surface functional groups
Recently Published Documents





Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 408
Vladimír Frišták ◽  
Diana Bošanská ◽  
Martin Pipíška ◽  
Libor Ďuriška ◽  
Stephen M. Bell ◽  

Although the suitability of some biochars for contaminants’ sorption separation has been established, not all potential feedstocks have been explored and characterized. Here, we physicochemically characterized cherry pit biochar (CPB) pyrolyzed from cherry pit biomass (CP) at 500 °C, and we assessed their As and Hg sorption efficiencies in aqueous solutions in comparison to activated carbon (AC). The basic physicochemical and material characterization of the studied adsorbents was carried out using pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), concentration of surface functional groups (Boehm titration), and surface area (SA) analysis; elemental C, H, N analysis; and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX). AsO43− anions and Hg2+ cations were selected as model contaminants used to test the sorption properties of the sorption materials. Characterization analyses confirmed a ninefold increase in SA in the case of CPB. The total C concentration increased by 26%, while decreases in the total H and N concentrations were observed. The values of carbonate and ash contents decreased by about half due to pyrolysis processes. The concentrations of surface functional groups of the analyzed biochar obtained by Boehm titration confirmed a decrease in carboxyl and lactone groups, while an increase in phenolic functional groups was observed. Changes in the morphology and surface functionality of the pyrolyzed material were confirmed by SEM–EDX and FTIR analyses. In sorption experiments, we found that the CPB showed better results in the sorption separation of Hg2+ than in the sorption separation of AsO43−. The sorption efficiency for the model cation increased in the order CP < CPB < AC and, for the model anion, it increased in the order CPB < CP < AC.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 307
Yangfan Lu ◽  
Dongsheng Li ◽  
Fu Liu

Angle-resolved XPS combined with argon ion etching was used to characterize the surface functional groups and the chemical structure of Ti3C2Tx MXene. Survey scanning obtained on the sample surface showed that the sample mainly contains C, O, Ti and F elements, and a little Al element. Analyzing the angle-resolved narrow scanning of these elements indicated that a layer of C and O atoms was adsorbed on the top surface of the sample, and there were many O or F related Ti bonds except Ti–C bond. XPS results obtained after argon ion etching indicated staggered distribution between C–Ti–C bond and O–Ti–C, F–Ti bond. It is confirmed that Ti atoms and C atoms were at the center layer of Ti3C2Tx MXene, while O atoms and F atoms were located at both the upper and lower surface of Ti3C2 layer acting as surface functional groups. The surface functional groups on the Ti3C2 layer were determined to include O2−, OH−, F− and O−–F−, among which F atoms could also desorb from Ti3C2Tx MXene easily. The schematic atomic structure of Ti3C2Tx MXene was derived from the analysis of XPS results, being consistent with theoretical chemical structure and other experimental reports. The results showed that angle-resolved XPS combing with argon ion etching is a good way to analysis 2D thin layer materials.

Reza Umami ◽  
Fitri Aulia Aulia Permatasari ◽  
Diva Addini Maghribi Muyassiroh ◽  
Arum Sinda Santika ◽  
Citra Deliana Dewi Sundari ◽  

Carbon Dots (CDs) that exhibited a First Near Infra-red (NIR) Window absorption was designed by a combination of Nitrogen and Oxygen surface functional groups. The Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT)...

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Sahira Joshi ◽  
Rekha Goswami Shrestha ◽  
Raja Ram Pradhananga ◽  
Katsuhiko Ariga ◽  
Lok Kumar Shrestha

Nanoporous carbon materials from biomass exhibit a high surface area due to well-defined pore structures. Therefore, they have been extensively used in separation and purification technologies as efficient adsorbents. Here, we report the iodine and methylene blue adsorption properties of the hierarchically porous carbon materials prepared from Areca catechu nut. The preparation method involves the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) activation of the Areca catechu nut powder. The effects of carbonization conditions (mixing ratio with H3PO4, carbonization time, and carbonization temperature) on the textural properties and surface functional groups were studied. The optimum textural properties were obtained at a mixing ratio of 1:1, carbonized for 3 h at 400 °C, and the sample achieved a high specific surface area of 2132.1 m2 g−1 and a large pore volume of 3.426 cm3 g−1, respectively. The prepared materials have amorphous carbon structures and contain oxygenated surface functional groups. Due to the well-defined micro-and mesopore structures with the high surface area and large pore volume, the optimal sample showed excellent iodine and methylene blue adsorption. The iodine number and methylene blue values were ca. 888 mg g−1 and 369 mg g−1, respectively. The batch adsorption studies of methylene dye were affected by pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration. The optimum parameters for the methylene blue adsorption were in alkaline pH, adsorbent dose of 2.8 g L−1, and contact time of 180 min. Equilibrium data could be best represented by the Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 333.3 mg g−1. Thus, our results demonstrate that the Areca catechu nut has considerable potential as the novel precursor material for the scalable production of high surface area hierarchically porous carbon materials that are essential in removing organic dyes from water.

