candida albicans
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Karen Kubo ◽  
Kaori Itto-Nakama ◽  
Shinsuke Ohnuki ◽  
Yoko Yashiroda ◽  
Sheena C. Li ◽  

Non- Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC) are on the rise as a cause of mycosis. Many antifungal drugs are less effective against NCAC, limiting the available therapeutic agents.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Denise Bellotti ◽  
Adriana Miller ◽  
Magdalena Rowińska-Żyrek ◽  
Maurizio Remelli

Zrt2 is a zinc transporter of the ZIP family. It is predicted to be located in the plasma membrane and it is essential for Candida albicans zinc uptake and growth at acidic pH. Zrt2 from C. albicans is composed of 370 amino acids and contains eight putative transmembrane domains and an extra-membrane disordered loop, corresponding to the amino acid sequence 126–215. This protein region contains at least three possible metal binding motifs: HxHxHxxD (144–153), HxxHxxEHxD (181–193) and the Glu- and Asp- rich sequence DDEEEDxE (161–168). The corresponding model peptides, protected at their termini (Ac-GPHTHSHFGD-NH2, Ac-DDEEEDLE-NH2 and Ac-PSHFAHAQEHQDP-NH2), have been investigated in order to elucidate the thermodynamic and coordination properties of their Zn2+ and Cu2+ complexes, with the further aim to identify the most effective metal binding site among the three fragments. Furthermore, we extended the investigation to the peptides Ac-GPHTHAHFGD-NH2 and Ac-PAHFAHAQEHQDP-NH2, where serine residues have been substituted by alanines in order to check if the presence of a serine residue may favor the displacement of amidic protons by Cu2+. In the native Zrt2 protein, the Ac-GPHTHSHFGD-NH2 region of the Zrt2 loop has the highest metal binding affinity, showing that three alternated histidines separated by only one residue (-HxHxH-) bind Zn2+ and Cu2+ more strongly than the region in which three histidines are separated by two and three His residues (-HxxHxxxH- in Ac-PSHFAHAQEHQDP-NH2). All studied Zrt2 loop fragments have lower affinity towards Zn2+ than the zinc(II) binding site on the Zrt1 transporter; also, all three Zrt2 regions bind Zn2+ and Cu2+ with comparable affinity below pH 5 and, therefore, may equally contribute to the metal acquisition under the most acidic conditions in which the Zrt2 transporter is expressed.

2022 ◽  
pp. ji2100495
Nu Z. N. Nguyen ◽  
Vuvi G. Tran ◽  
Jiyeon Baek ◽  
Younghee Kim ◽  
Eun H. Youn ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jun Tang ◽  
Xueshuang Huang ◽  
Ming-Hang Cao ◽  
Zhiyan Wang ◽  
Zhiyin Yu ◽  

During a screening for antifungal secondary metabolites, six new mono-/bis-alkenoic acid derivatives (2–7) and one known alkenoic acid derivative (1) were isolated from an endophytic fungi Scopulariopsis candelabrum. Their chemical structures were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D NMR, and high-resolution mass spectrometry, as well as comparisons with previously reported literatures. Among them, fusariumesters C‒F (2–5) are bis-alkenoic acid derivatives dimerized by an ester bond, while acetylfusaridioic acid A (6) and fusaridioic acid D (7) are alkenoic acid monomers. All the isolates were submitted to an antifungal assay against Candida albicans and the corn pathogen Exserohilum turcicum using the filter paper agar diffusion method. As a result, only compound 1 decorating with β-lactone ring turned out to be active against these two tested fungi. The broth microdilution assay against Candida albicans showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1 to be 20 μg/ml, while the minimum inhibitory concentration value of the positive control (naystatin) was 10 μg/ml. And the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value (21.23 μg/ml) of 1 against Exserohilum turcicum was determined by analyzing its inhibition effect on the mycelial growth, using cycloheximide (IC50 = 46.70 μg/ml) as the positive control.

2022 ◽  
Mariah Ndilimeke Muhongo ◽  
Mourine Kangogo ◽  
Christine Bii

The complete halt in the synthesis of new effective antimicrobial compounds is a global concern. Pathogenic microorganisms' virulence mechanisms seem to have a significant impact on their pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol and methanol fractions of Pechuel-Loeschea leubnitziae leaf extract, as well as its effect on the expression level of virulence-associated genes.The extract's fractions were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ATCC 90029. The test organism's antibiogram pattern was determined. The extracts' attenuation effect on the target genes of the susceptible organisms was investigated employing relative quantification using RT-qPCR. The test organism's antibiogram pattern revealed that it was drug-resistant, intermediate, and sensitive. The extracts tested positive for antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans ATCC 90029, with zones of inhibition varying from 20.33 to 29 mm. The lowest recorded MIC value was 4.688 mg/ml, while the highest was 37.5 mg/ml. In contrast to the methanol extract, the ethanol extract had a cidal action at a lower dose. The ethanol extract's Sub-MIC (18.25 mg/ml) merely reduced the expression of the hly gene in MRSA. The MRSA virulence genes were not suppressed by the sub-MIC of methanol extract (18.25 mg/ml). Notably, the expression of als1, pbl1, and sap1 in Candida albicans ATCC 90029 was significantly attenuated when exposed to sub-MICs of ethanol extract (2,344 mg/ml) and methanol extract (9.375 mg/ml). Per the findings of this research, the leaves of P. leubnitziae could be a source of an effective antimicrobial agent in the therapy of MRSA/Candida-related disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
B. Jabri ◽  
M. Iken ◽  
S. Ait- Ou-amar ◽  
S. Rida ◽  
A. Bouziane ◽  

Aim. This study aims to evaluate the association of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis with periodontitis in adolescents and young adults in a Moroccan population. Methods. 426 subjects aged between 12 and 25 years were recruited for the study. A pool of plaque sample was taken. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol medium at 37°C for 24–48 hours and then identified by the Vitek 2 YST system. Clinical data and presence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were analyzed using Jamovi (Version 1.8). Results. Candida albicans was observed in 25 subjects among 68 diseased patients (37%) and in 60 subjects among 358 healthy patients (17%). It can be reported that under normal yeast conditions, there is a statistically significant difference between these two groups ( P < 0.001 ). Candida dubliniensis was more prevalent in periodontitis than in healthy subjects ( P = 0.026 ). Regarding clinical variables, subgroups of periodontitis subjects showed significant statistical differences for periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and number of decayed teeth in advanced periodontitis in comparison with initial or mild periodontitis. The results also indicate that the presence of the two species of Candida is not related to gender or age ( P > 0.05 ) nor related to the severity of the periodontal disease in this population. Conclusion. Within the limits of our study, Candida albicans is more frequently associated with periodontitis. The potential role of C. albicans in periodontitis pathogenesis is very complex. More studies on biofilm associated with different forms of periodontitis are necessary. It is also important to assess the coexistence of periodontitis and caries and the associated biofilms.

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