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BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yaodong Zhou ◽  
Tao Yu ◽  
Yixin Zhang ◽  
Liqiang Qian ◽  
Qing Xia

Abstract Background As segmentectomy had become commonly used for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) treatment, which had the advantages of radical operation, however, it remains controversial owing to procedural complexity and risk of increased complications compared with wedge resection. We evaluated operative and postoperative outcomes of simple segmentectomy compared to wedge resection in ground-glass opacity (GGO) diameter between 2 cm and 3 cm NSCLC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1600 clinical GGO diameter between 2 cm and 3 cm NSCLC patients who received simple segmentectomy and wedge resection between Jan 2011 and Jan 2015. Participants were matched 1:1 on their propensity score for two groups. Clinic-pathologic, operative, and postoperative results of two groups were compared. Results After using propensity score methods to create a matched cohort of participants with simple segmentectomy group similar to that wedge resection, there were no significant differences detected in tumor size, margin distance, histology, age, sex, preoperative comorbidities and preoperative pulmonary function. Overall complications in simple segmentectomy group were more than wedge resection group (21% vs 3%, p = 0.03). Median operative time (110.6 vs. 71.2 min; p = 0.01) and prolonged air leakage (12% vs. 3%; p = 0.02) was significantly longer in the simple segmentectomy group. There was no difference in recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of 5-years between simple segmentectomy group and wedge resection group. Postoperative pulmonary function in simple segmentectomy group recovered more slowly than wedge resection group. Conclusion Wedge resection may have comparable efficacy as simple segmentectomy for GGO diameter between 2 cm and 3 cm NSCLC, but lead to less complications, less surgical procedure and faster recovery of pulmonary function.

2022 ◽  
Mina Biria ◽  
Yasaman Rezvani ◽  
Romina Roodgarian ◽  
Abbas Rabbani ◽  
Parastoo Iranparvar

Abstract Background: The inclusion of herbal antibacterial agents in the composition of toothpastes is becoming increasingly popular, due to lower side effects. The present study intended to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of a herbal toothpaste containing Bamboo salt on cariogenic oral bacteria. Methods: The present double-blinded parallel randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 dental students (age range: 18-30). Following the baseline saliva sampling, the participants were randomly assigned into the case and control groups, to use the Bamboo salt herbal toothpaste and conventional non-herbal toothpaste, respectively. They were instructed to brush their teeth twice a day using the Bass technique. Saliva sampling was repeated after four weeks. The salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus at baseline and 4-week follow-up were determined and presented as the logarithm of colony-forming units per milliliter (log CFU/mL). statistical analysis was performed using independent samples t-test and paired sample t-test (P<0.05). Results: A significant decrease in salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus was observed using both toothpastes (*P<0.001). The difference between the antibacterial efficacy of two toothpaste types on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus was not statistically significant (P=0.530, and P=0.137, respectively). Conclusion: Due to the comparable efficacy of the investigated herbal toothpaste with conventional toothpaste, it potentially qualifies as a complementary agent for self-care oral hygiene procedures. Trial registration: This trial was registered in the “Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials” (IRCT20210414050964N1) on 21/06/2021.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aranjit Singh Randhawa ◽  
Norhayati Mohd Noor ◽  
Mohd Khairi Md Daud ◽  
Baharudin Abdullah

