Energy Costs
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Wenyi Zhang ◽  
Yunwei Dong

Thermal plasticity on different timescales, including acclimation/acclimatization and heat hardening response – a rapid adjustment for thermal tolerance after nonlethal thermal stress, can interact to improve the resilience of organisms to thermal stress. However, little is known about physiological mechanisms mediating this interaction. To investigate underpinnings of heat hardening responses after acclimatization in warm seasons, we measured thermal tolerance plasticity, compared transcriptomic and metabolomic changes after heat hardening at 33 or 37oC followed by recovery of 3 h or 24 h in an intertidal bivalve Sinonovacula constricta. Clams showed explicit heat hardening responses after acclimatization in a warm season. The higher inducing temperature (37oC) caused less effective heat hardening effects than the inducing temperature that was closer to the seasonal maximum temperature (33oC). Metabolomic analysis highlighted the elevated contents of glyceropholipids in all heat-hardened clams, which may help to maintain the structure and function of the membrane. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) tended to be up-regulated after heat hardening at 37oC but not at 33oC, indicating that there was no complete dependency of heat hardening effects on up-regulated HSPs. Enhanced energy metabolism and decreased energy reserves were observed after heat hardening at 37oC, suggesting more energy costs during exposure to a higher inducing temperature which may restrict heat hardening effects. These results highlighted the mediating role of membrane lipid metabolism, heat shock responses, and energy costs in the interaction between heat hardening response and seasonal acclimatization, and benefit the mechanistic understanding of evolutionary change and thermal plasticity during global climate change.

Viktor V. Deryushev ◽  
Evgeniy E. Kosenko ◽  
Vera V. Kosenko ◽  
Mikhail A. Krivchuk ◽  
Ilya V. Deryushev ◽  

Introduction. The article deals with the issues related to provision of air humidity parameters required for non-hazardous operation of various technical facilities. Problem Statement. The paper considers analytical methods for energy efficiency assessment of adsorption and condensation methods of air dehumidification, which provide safe microclimatic working conditions, and the influence of the operating modes of dehumidifying plants on the parameters of the microclimate. Theoretical Part. As indicators of the energy efficiency of each of the methods, it is proposed to use the energy costs that are minimally necessary for the implementation of ideal physical dehumidification processes and per unit mass of water units emitted from air. This ensures safe and comfortable microclimatic working conditions with minimal energy costs. The ratio of the specific energy costs of the condensation and adsorption methods shows their comparative efficiency. An electronic Id-diagram was used to determine the air parameters in the implemented dehumidification processes (cooling, condensation and adsorption of water vapor). Conclusion. Analytical dependences are obtained for the analyzed energy efficiency indicators that provide safe and comfortable microclimatic working conditions with minimal energy costs. Numerical estimates were carried out according to the most probable modes of dehumidification processes and air parameters. The parametric restrictions on the implementation of the adsorption dehumidification method are justified, in which it becomes energetically more profitable. The conditions under which it is possible to implement a combined dehumidification method to ensure safe microclimatic working conditions are determined.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
pp. 73-78
J. Baptista ◽  
G. Sequeira ◽  
E.J. Solteiro Pires

The buildings' energy consumption increasing requires solutions to improve their energy efficiency, thus reducing the electricity bill's associated costs. This paper aims to study the load profiles of a service building and its optimization to reduce the costs related to electricity consumption. The electrical load profiles are analyzed, and the electrical equipment and its consumption are characterized. Moreover, to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy costs, a renewable energy system based on photovoltaic panels is sized and integrated into the building. The analysis of the building's consumption profiles allowed the PV system's dimensioning to eliminate power peaks, enabling a reduction in the contracted power. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution, resulting in a reduction of the electricity bill.

ScienceRise ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 11-16
Vladimir Lebedev ◽  
Alla Bespalova ◽  
Tatiana Chumachenko ◽  
Yevhen Omelchenko ◽  
Tatiana Nikolaieva

Object of research. The article investigates the cutting forces when grinding martensitic-aging steels with highly porous grinding wheels. The problem to be solved is the regularities of the change in the magnitude of the cutting forces when grinding maraging steels with highly porous CBN wheels. Main scientific results. The studies were performed on martensiticaging steel H8K18M14. As a result of the experiments, it was found that when grinding wheels made of materials such as electrocorundum, CBN (borazon) and diamond, a significant role is played by the values of the cutting force, which increase during processing. During the experiment it was found out: the cutting forces Py and Pz in the width of the allowable modes, which are most often used in circular and flat grinding, can reach the following values: with the structure of the wheel 26 come to values from 2.714N to 30.721 and with the structure of the wheel 40 come to values from 2.49N to 28.185N. Reducing the grain size of the wheel, let’s obtain the effect of increasing the energy costs of the grinding process, by increasing the magnitude of the cutting forces. If to compare the cutting forces that occur when grinding different wheels, it is possible to note the following: in comparison with electrocorundum wheels when using wheels with KNB cutting forces are reduced by 20-25 %, and when grinding with diamond wheels, the effect of cutting forces is reduced by 25 - 30 %. When grinding with highly porous wheels, the cutting force is 15-20 % higher than when grinding with wheels of normal porosity. The area of practical use of research results-grinding technology for maraging steels. Innovative technological product – relationship between processing modes and the magnitude of cutting forces when grinding maraging steels. Scope of application of an innovative technological product-mechanical engineering technology

