neutrophil extracellular trap
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Yumeng Huang ◽  
Qian Ji ◽  
Yanyan Zhu ◽  
Shengqiao Fu ◽  
Shuangwei Chen ◽  

Excessive neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is an important contributor to sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Recent reports indicate that platelets can induce neutrophil extracellular trap formation. However, the specific mechanism remains unclear. Tph1 gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for peripheral 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) synthesis, was knocked out in mice to simulate peripheral 5-HT deficiency. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery was performed to induce sepsis. We found that peripheral 5-HT deficiency reduced NET formation in lung tissues, alleviated sepsis-induced lung inflammatory injury, and reduced the mortality rate of CLP mice. In addition, peripheral 5-HT deficiency was shown to reduce the accumulation of platelets and NETs in the lung of septic mice. We found that platelets from wild-type (WT), but not Tph1 knockout (Tph1−/−), mice promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NET formation. Exogenous 5-HT intervention increased LPS-induced NET formation when Tph1−/− platelets were co-cultured with WT neutrophils. Therefore, our study uncovers a mechanism by which peripheral 5-HT aggravated sepsis-induced ALI by promoting NET formation in the lung of septic mice.

Abigail M. Forson ◽  
Colin W. K. Rosman ◽  
Theo G. van Kooten ◽  
Henny C. van der Mei ◽  
Jelmer Sjollema

Advancements in contemporary medicine have led to an increasing life expectancy which has broadened the application of biomaterial implants. As each implant procedure has an innate risk of infection, the number of biomaterial-associated infections keeps rising. Staphylococcus aureus causes 34% of such infections and is known as a potent biofilm producer. By secreting micrococcal nuclease S. aureus is able to escape neutrophil extracellular traps by cleaving their DNA-backbone. Also, micrococcal nuclease potentially limits biofilm growth and adhesion by cleaving extracellular DNA, an important constituent of biofilms. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of micrococcal nuclease on infection persistence and biofilm formation in a murine biomaterial-associated infection-model with polyvinylidene-fluoride mesh implants inoculated with bioluminescent S. aureus or its isogenic micrococcal nuclease deficient mutant. Supported by results based on in-vivo bioluminescence imaging, ex-vivo colony forming unit counts, and histological analysis it was found that production of micrococcal nuclease enables S. aureus bacteria to evade the immune response around an implant resulting in a persistent infection. As a novel finding, histological analysis provided clear indications that the production of micrococcal nuclease stimulates S. aureus to form biofilms, the presence of which extended neutrophil extracellular trap formation up to 13 days after mesh implantation. Since micrococcal nuclease production appeared vital for the persistence of S. aureus biomaterial-associated infection, targeting its production could be a novel strategy in preventing biomaterial-associated infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Anna-Katharina Gimpel ◽  
Antonio Maccataio ◽  
Harald Unterweger ◽  
Maria V. Sokolova ◽  
Georg Schett ◽  

Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a powerful instrument to fight pathogens, but may induce collateral damage in the affected tissues. Besides pathogen-derived factors, immune complexes are potent inducers of NET formation. Neutrophils express IgA and IgG specific Fc receptors (FcRs) and therefore respond to complexed IgA and IgG. Especially in the context of autoimmune diseases, IgA and IgG immune complexes have been shown to trigger NET formation, a process that putatively contributes to disease severity. However, it is of question if both antibody classes stimulate neutrophils to the same extent. In this study, we compared the capability of IgA and IgG complexes formed by heat aggregation to induce NET formation. While stimulation of neutrophils with IgA complexes robustly induced NET formation, complexed IgG only marginally increased the amount of NETs compared to the unstimulated control. Mixing IgA with IgG before heat aggregation did not increase the effect of complexed IgA on neutrophils. By contrast, the presence of IgG complexes seemed to disturb neutrophil stimulation by IgA complexes. The capacity of complexed IgG to induce NET formation could not be increased by the addition of autologous serum or the removal of terminal sialic acid in the Fc glycan. Together, our data show that IgA is a much more potent inducer of NET formation than IgG. IgA may thus be the main driving force in (auto)immune complex-mediated NET formation.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Alona Telerman ◽  
Galit Granot ◽  
Chiya Leibovitch ◽  
Osnat Yarchovsky-Dolberg ◽  
Adi Shacham-Abulafia ◽  

