Gallic Acid
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Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1663
Seongin Jo ◽  
Young-Sung Jung ◽  
Ye-Ryeong Cho ◽  
Ji-Won Seo ◽  
Won-Chul Lim ◽  

Rosa gallica is a widely used Rosa species for medicinal and culinary purposes. Rosa gallica has been reported to display antioxidant, anti−inflammatory, and antibacterial activities. However, the effect of Rosa gallica against skin aging in vivo is unknown and its active components have not been fully understood. Oral administration of Rosa gallica prevented UVB−mediated skin wrinkle formation and loss of collagen/keratin fibers in the dorsal skin of mice. Examination of biomarkers at the molecular level showed that Rosa gallica downregulates UVB−induced COX−2 and MMP−1 expression in the skin. Through a direct comparison of major compounds identified using the UHPLC−MS/MS system, we discovered gallic acid as the primary component contributing to the anti-skin aging effect exhibited by Rosa gallica. Examination of the molecular mechanism revealed that gallic acid can potently and selectively target the c−Raf/MEK/ERK/c−Fos signaling axis. In addition, both gallic acid and MEK inhibitor blocked UVB−induced MMP−1 expression and restored collagen levels in a reconstructed 3D human skin model. Collectively, Rosa gallica could be used as a functional ingredient in the development of nutraceuticals against skin aging.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Nissha Bharrathi Romes ◽  
Roswanira Abdul Wahab ◽  
Mariani Abdul Hamid ◽  
Habeebat Adekilekun Oyewusi ◽  
Nurul Huda ◽  

AbstractNanoemulsion is a delivery system used to enhance bioavailability of plant-based compounds across the stratum corneum. Elaeis guineensis leaves are rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants, viz. gallic acid and catechin. The optimal E. guineensis leaves extract water-in-oil nanoemulsion was stable against coalescence, but it was under significant influence of Ostwald ripening over 90 days at 25 °C. The in-vitro permeability revealed a controlled and sustained release of the total phenolic compounds (TPC) of EgLE with a cumulative amount of 1935.0 ± 45.7 µgcm−2 after 8 h. The steady-state flux and permeation coefficient values were 241.9 ± 5.7 µgcm−2 h−1 and 1.15 ± 0.03 cm.h−1, respectively. The kinetic release mechanism for TPC of EgLE was best described by the Korsmeyer–Peppas model due to the highest linearity of R2 = 0.9961, indicating super case II transport mechanism. The in-silico molecular modelling predicted that the aquaporin-3 protein in the stratum corneum bonded preferably to catechin over gallic acid through hydrogen bonds due to the lowest binding energies of − 57.514 kcal/mol and − 8.553 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the in-silico study further verified that catechin could improve skin hydration. Therefore, the optimal nanoemulsion could be used topically as moisturizer to enhance skin hydration based on the in-silico prediction.

2021 ◽  
Zhengrong Wu ◽  
Peng Chen ◽  
Ying-Qian Liu

Abstract A series of gallic acid hydrazones were designed and synthesized as new potential anti-oxidant agents. Most of these compounds are potent antioxidants. The strongest compounds are 11 and 15 (EC50: 6.42 μg·mL−1, 6.86 μg·mL−1, DPPH) and (EC50: 12.85μg·mL−1, 12.49μg·mL−1ABTS), more potent than the positive control Trolox. Furthermore, the promising compounds 11 and 15 exhibited very low cytotoxic activity against HEK293 cell (IC50 >56.4 µM). The SAR study revealed that the pattern of hydroxyl, methoxy and methyl substituents on the gallic hydrazones framework can increase the antioxidant properties of the prototype compounds. Moreover, the results also showed that the activity increased with the number of the groups and increased following hydroxyl > methoxy > methyl. Overall, the present study suggests that the designed compounds may serve as lead molecules for developing novel anti-oxidative agents in food industry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Paloma López-Montemayor ◽  
Judith Zavala ◽  
María Dolores Montalvo-Parra ◽  
Guillermo Isaac Guerrero-Ramírez ◽  
Karla Mayolo-Deloisa ◽  

