gallic acid
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kang Yang ◽  
Xiaolin Deng ◽  
Shiyan Jian ◽  
Meiyu Zhang ◽  
Chaoyu Wen ◽  
...  

Early-life exposure to environmental stress disrupts the gut barrier and leads to inflammatory responses and changes in gut microbiota composition. Gallic acid (GA), a natural plant polyphenol, has received significant interest for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties that support the maintenance of intestinal health. To assess whether dietary supplementation of GA alleviates environmental stress, a total of 19 puppies were randomly allocated to the following three dietary treatments for 2 weeks: 1) basal diet (control (CON)); 2) basal diet + transportation (TS); and 3) basal diet with the addition of 500 mg/kg of GA + transportation (TS+GA). After a 1-week supplementation period, puppies in the TS and TS+GA groups were transported from a stressful environment to another livable location, and puppies in the CON group were then left in the stressful environment. Results indicated that GA markedly reduced the diarrhea rate in puppies throughout the trial period and caused a moderate decline of serum cortisol and HSP-70 levels after transportation. Also, GA alleviated the oxidative stress and inflammatory response caused by multiple environmental stressors. Meanwhile, puppies fed GA had a higher abundance of fecal Firmicutes and Lactobacillus and lower Proteobacteria, Escherichia–Shigella, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 after transportation. As a result, the TS+GA group had the highest total short-chain fatty acids and acetic acid. Also, the fecal and serum metabolomics analyses revealed that GA markedly reversed the abnormalities of amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism caused by stresses. Finally, Spearman’s correlation analysis was carried out to explore the comprehensive microbiota and metabolite relationships. Overall, dietary supplementation of GA alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory response in stressed puppies by causing beneficial shifts on gut microbiota and metabolites that may support gut and host health.


Author(s):  
Akram Ahangarpour ◽  
Hassan Sharifinasab ◽  
Heibatullah Kalantari ◽  
Mohammad Amin Dehghani ◽  
Nader Shakiba Maram ◽  
...  

Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-26
Author(s):  
A. Sassi ◽  
Normah H. ◽  
M.M.A.K. Khattak ◽  
Hanapi M.J.

Anacardium occidentale young leaves are consumed traditionally as part of a Southeast Asian diet. The regular consumption is believed to have beneficial effects on health in general and potentially against type 2 Diabetes mellitus due to its high content of polyphenols. This study was aimed to investigate the polyphenol content of the plant using two methanol extracts; Free Phenolic Extract (FPE) and Bound Phenolic Extract (BPE) as well as highlight the presence of six phenolic acids and flavonoids namely; gallic acid, sinapinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin and kaempferol using High performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-UV-Vis). The results for polyphenols and flavonoids content showed high amounts of total polyphenols in BPE with 8.5±0.57 mg GAE/g as well as high amounts of total flavonoids in both extracts FPE and BPE with 0.58±0.06 and 0.86±0.05 mg QE/g respectively (p<0.05). The presence of these polyphenols was further confirmed by measuring the antioxidant activity through the scavenging of the free radical DPPH which showed an IC50 value for FPE (5.17±0.64 µg/ mL, BPE (4.96±0.12 µg/mL) compared to the positive control ascorbic acid (4.91±0.43 µg/mL). The high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array confirmed the presence of all four targeted phenolic acids with the highest amount showing in gallic acid and sinapinic acid in BPE with 148.12±6.44 µg gallic acid/g dry weight and 47.02±1.94 µg sinapinic acid/g dry weight respectively. As for flavonoids, quercetin was present in both extracts with 20.38±1.22 µg/g dry weight in BPE and 5.21±0.1 µg/g dry weight in FPE while Kaempferol was not detectable in either extract. These findings confirmed the importance of A. occidentale as a rich source of polyphenols which can be further investigated to determine its effects in-vitro and in-vivo on non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes.


Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 175
Author(s):  
Jiawei Li ◽  
Xinji Zhou ◽  
Yu Yan ◽  
Dianling Shen ◽  
Danqing Lu ◽  
...  

Gallic acid is widely used in the field of food and medicine due to its diversified bioactivities. The extraction method with higher specificity and efficiency is the key to separate and purify gallic acid from complex biological matrix. Herein, using self-made core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIP) with gallic acid as template, a hollow magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (HMMIP) with double imprinting/adsorption surfaces was prepared by etching the mesoporous silica intermediate layer of MMIP. The characterization and adsorption research showed that the HMMIP had larger specific surface area, higher magnetic response strength and a more stable structure, and the selectivity and saturated adsorption capacity (2.815 mmol/g at 318 K) of gallic acid on HMMIP were better than those of MMIP. Thus, in addition to MMIP, the improved HMMIP had excellent separation and purification ability to selectively extract gallic acid from complex matrix with higher specificity and efficiency.


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