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Heba Bassiony ◽  
Akmal A. El-Ghor ◽  
Taher A. Salaheldin ◽  
Salwa Sabet ◽  
Mona M. Mohamed

AbstractNanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on cellular and molecular level. The present study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes and DNA damage effects of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) on female albino mice model with Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC). Magnetite nanoparticles coated with L-ascorbic acid (size ~ 25.0 nm) were synthesized and characterized. Mice were treated with MNPs day by day, intraperitoneally (IP), intramuscularly (IM), or intratumorally (IT). Autopsy samples were taken from the solid tumor, thigh muscle, liver, kidney, lung, spleen, and brain for assessment of iron content, histopathological examination, and genotoxicity using comet assay. The liver, spleen, lung, and heart had significantly higher iron content in groups treated IP. On the other hand, tumor, muscles, and the liver had significantly higher iron content in groups treated IT. MNPs induced a significant DNA damage in IT treated ESC. While a significant DNA damage was detected in the liver of the IP treated group, but no significant DNA damage could be detected in the brain. Histopathological findings in ESC revealed a marked tumor necrosis, 50% in group injected IT but 40% in group injected IP and 20% only in untreated tumors. Other findings include inflammatory cell infiltration, dilatation, and congestion of blood vessels of different organs of treated groups in addition to appearance of metastatic cancer cells in the liver of non-treated tumor group. MNPs could have an antitumor effect but it is recommended to be injected intratumorally to be directed to the tumor tissues and reduce its adverse effects on healthy tissues.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261070
Seok Hui Kang ◽  
Jun Young Do ◽  
Jun Chul Kim

Introduction We aimed to evaluate the association between the phase angle and muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance tests, quality-of-life scales, mood scales, or patient and hospitalization-free survival rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods We included 83 HD patients. The patients were divided into tertiles based on phase angle value. The phase angle was measured using a bioimpedance analysis machine. Thigh muscle area per height squared (TMA/Ht2), handgrip strength (HGS), nutritional indicators, physical performance, quality-of-life, depression or anxiety status, and the presence of hospitalization or death regardless of cause were evaluated. Results In our study, no significant differences were observed in the serum albumin level and body mass index according to tertiles of phase angle. The phase angle tertiles were associated with TMA/Ht2 and HGS. The phase angle was also associated with physical performance measurements and depression or anxiety status. Subgroup analyses according to sex, age, and diabetes mellitus showed similar trends to those of the total cohort. Furthermore, the hospitalization-free survival rate and patient survival rate were favorable in patients with high values for the phase angle. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the phase angle is associated with muscle mass, strength, physical performance, quality-of-life scale, and hospitalization-free survival in maintenance HD patients.

Jialiang Chen ◽  
Yihua Zhong ◽  
Bing Shen ◽  
Jicheng Wang ◽  
Zhijun Shen ◽  

The purpose of this study is to determine if superficial peroneal nerve stimulation (SPNS) can improve nonobstructive urinary retention (NOUR) induced by prolonged pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In this exploratory acute study using 8 cats under anesthesia, PNS and SPNS were applied by nerve cuff electrodes. Skin surface electrodes were also used for SPNS. A double lumen catheter was inserted via the bladder dome for bladder infusion and pressure measurement and to allow voiding without a physical urethral outlet obstruction. The voided and postvoid residual (PVR) volumes were also recorded. NOUR induced by repetitive (4-13 times) application of 30-min PNS significantly (p<0.05) reduced voiding efficiency by 49.5±16.8% of control (78.3±7.9%) with a large PVR volume at 208.2±82.6% of control bladder capacity. SPNS (1 Hz, 0.2 ms) at 1.5 to 2 times threshold intensity (T) for inducing posterior thigh muscle contractions was applied either continuously (SPNSc) or intermittently (SPNSi) during cystometrograms to improve the PNS-induced NOUR. SPNSc and SPNSi applied by nerve cuff electrodes significantly (p<0.05) increased voiding efficiency to 74.5±18.9% and 67.0±15.3%, respectively, and reduced PVR volume to 54.5±39.0% and 88.3±56.0%, respectively. SPNSc and SPNSi applied non-invasively by skin surface electrodes also improved NOUR similar to the stimulation applied by a cuff electrode. This study indicates that abnormal pudendal afferent activity could be a pathophysiological cause for the NOUR occurring in Fowler's syndrome and a noninvasive superficial peroneal neuromodulation therapy might be developed to treat NOUR in patients with Fowler's syndrome.