Cardiovascular complications are increasingly reported with the use of certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We studied neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in CML and evaluated the effect of TKIs on NET formation. Neutrophils isolated from treatment-naïve patients with CML showed a significant increase in NET formation compared to matched controls at baseline and after stimulation with ionomycin (IO) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Expression of citrullinated histone H3 (H3cit), peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly higher in CML samples compared to controls. Pre-treatment of neutrophils with TKIs was associated with a differential effect on NET formation, and ponatinib significantly augmented NET-associated elastase and ROS levels as compared to controls and other TKIs. BCR-ABL1 retroviral transduced HoxB8-immortalized mouse hematopoietic progenitors, which differentiate into neutrophils in-vitro, demonstrated increased H3cit & myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression consistent with excess NET formation. This was inhibited by Cl-amidine, a PAD4 inhibitor, but not by the NADPH inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). Ponatinib pre-exposure significantly increased H3cit expression in HoxB8-BCR-ABL1 cells after stimulation with IO. In summary, CML is associated with increased NET formation, which is augmented by ponatinib, suggesting a possible role for NETs in promoting vascular toxicity in CML.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jianan Zhao ◽  
Ping Jiang ◽  
Shicheng Guo ◽  
Steven J. Schrodi ◽  
Dongyi He

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease that can lead to clinical manifestations of systemic diseases. Its leading features include chronic synovial inflammation and degeneration of the bones and joints. In the past decades, multiple susceptibilities for rheumatoid arthritis have been identified along with the development of a remarkable variety of drugs for its treatment; which include analgesics, glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic response modifiers (bDMARDs). Despite the existence of many clinical treatment options, the prognosis of some patients remains poor due to complex mechanism of the disease. Programmed cell death (PCD) has been extensively studied and ascertained to be one of the essential pathological mechanisms of RA. Its dysregulation in various associated cell types contributes to the development of RA. In this review, we summarize the role of apoptosis, cell death-associated neutrophil extracellular trap formation, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy in the pathophysiology of RA to provide a theoretical reference and insightful direction to the discovery and development of novel therapeutic targets for RA.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Gunnar Pejler ◽  
Sultan Alanazi ◽  
Mirjana Grujic ◽  
Jeremy Adler ◽  
Anna-Karin Olsson ◽  

Previous research has indicated an intimate functional communication between mast cells (MCs) and neutrophils during inflammatory conditions, but the nature of such communication is not fully understood. Activated neutrophils are known to release DNA-containing extracellular traps (neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) and, based on the known ability of tryptase to interact with negatively charged polymers, we here hypothesized that tryptase might interact with NET-contained DNA and thereby regulate NET formation. In support of this, we showed that tryptase markedly enhances NET formation in phorbol myristate acetate-activated human neutrophils. Moreover, tryptase was found to bind vividly to the NETs, to cause proteolysis of core histones and to cause a reduction in the levels of citrullinated histone-3. Secretome analysis revealed that tryptase caused increased release of numerous neutrophil granule compounds, including gelatinase, lactoferrin, and myeloperoxidase. We also show that DNA can induce the tetrameric, active organization of tryptase, suggesting that NET-contained DNA can maintain tryptase activity in the extracellular milieu. In line with such a scenario, DNA-stabilized tryptase was shown to efficiently degrade numerous pro-inflammatory compounds. Finally, we showed that tryptase is associated with NET formation in vivo in a melanoma setting and that NET formation in vivo is attenuated in mice lacking tryptase expression. Altogether, these findings reveal that NET formation can be regulated by MC tryptase, thus introducing a novel mechanism of communication between MCs and neutrophils.