Bilastine is a non-sedating second generation H1 oral antihistamine (OAH) for treating allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. The effect of bilastine has not previously been evaluated in a meta-analysis. The aim of this review was to determine the efficacy and safety of bilastine in treating AR. An electronic literature search was performed using Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Science Direct and Google Scholar up to March 2021. Randomized controlled trials comparing bilastine with placebo and standard pharmacotherapy were included. The included studies must have diagnosis of AR established by clinicians and the outcomes must have a minimum of 2 weeks of follow-up period. The primary outcomes assessed were total symptom score (TSS), nasal symptom score (NSS) and non-nasal symptom score (NNSS). The secondary outcomes were discomfort due to rhinitis, quality of life (QOL) and adverse events. The risk of bias and quality of evidence for all studies were appraised. The meta-analysis was done using Review Manager 5.3 software based on the random-effects model. The search identified 135 records after removal of duplicates. Following screening and review of the records, fifteen full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Five trials involving 3,329 patients met the inclusion criteria. Bilastine was superior to placebo in improving TSS, NSS, NNSS, rhinitis discomfort score and QOL but has comparable efficacy with other OAHs in TSS, NSS, NNS, rhinitis discomfort score and QOL. There was no difference in adverse effects when bilastine was compared against placebo and other OAHs except for somnolence. Bilastine has fewer incidence of somnolence compared to cetirizine. The overall quality of evidence ranged from moderate to high quality. Bilastine is effective and safe in treating the overall symptoms of AR with comparable efficacy and safety with other OAHs except somnolence. Whilst bilastine has similar efficacy to cetirizine, somnolence is notably less in bilastine.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Evelyn Heier ◽  
Gabriel Wurtinger ◽  
Esther Hassdenteufel ◽  
Matthias Schneider

First-line therapy for cats with pyothorax consists of intravenous antibiotics, drainage of the septic pleural effusion and closed-chest lavage. Large-bore thoracostomy tubes are traditionally used for drainage, but case series indicate a comparable efficacy using small-bore tubes. In this retrospective study, we describe a new technique of sheath-guided small-bore (6 F) thoracostomy tubes in cats with pyothorax and evaluate their efficacy and complications. Additionally, we compare outcomes between two treatment groups. Placement and use of the small-bore thoracostomy tubes described here has a low complication rate of 4% (3/67 tubes), and 53% (24/45) of the cats could be treated with thoracostomy tubes and closed-chest lavage according to the protocol. The success rate is reduced by 18% (8/45) due to deaths caused mainly by sepsis, 16% (7/45) due to structural diseases requiring surgery and a further 14% (6/43) due to lavage failures that could only be cured after additive therapy (thoracotomy or fibrinolysis). The long-term prognosis was very good, with a survival rate one year after discharge of 94% (30/32). We detected no effect on survival by early placement of bilateral thoracostomy tubes or closed-chest lavage with a heparinised solution. In conclusion, therapy of pyothorax with small-bore thoracostomy tubes is as successful as therapy with large- or medium-bore tubes.

Prateek K. Panda ◽  
Pragnya Panda ◽  
Lesa Dawman ◽  
Indar K. Sharawat

Abstract Introduction Triclofos and melatonin are commonly used oral sedatives in children for obtaining a sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) record. There has been no systematic review till now to compare the efficacy and safety of these two medications. Objectives The review intended to compare the efficacy of oral triclofos and melatonin in children <18 years of age for inducing adequate sedation for obtaining a sleep EEG record. We also attempted to compare the adverse effects, impact on EEG record, the yield of epileptiform abnormalities, and sleep onset latency in both groups. Methods A systematic search was conducted on “MEDLINE/PUBMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar” till November 30, 2020, with the following keywords/the Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms while searching: “sleep EEG,” “electroencephalogram,” “triclofos,” “melatonin” OR “ramelteon” AND “epilepsy,” “seizure,” OR “convulsion.” ROB 2.0 and ROBINS-I tool was used to determine the risk of bias. To assess heterogeneity in studies, Higgins and Thompson's I 2 method was utilized. When I 2 was more than 50%, a random effects model was utilized and a fixed-effect model was used for other parameters. To assess the presence of publication bias, Egger's test was used. Results For describing the efficacy of triclofos in 1,284 and melatonin in 1,532 children, we selected 16 articles. The indirect comparison between the pooled estimate of all children receiving individual medications revealed comparable efficacy in obtaining successful sleep EEG record with a single dose (90 vs. 76%, p = 0.058) and repeat dose (p = 0.054), detection of epileptiform abnormalities (p = 0.06), and sleep onset latency (p = 0.06), but more proportion of children receiving triclofos had adverse effects (p = 0.001) and duration of sleep was also higher with triclofos (p = 0.001). Conclusion Efficacy of triclofos and melatonin are comparable in inducing sleep for recording EEG in children, although triclofos is more likely to cause adverse effects. However, the level of evidence is low for this conclusion and the weak strength of recommendation for the results of this review is likely to change in the future after completion of controlled trials exploring these two medications.