Kohei Miura ◽  
Takashi Kobayashi ◽  
Hirosuke Ishikawa ◽  
Seiji Saito ◽  
Yasuo Obata ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 342-348
Fahri S. Çinarli ◽  
Sena Çinarli ◽  
Emin Kafkas

Background and Study Aim. Single leg exercises have some advantages in terms of time, practice and energy costs. However, the activation values that occur in different single leg exercises can be used for training planning. The aim of this research was to examine the thigh muscle activation values during three different single leg exercises. Materials and Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers who were students of the faculty of sports sciences participated in the study. In the study, the EMG ampilitude values of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (SEM) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were examined during Step-up, Bench Squat and Airborne Lunge exercises. At the same time, Quadriceps (VM+VL): Hamstring (SEM+BF) ratios were determined. Results. Significant differences were detected in all thigh muscles in the ascent and descent phases (p<0.05). While the greatest activation for the quadriceps group was seen in the airborne lunge, the greatest activation for the hamstring group was detected in the bench squat. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of exercise practices in the quadriceps: hamstring (Q:H) ratio (F(2,18)=12.282, p=.003). It was seen that the most balanced exercise was bench squat (Q:H=2.55), and the most unbalanced exercise (agonist dominant) was airborne lunge (Q:H=5.51). Conclusions. The findings show that the exercises examined can be selected depending on the purpose of the training. While bench squats can be preferred for more balanced co-activation the airborne lunge can be preferred for dominant knee extensors.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Jia Cheng ◽  
Ling Wang ◽  
Shanshan Wang ◽  
Rui Chen ◽  
Tao Zhang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Simon Hansen ◽  
Kristian Kjær Petersen ◽  
Emilie Sloth ◽  
Line Appelon Manum ◽  
Anita Kjær McDonald ◽  

Abstract Objectives Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) is a decrease in the pain sensitivity after exercise. Individuals with chronic pain show less EIH after one exercise session compared with pain-free individuals possibly due to pain in exercising muscles. The primary aim of this randomized controlled cross-over study was to compare the EIH response at the exercising thigh muscle following exercises performed with painful vs. non-painful muscles. Secondary aims were to explore if a reduced EIH response was confined to the painful muscle, and whether the muscle pain intensity and the EIH responses were negatively associated. Methods In two sessions, 34 pain-free participants received a painful (hypertonic saline, 5.8%) injection and a control (isotonic saline, 0.9%) injection in the right thigh muscle before performing a 3 min isometric wall squat exercise. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at both thighs and the left neck/shoulder at baseline, after injections and after exercise. Pain intensities in the thighs were rated on numerical rating scales (NRS: 0–10). Results Hypertonic saline induced moderate thigh pain at rest (NRS: 4.6 ± 2.1) compared to the control injection (NRS: 0.3 ± 0.4; p<0.001). EIH at the thighs and neck/shoulder were not different between sessions (Injected thigh: 0 kPa; 95% CI: −51 to 52; Contralateral thigh: −6 kPa; 95% CI: −42 to 30; neck/shoulder: 19 kPa; 95% CI: −6 to 44). No significant associations between pain intensity ratings immediately after the Painful injection and EIH responses at any assessment sites were found (right thigh: β=0.08, 95% CI: −12.95 to 20.64, p=0.64, left thigh: β=−0.33, 95% CI: −27.86 to 0.44, p=0.06; neck/shoulder: β=−0.18, 95% CI: −15.11 to 4.96, p=0.31). Conclusions Pain in the area of an exercising muscle did not reduce local or systemic EIH responses. Trial registration number NCT04354948.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xingli Liu ◽  
Ling Wang ◽  
Meng Gao ◽  
Gang Wang ◽  
Kai Tang ◽  