2021 ◽  
Paul Richmond ◽  
Adam Potter ◽  
David Looney ◽  
William Santee

Predicting the energy costs of human travel over snow can be of significant value to the military and other agencies planning work efforts when snow is present. The ability to quantify, and predict, those costs can help planners determine if snow will be a factor in the execution of dismounted tasks and operations. To adjust predictive models for the effect of terrain, and more specifically for surface conditions, on energy costs, terrain coefficients (ƞ) have been developed. By applying knowledge gained from prior studies of the effects of terrain and snow, and by leveraging those existing dismounted locomotion models, we seek to outline the steps in developing an improved terrain coefficient (ƞ) for snow to be used in predictive modeling. Using published data, methods, and a well-informed understanding of the physical elements of terrain, e.g., characterization of snow sinkage (z), this study made adjustments to ƞ-values specific to snow. This review of published metabolic cost methods suggest that an improved ƞ-value could be developed for use with the Pandolf equation, where z=depth (h)*(1 - (snow density (ρ0)/1.186)) and ƞ=0.0005z3 + 0.0001z2 + 0.1072z + 1.2604. This paper provides data-driven improvements to models that are used to predict the energy costs of dismounted movements over snow.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (46) ◽  
pp. 15-15
Alexander Saakian ◽  

Currently, small peasant farms (PFs) play an important role in preserving the country's food security. In the Amur region, they account for about 25 ... 30% of the total received agricultural products. At the same time, an important task in these farms is to preserve the harvested crop. This is due to the fact that during the harvesting period about 65 ... 70% of the annual precipitation falls, in connection with which the harvested grain mass has a high moisture content. The main way to preserve the received grain products is their timely drying. At the same time, it should be noted that peasant farms do not always dry the obtained agricultural products in full due to the high financial costs of this process, and in particular where electric energy is used as an energy carrier for drying, given that it’s cost for the consumer rises every year. This article presents the results of research on reducing energy consumption for drying agricultural products by optimizing the consumption of electricity. Keywords: DRYING, VENTILATION, FAN, ELECTRICAL ENERGY, GRAIN MASS

2021 ◽  
Shasta Ellen Webb ◽  
Joseph D Orkin ◽  
Rachel E Williamson ◽  
Amanda D Melin

Energy demands associated with pregnancy and lactation have been a significant force in mammalian evolution. To mitigate increased energy costs associated with reproduction, female mammals have evolved multiple behavioural and physiological responses. Some species alter activity budget to conserve energy during pregnancy and lactation, while others experience changes in metabolic rate and fat deposition. Previous studies suggest that restructuring of gut microbiota with shifting reproductive states may help females increase energy harvest from foods, especially during pregnancy, while others have found little change in response to pregnancy or lactation. Here, we combined a robust set of >10,000 individual behavioural scans with >300 fecal samples collected longitudinally across multiple years from 33 known white-faced capuchin monkey females to examine the relationships among behaviour, gut microbiota composition, and reproductive state. We used a 16S-based amplicon sequencing approach and the DADA2 pipeline to anlayse gut microbiota diversity and putative functions. We found that reproductive state explained some variation in activity budget, but that overall resting behaviour was relatively stable across the reproductive cycle. We found evidence for increases in biotin synthesis pathways among microbes in lactating females, and that the alpha diversity of gut microbial bacteria was higher in pregnant females. Otherwise, the gut microbiota community structure and estimated functional pathways were not significantly different between reproductive states. These results suggest that capuchins in our population may have limited ability to mitigate energy costs through behaviour and microbiota and/or that ecological factors, including food availability and temperature may constrain behavioural flexibility and/or gut microbial plasticity. These data contribute to a broader understanding of plasticity and constraint at multiple levels in response to the physiological shifts caused by mammalian reproduction.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 851
Tatiana Aleksandrova ◽  
Nadezhda Nikolaeva ◽  
Anastasia Afanasova ◽  
Artyem Romashev ◽  
Valentin Kuznetsov

Deterioration of mineralogical and physical characteristics of mineral raw materials results in the formation of the primary task for the comminution processes—reduction in the size of ore to obtain a material with a certain granulometric composition, which in turn is achieved by overgrinding of raw materials and, consequently, an increase in energy costs. The work aimed to justify the possibility of selective disintegration of mineral assemblages of polymetallic ores of various genesis at the stage of crushing based on in-depth investigation and revealing of interrelation and mutual influence of mineralogical-geochemical features, textural-structural and technological properties. Structural and textural features have been studied by the methods of computed X-ray microtomography. Experimental and theoretical investigations of mineralogical and technological parameters of raw materials, as well as research on crushing using different types of crushers, made it possible to substantiate the possibility of selective disintegration for polymetallic ores.

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