2021 ◽  
Maryam Hajnajafi ◽  
A. Khorshidi ◽  
Ali Ghanadzadeh Gilani ◽  
Francis Verpoort

Abstract Herein, a facile and low-cost route was used to prepare Polydopamine@Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-67 (PDA@ZIF-67). The structure, morphology, surface functional groups and particle size distribution of PDA@ZIF-67 were studied using FTIR, FESEM, EDS, and BET analyses. The specific surface area and diameter of ​​PDA@ZIF-67 were equal to be 78.203 m2/g and 4.179 mm, respectively. The PDA@ZIF-67 was used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue dye. The results show that the maximum adsorption efficiency of methylene blue on the surface of PDA@ZIF-67 is achieved at pH 2, the temperature of 65°C, 10 mg of adsorbent, and methylene blue concentration of 7.5 ppm.Moreover, the adsorption process's isothermal, thermodynamic, and kinetics were studied entirely to consider the adsorption mechanism. The methylene blue molecules located in the fine pores of the PDA@ZIF-67 adsorbent determine the adsorption rate. Moreover, the adsorption process of methylene blue at high temperatures is a spontaneous and endothermic reaction. The adsorption efficiency of PDA@ZIF-67, after the recovery, reached 62.21%, which is an excellent advantage for using this adsorbent.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Najma Memon ◽  
Urooj Kanwal ◽  
Abdullah Memon ◽  
Safia Sanam Memon ◽  
Saima Qayoom Memon

Decontamination of organic dyes from wastewater requires efficient and compatible materials that must be able to remove dyes with different charges at the same time. In this study, composites of layered double hydroxide (LDH) and hydrochar (HC) were prepared and tested for use as general-purpose sorbents for the simultaneous removal of cationic and anionic dyes (i.e., methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and reactive yellow (RY)). Characterization studies reveal that the surface functional groups on composites are –OH, NO3, M–O bonds. It was observed that crystallinity of LDH decreased with an increasing amount of HC. Preliminary experiments showed that the dyes (i.e., MB, MO, and RY) were well removed simultaneously onto the composite with HC (2.0 g HC/prepared composite). This composite was selected for more experiments, and the adsorption efficiency was optimized by the multivariate technique using the response surface methodology (RSM). Removal efficiency of 100% was obtained for all three dyes with an adsorption capacity of 243, 5.3, and 16.3 µmol g−1 for MB, MO, and RY, respectively. Elovich’s initial intake rates (α) were 4,272, 441, and 99.5 mg g−1 min−1 for RY, MB, and MO, respectively. Data fitted in various models suggested second-order multiplex kinetics, where the surface heterogeneity response was sorbate dependent.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3200
Andrei Honciuc ◽  
Oana-Iuliana Negru

Surface energy with its polar and disperse components describes the physicochemical state of nanoparticles’ (NPs) surfaces, and can be a valuable parameter for predicting their bulk behavior in powders. Here, we introduce a new method, namely, Nanoparticles Trapped on Polymerized Pickering Emulsion Droplets (NanoTraPPED), for measuring the surface energy of a series of silica NPs bearing various surface functional groups. The method consists in creating Pickering emulsions from vinyl bearing monomers, immiscible with water, whereas NPs of interest have a stabilizing role, and in the process, become trapped at the monomer/water interface of emulsion droplets. The Pickering emulsion is polymerized, and polymer microspheres (colloidosomes) decorated with NPs are obtained. NanoTraPPED relies on measuring contact angles from the immersion depth of nanoparticles at the interface of various polymer colloidosomes with the electron microscope. The contact angle values are used as input for the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble (OWRK) model, to quantitatively determine the total surface energy with water γNP/water, air γNP, and the corresponding polar and dispersive interaction components of NPs carrying -NH2, -SH, -OH, -CN and -C8 surface functional groups, ranking these according to their polarity. Our findings were confirmed independently by calculating the interfacial desorption energies of NPs from contact angles.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document