2021 ◽  
Brittany Phatana Boribong ◽  
Thomas James LaSalle ◽  
Yannic C Bartsch ◽  
Felix Ellett ◽  
Maggie Elizabeth Loiselle ◽  

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a delayed-onset, COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory systemic illness characterized by SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia, cytokine storm and immune dysregulation; however, the role of the neutrophil has yet to be defined. In adults with severe COVID-19, neutrophil activation has been shown to be central to overactive inflammatory responses and complications. Thus, we sought to define neutrophil activation in children with MIS-C and acute COVID-19. We collected samples from 141 children: 31 cases of MIS-C, 43 cases of acute pediatric COVID-19, and 67 pediatric controls. We found that MIS-C neutrophils display a granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (G-MDSC) signature with highly altered metabolism, which is markedly different than the neutrophil interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) response observed in pediatric patients during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, we identified signatures of neutrophil activation and degranulation with high levels of spontaneous neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in neutrophils isolated from fresh whole blood of MIS-C patients. Mechanistically, we determined that SARS-CoV-2 immune complexes are sufficient to trigger NETosis. Overall, our findings suggest that the hyperinflammatory presentation of MIS-C could be mechanistically linked to persistent SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia through uncontrolled neutrophil activation and NET release in the vasculature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13646
Stavros Giaglis ◽  
Chanchal Sur Chowdhury ◽  
Shane Vontelin van Breda ◽  
Maria Stoikou ◽  
André N. Tiaden ◽  

Pregnancy is associated with elevated maternal levels of cell-free DNA of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) origin, as circulatory neutrophils exhibit increased spontaneous NET formation, mainly driven by G-CSF and finely modulated by sex hormones. The postpartum period, on the other hand, involves physiological alterations consistent with the need for protection against infections and fatal haemorrhage. Our findings indicate that all relevant serum markers of neutrophil degranulation and NET release are substantially augmented postpartum. Neutrophil pro-NETotic activity in vitro is also upregulated particularly in post-delivery neutrophils. Moreover, maternal puerperal neutrophils exhibit a strong pro-NETotic phenotype, associated with increased levels of all key players in the generation of NETs, namely citH3, MPO, NE, and ROS, compared to non-pregnant and pregnant controls. Intriguingly, post-delivery NET formation is independent of G-CSF in contrast to late gestation and complemented by the presence of TF on the NETs, alterations in the platelet activity status, and activation of the coagulation cascade, triggered by circulating microparticles. Taken together, our results reveal the highly pro-NETotic and potentially procoagulant nature of postpartum neutrophils, bridging an overt immune activation with possible harmful thrombotic incidence.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1888
Youichi Ogawa ◽  
Yoshinori Muto ◽  
Manao Kinoshita ◽  
Shinji Shimada ◽  
Tatsuyoshi Kawamura

Neutrophils are the primary innate immune cells, and serve as sentinels for invading pathogens. To this end, neutrophils exert their effector functions via phagocytosis, degranulation, reactive oxygen species generation, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release. Pathogens and pathogen-derived components trigger NET formation, leading to the clearance of pathogens. However, NET formation is also induced by non-related pathogen proteins, such as cytokines and immune complexes. In this regard, NET formation can be induced under both non-sterile and sterile conditions. NETs are enriched by components with potent cytotoxic and inflammatory properties, thereby occasionally damaging tissues and cells and dysregulating immune homeostasis. Research has uncovered the involvement of NETs in the pathogenesis of several connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ANCA-associated vasculitis. In dermatology, several skin diseases clinically develop local or systemic sterile pustules and abscesses. The involvement of neutrophils and subsequent NET formation has recently been elucidated in these skin diseases. Therefore, this review highlights the NETs in these neutrophil-associated diseases.

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