2021 ◽  
Kollbe Ahn Ando ◽  
Roscoe Lisntadt ◽  
Jinsoo Ahn ◽  
Minju Kim

According to both the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), contact-transmission (contact between host tissues and a contaminated surface) is the primary transmission route of infectious diseases worldwide. Usually this is mitigated by adherence to a schedule of repeated regular sanitization, yet this approach is inherently limited by sanitization frequency; conventional disinfectants/methods are only germicidal during the period of application, and surfaces are easily re-contaminated in the interim between cleanings. One solution to this problem is to use agents/coatings that impart self-disinfecting properties onto the existing surfaces such that they display sustained virucidal/antimicrobial properties against pathogens that settle upon them. Quaternary-ammonium organosilicon compounds are ideal candidates to achieve this; cationic surfactants are safe and well-established surface disinfectants while organosilanes are used broadly to form durable coatings with altered surface properties on many different materials. Despite their potential to circumvent disadvantages of traditional disinfection methods, extant commercially available quaternary-ammonium silanes do not display comparable efficacy to standard surface disinfectants, nor have their respective coatings been demonstrated to meet the Environmental Protection Agency’s guidelines for residual/extended efficacy. Inspired by powerful surface activity of double-headed “gemini” surfactants, here we present gemini-diquaternary (GQ) silanes with robust residual germicidal efficacy on various surfaces by incorporating a second cationic “head” to the structure of an conventional mono-quaternary-ammonium silane. Aqueous solutions of GQs were tested in suspension- and surface-antimicrobial assays against an array of pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). GQ performance was benchmarked against the common disinfectants, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite, as well as against a common antimicrobial mono-quaternary (MQ) silane. Solutions of GQ silanes were efficacious when used for immediate disinfection, showing comparable activity to common disinfectants (>106 fold reduction in 15 seconds). Additionally GQ solutions were demonstrated to impart durable self-disinfecting properties to a variety of porous and nonporous surfaces, efficacious after repeated cycles of abrasion and repeated contaminations, and with superior coating ability and activity (>108 higher activity) than that of the popular MQ silane. GQ solutions as surface treatments show great promise to overcome the limitations of traditional disinfectants in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

F. A. Bracke ◽  
N. Rademakers ◽  
N. Verberkmoes ◽  
M. Van ’t Veer ◽  
B. M. van Gelder

Abstract Introduction Efficiency and safety are important features in the selection of lead extraction tools. We report our experience with different endovascular techniques to extract individual pacing and defibrillator leads. Methods This is a single-centre study of consecutive lead extraction procedures from 1997 until 2019. A total of 1725 leads were extracted in 775 patients. Direct traction sufficed for 588 leads, and 22 leads were primarily removed by surgery. The endovascular techniques used in the remainder were a laser sheath (190 leads), the femoral approach (717 leads) and rotating mechanical sheaths (208 leads). Results The three approaches were comparably effective in completely removing the leads (p = 0.088). However, there were more major complications with the laser sheath than with the femoral approach or rotating mechanical sheaths (8.4%, 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively). Therefore, the procedural result—extraction without major complications—was significantly better with both the femoral approach and rotating mechanical sheaths than with the laser sheath (p < 0.001). This result was confirmed after propensity score matching to compensate for differences between lead cohorts (p = 0.007). Cross-over to another endovascular tool was necessary in 7.9%, 7.1% and 8.2% of laser, femoral and rotating mechanical attempts, respectively. Conclusion All three endovascular lead extraction techniques showed comparable efficacy. However, there were significantly more major complications using the laser sheath compared to the femoral approach or rotating mechanical sheaths, leading us to abandon the laser technique. Importantly, no single endovascular technique sufficed to successfully extract all leads.