Background. Sedum dendroideum has antioxidant effects that are beneficial for different diseases. We aimed to analyze the antiproliferative activity of S. dendroideum in human pterygium fibroblasts (HPFs). Methods. HPFs were treated for 24 h with 0–1000 μg/mL of S. dendroideum lyophilized to analyze its effect on cell viability using the CellTiter assay. RNA from HPF treated with 250 μg/mL of S. dendroideum lyophilized was isolated, and the expression of VEGF and CTGF genes was evaluated by qPCR. A dermal fibroblast cell line (HDFa) was used as a healthy control. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and chemical profile of S. dendroideum lyophilized were determined. Results. Viability of HPF decreased after 24 h treatment of S. dendroideum in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of VEGF and CTGF significantly decreased ( P < 0.01 ) in HPF treated with 250 μg/mL of S. dendroideum when compared with untreated HPF. The total phenolic concentration in the S. dendroideum lyophilized was 33.67 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. Antioxidant activity was 384.49 mM Trolox equivalents/mL. The main phenolic compounds identified by HPLC analysis were the kaempferol-3-O-glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glycoside-7-O-rhamnoside. Conclusions. S. dendroideum decreases the proliferation of HPF and the expression of VEGF and CTGF. The phenolic compound concentration, antioxidant activity, and phytochemical profile may play a role in these effects.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2192
Ahmed M. Mustafa ◽  
Doaa Abouelenein ◽  
Laura Acquaticci ◽  
Laura Alessandroni ◽  
Rehab H. Abd-Allah ◽  

Sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are highly prized nuts, and the consumption of fresh chestnuts is usually preceded by roasting, boiling, and frying. The aim of this work was to simultaneously analyze 29 polyphenolic compounds for the first time in raw, boiled, roasted, and fried chestnut seeds and shells using HPLC-MS/MS. Principal component analysis depending on the HPLC-MS/MS results showed that roasting, boiling, and frying affected the contents of 25 detected phenolic compounds in a unique way, of which the most notable phenolics were gallic acid, ellagic acid, and (+)-catechin. Additionally, total polyphenolic content (TPC) was measured via the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and TPC in seeds and inner and outer shells was increased in all treatments except for microwave-roasted seeds. Furthermore, the higher TPC in the inner and outer shells when compared to seeds supported their higher antioxidant activity (AOA) determined via the DPPH experiment. AOA of seeds was increased in all treatments, while the AOA of shells was higher in roasting and lower in boiling and frying treatments. The assessment of these changes is necessary so that chestnut seed consumption and the recycling of their shells as a natural source of antioxidants can be maximized.

Reecha Madaan ◽  
Rajeev K. Singla ◽  
Suresh Kumar ◽  
Ankit Kumar Dubey ◽  
Dinesh Kumar ◽  

: Bergenin, 4-O-methyl gallic acid glucoside, is a bioactive compound present in various plants belonging to different families. The present work compiles scattered information on pharmacology, structure activity relationship and nanotechnological aspects of bergenin, collected from various electronic databases such as Sci Finder, PubMed, Google scholar, etc. Bergenin has been reported to exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, antiviral and antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking studies have shown that isocoumarin pharmacophore of bergenin is essential for its bioactivities. Bergenin holds a great potential to be used as lead molecule and also as a therapeutic agent for development of more efficacious and safer semisynthetic derivatives. Nanotechnological concepts can be employed to overcome poor bioavailability of bergenin. Finally, it is concluded that bergenin can be emerged as clinically potential medicine in modern therapeutics.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0254058
Xiaofang Xue ◽  
Ailing Zhao ◽  
Yongkang Wang ◽  
Haiyan Ren ◽  
Junjie Du ◽  

The composition and content of phenolic acids and flavonoids among the different varieties, development stages, and tissues of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) were systematically examined using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography to provide a reference for the evaluation and selection of high-value resources. Five key results were identified: (1) Overall, 13 different phenolic acids and flavonoids were detected from among the 20 excellent jujube varieties tested, of which 12 were from the fruits, 11 from the leaves, and 10 from the stems. Seven phenolic acids and flavonoids, including (+)-catechin, rutin, quercetin, luteolin, spinosin, gallic acid, and chlorogenic acid, were detected in all tissues. (2) The total and individual phenolic acids and flavonoids contents significantly decreased during fruit development in Ziziphus jujuba cv.Hupingzao. (3) The total phenolic acids and flavonoids content was the highest in the leaves of Ziziphus jujuba cv.Hupingzao, followed by the stems and fruits with significant differences among the content of these tissues. The main composition of the tissues also differed, with quercetin and rutin present in the leaves; (+)-catechin and rutin in the stems; and (+)-catechin, epicatechin, and rutin in the fruits. (4) The total content of phenolic acid and flavonoid ranged from 359.38 to 1041.33 μg/g FW across all examined varieties, with Ziziphus jujuba cv.Jishanbanzao having the highest content, and (+)-catechin as the main composition in all 20 varieties, followed by epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin. (5) Principal component analysis showed that (+)-catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, and rutin contributed to the first two principal components for each variety. Together, these findings will assist with varietal selection when developing phenolic acids and f lavonoids functional products.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1615
Almira Georgieva ◽  
Yana Ilieva ◽  
Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova ◽  
Maya Margaritova Zaharieva ◽  
Paraskev Nedialkov ◽  