Background and PurposeA high-altitude environment was known to have a negative effect on bone and lead to a higher incidence of hip fracture. However, the dependence of muscle composition on altitude is unclear. Thus, we aimed to compare muscle density and area in plateau and low altitude area and to determine the effect of the altitude on these outcomes.MethodsCommunity dwelling adults over 60 years old living in Beijing (elevation 50 m; 300 subjects,107 men and 193 women) or Kunming (elevation 2000 m; 218 subjects,83 men and 135 women) for more than 10 years were enrolled. Quantitative CT was performed in all subjects and cross-sectional area and attenuation measured in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined for the trunk, gluteus, and mid-thigh muscles.ResultsCompared to Beijing, Kunming adults were slimmer (Beijing men vs Kunming men: 25.08 ± 2.62 vs 23.94 ± 3.10kg/m2, P=0.013; Beijing women vs Kunming women: 25.31 ± 3.1 vs 23.98 ± 3.54 kg/m2, P= 0.001) and had higher muscle density in the L2-trunk and gluteus maximus muscles after adjustment for age and BMI (L2-trunk muscles: Beijing men 29.99 ± 4.17 HU vs Kunming men 37.35 ± 4.25 HU, P&lt; 0.0001; Beijing women 27.37 ± 3.76 HU vs Kunming women 31.51 ± 5.12 HU, P&lt; 0.0001; Gluteus maximus muscle: Beijing men 35.11 ± 6.54 HU vs Kunming men 39.36 ± 4.39 HU, P= 0.0009; Beijing women 31.47 ± 6.26 HU vs Kunming women 34.20 ± 5.87 HU P=0.0375). Age was similar in both cohorts and no differences were observed in the gluteus medius and minimus muscle or the mid-thigh muscle, either in the area or density.ConclusionsCompared with Beijing, the adults in Kunming had higher muscle density of the gluteus maximus and L2 trunk muscles, showing that living at a higher altitude might be beneficial to muscle quality.

Lili Zhang ◽  
Traci M. Bartz ◽  
Adam Santanasto ◽  
Luc Djoussé ◽  
Kenneth J. Mukamal ◽  

Background Aging is associated with central fat redistribution and skeletal muscle decline, yet the relationships of tissue compartments with heart failure (HF) remain incompletely characterized. We assessed the contribution of body composition to incident HF in elders. Methods and Results Participants from 2 older cohorts who completed dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and, in one cohort, computed tomography were included. We evaluated associations with incident HF for DEXA principal components (PCs) and total lean, appendicular lean, total fat and trunk fat mass; and for computed tomography measures of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, thigh muscle, intermuscular fat area and thigh muscle density. DEXA analysis included 3621, and computed tomography analysis 2332 participants. During median follow‐up of 11.8 years, 927 participants developed HF. DEXA principal components showed no relationship with HF. After adjustment for height, weight, and cardiovascular risk factors, total lean mass was near significantly associated with higher HF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.25 per SD [1.00–1.56]), whereas total fat mass and thigh muscle density were significantly related to lower HF (HR, 0.82 [0.68–0.99] and HR, 0.87 [0.78–0.97], respectively). Patterns were similar for HF subtypes. The relationships with HF for total lean and fat mass were attenuated after adjusting for intercurrent atrial fibrillation or excluding high natriuretic peptide levels. Conclusions Total lean mass was positively associated, while total fat mass and thigh muscle density were inversely associated, with incident HF. These findings highlight the limitations of DEXA for assessment of HF risk in elders and support the preeminence of computed tomography–measured skeletal muscle quality over mass as a determinant of HF incidence.

2021 ◽  
Mehran Azimbagirad ◽  
Guillaume Dardenne ◽  
Douraied Ben Salem ◽  
Olivier Remy-Neris ◽  
Valerie Burdin

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