2021 ◽  
pp. 24-28
L. S. Kruglova ◽  
N. V. Gryazeva

The article presents the results of evaluating the effectiveness of the combined use of combined oral contraceptives (COC) and Skinoren cream in severe papular-pustular and moderate nodular-cystic acne.Material and methods. Patients of the first group (n = 11) used COC and an external antibacterial drug two times a day for the treatment of acne. Patients of the second group (n = 12) used COC and an external drug containing azelaic acid (Skinoren) for the treatment of acne two times a day. The duration of follow-up was 6 months. The efficiency assessment was carried out taking into account the dynamics of the indicators of the IGA (Investors Global Assessment) scale. The Manchester Scar Scale (MSS) was used to assess the effectiveness of post-acne correction. In addition, the effectiveness was evaluated based on the results of the mexametry.Results. When evaluating IGA in the comparison groups in patients with severe papulopustular acne and moderate nodular cystic acne, comparable efficacy was noted, but the best results were recorded in the COC + Skinoren group (p < 0.05). No effect and deterioration of the condition were observed in any group. When assessing MSS, the most pronounced changes were observed in patients of group 2, where the combination of COC + Skinoren was used. So, in group 1, the severity of scars decreased by 42.3 %, in group 2 by 48.2 % (p < 0.05). The evaluation of the results of the mexametry showed a more pronounced decrease in the amount of pigment in patients from group 2. When studying the results of the severity of erythema, the dynamics similar to the severity of the pigment was obtained. The best result was registered in group 2 (COC + Skinoren) (p < 0.05).Conclusions. The combined use of COC and Skinoren cream for severe papular-pustular and moderate nodular-cystic acne has proven to be an effective method both in relation to the number of inflammatory and retention elements, and in relation to hyperpigmentation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 98-104
E. A. Ushkalova ◽  
S. K. Zyryanov ◽  
I. A. Gopienko

The review discusses the interchangeability of medications, approaches to the registration of original and generic drugs, and types of their equivalence, as well as problems with generics in clinical practice. Results of pharmacoepidemiological studies, which have been widely carried out recently, speak of insufficient understanding of the impact of generics on remote outcomes of chronic diseases, including mortality. The longterm economic prospects of generic drug administration continue to remain unclear. Among the primary differences between generics and brandname drugs are the differences in active ingredient synthesis methods and the composition of adjuvants and additives. Comparative studies on the therapeutic equivalence of generics with their originals or between themselves are rarely conducted. They are often affected by methodological flaws, which cannot ensure their comparable efficacy and safety. In this regard, automatic replacement of drugs containing the same active ingredient should be avoided without the participation of the attending physician.


Objectives: Aripiprazole is recommended in a dose of 10 and 15 mg/day, with a dose ranging between 10 and 30 mg/day in the treatment of schizophrenia. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the safety profile of Aripiprazole in low dose of 15 mg versus high dose of 30 mg in the treatment of Schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 60 patients (not on treatment) between age 18-60 years of either gender who meet the diagnostic criteria as per DSM-IV classification for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. All patients were randomly divided into two groups on single-blind study criteria. Group-I: Aripiprazole 15 mg once a day, morning dose for 6 weeks. Group-II: Aripiprazole 30 mg once a day, morning dose for 6 weeks. The ESRS includes 12 questionnaire items; each item is rated on a 7-point scale. Efficacy assessment included at baseline and at 6 weeks end study scoring on PANSS, EPRS, and CGI. Results: The total number of patients showed the ESRS (total symptoms) in group-I was 09 patients (35%) out of 26 and in group II, 13 patients (59%) out of total 22 showed the ESRS (total symptoms). In both the groups aripiprazole showed the comparable efficacy by improving overall symptoms in the number of patients. In group I, 20 patients have shown the improvement in overall scores of all scales. In group II, 16 patients have shown the improvement in overall scores in different scales. Conclusions: Aripiprazole is effective in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, doses of 15 mg are equally effective as doses of 30 mg, side effects like EPS are more with higher doses of Aripiprazole.

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