The wastewater from the distillation of rose oils is discharged directly into the soil because it has a limited potential for future applications. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro the chromatographic profile, redox-modulating capacity, and antineoplastic activity of wastewater obtained by distillation of essential oils from the Bulgarian Rosa alba L., Rosa damascena Mill., Rosa gallica L., and Rosa centifolia L. We applied UHPLC-HRMS for chromatographic analysis of rose wastewaters, studied their metal-chelating and Fe(III)-reducing ability, and performed MTT assay for the evaluation of cytotoxic potential against three tumorigenic (HEPG2—hepatocellular adenocarcinoma, A-375—malignant melanoma, A-431—non-melanoma epidermoid squamous skin carcinoma) and one non-tumorigenic human cell lines (HaCaT—immortalized keratinocytes). The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were calculated with nonlinear modeling using the MAPLE® platform. The potential of the wastewaters to induce apoptosis was also examined. Mono-, di-, and acylated glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, ellagic acid and its derivatives as main chemical components, and gallic acid and its derivatives—such as catechin and epicatechin—were identified. The redox-modulating capacity of the samples (TPTZ test) showed that all four wastewaters exhibited the properties of excellent heavy metal cleaners, but did not exert very strong cytotoxic effects. The lowest IC50 rate was provided in wastewater from R. centifolia (34–35 µg/mL of gallic acid equivalents after a 72 h period for all cell lines). At 24 and 48 hours, the most resistant cell line was HEPG2, followed by HaCaT. After 72 h of exposure, the IC50 values were similar for tumor and normal cells. Still, R. damascena had a selectivity index over 2.0 regarding A-431 non-melanoma skin cancer cells, showing a good toxicological safety profile in addition to moderate activity—IC50 of 35 µg/mL polyphenols. The obtained results related to wastewaters acquired after the distillation of essential oils from the Bulgarian R. alba, R. damascena, R. gallica, and R. centifolia direct our attention to further studies for in-depth elucidation of their application as detoxifying agents under oxidative damage conditions in other experimental datasets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Jia Lei ◽  
Yong Zhang ◽  
Xuechen Ni ◽  
Xuejing Yu ◽  
Xingguo Wang

Abstract Background Herbaspirillum camelliae is a gram-negative endophyte isolated from the tea plant. Both strains WT00C and WT00F were found to hydrolyze epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) to release gallic acid (GA) and display tannase activity. However, no tannase gene was annotated in the genome of H. camelliae WT00C. Results The 39 kDa protein, annotated as the prolyl oligopeptidase in the NCBI database, was finally identified as a novel tannase. Its gene was cloned, and the enzyme was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Moreover, enzymatic characterizations of this novel tannase named TanHcw were studied. TanHcw was a secretary enzyme with a Sec/SPI signal peptide of 48 amino acids at the N-terminus, and it catalyzed the degradation of tannin, methyl gallate (MG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). The optimal temperature and pH of TanHcw activities were 30 °C, pH 6.0 for MG and 40 °C, pH 7.0 for both EGCG and ECG. Na+, K+ Mn2+ and Triton-X100, Tween80 increased the enzyme activity of TanHcw, whereas Zn2+, Mg2+, Hg2+, EMSO, EDTA and β-mercaptoethanol inhibited enzyme activity. Km, kcat and kcat /Km of TanHcw were 0.30 mM, 37.84 s−1, 130.67 mM−1 s−1 for EGCG, 0.33 mM, 34.59 s−1, 105.01 mM−1 s−1 for ECG and 0.82 mM, 14.64 s−1, 18.17 mM−1 s−1 for MG, respectively. Conclusion A novel tannase TanHcw from H. camelliae has been identified and characterized. The biological properties of TanHcw suggest that it plays a crucial role in the specific colonization of H. camelliae in tea plants. Discovery of the tannase TanHcw in this study gives us a reasonable explanation for the host specificity of H. camelliae. In addition, studying the characteristics of this enzyme offers the possibility of further defining its potential in industrial application.

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