chronic inflammatory disease
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 239-247
Kun Liu ◽  
Wanjing Yu ◽  
Yaoyao Tang ◽  
Chao Chen

Background: Bronchial asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, whose pathogenesis involves a variety of factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of traditional Chinese medicine Glycyrrhizin (Gly) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and its action mechanism. Methods: Gly (20 µM) was used to treat bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells stimulated with LPS. The expression of SRC and miR-146b-5p in BEAS-2B cells was modified by the respective transfections with pcDNA-SRC, miR-146b-5p mimic and miR-146b-5p inhibitor. STRING and Starbase online databases were used to predict the relationship between Gly, miR-146b-5p and SRC. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to verify the binding of miR-146b-5p to SRC. The viability, inflammatory response and apoptosis of BEAS-2B cells were examined by CCK-8, ELISA and Tunel assays respectively. The expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3), SRC and miR-146b-5p were detected by qRT-PCR or western blotting. Results: Gly inhibited LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. The interaction between Gly and SRC was predicted by STRING. SRC expression was high in BEAS-2B cells stimulated with LPS and could be negatively regulated by Gly. Overexpression of SRC effectively alleviated the inhibitory effect of Gly on LPS-induced damages in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, results of luciferase reporter assays verified SRC as a direct target gene of miR-146b-5p. The expression level of miR-146b-5p was downregulated by LPS stimulation in BEAS-2B cells. Gly decreased the expression of SRC in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. These results could all be reversed by miR-146b-5p knockdown. Conclusion: Gly decreases the expression of SRC by upregulating the level of miR-146b-5p, thus alleviating the inflammation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells treated with LPS. Our results provide a new theoretical basis for applying Gly to the clinical management of asthma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Zhifeng Liu ◽  
Yi Jiao ◽  
Tianyuan Yu ◽  
Hourong Wang ◽  
Yingqi Zhang ◽  

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a high prevalence and canceration rate. The immune disorder is one of the recognized mechanisms. Acupuncture is widely used to treat patients with IBD. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have proven the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of IBD, and some progress has been made in the mechanism. In this paper, we reviewed the studies related to acupuncture for IBD and focused on the immunomodulatory mechanism. We found that acupuncture could regulate the innate and adaptive immunity of IBD patients in many ways. Acupuncture exerts innate immunomodulatory effects by regulating intestinal epithelial barrier, toll-like receptors, NLRP3 inflammasomes, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and exerts adaptive immunomodulation by regulating the balance of Th17/Treg and Th1/Th2 cells. In addition, acupuncture can also regulate intestinal flora.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Giovanni Damiani ◽  
Giulia Odorici ◽  
Alessia Pacifico ◽  
Aldo Morrone ◽  
Rosalynn R. Z. Conic ◽  

Since psoriasis (PsO) is a chronic inflammatory disease, patients may experience a drug failure also with very effective drugs (i.e., secukinumab) and, consequently, dermatologists have two therapeutic options: switching or perform a combination therapy (rescue therapy) to save the drug that had decreased its efficacy. At the moment no studies focused on combination/rescue therapy of secukinumab, so we performed a 52-weeks multicenter retrospective observational study that involved 40 subjects with plaque psoriasis that experienced a secondary failure and were treated with combination therapy (ciclosporin (n = 11), MTX (n = 15), NB-UVB (n = 7) and apremilast (n = 7)). After 16 weeks of rescue/combination therapy, PASI and a DLQI varied respectively from 8 [7.0–9.0] and 13 [12.0–15.0], to 3 [2.8–4.0] and 3 [2.0–3.3]), suggesting a significant improvement of daily functionality and quality of life. Results were maintained at 52 weeks. No side effects were experienced during the study. Secukinumab remains a safety and effective drug for PsO patients also in the IL-23 and JAK inhibitors era. The rescue therapy is a valid therapeutic option in case of secukinumab secondary failure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 400
Aleksandra Kałużna ◽  
Paweł Olczyk ◽  
Katarzyna Komosińska-Vassev

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease with an underlying excessive immune response directed against resident microbiota and/or dietary antigens. Both innate and adaptive immune cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of UC. In the case of innate immune response cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages have a crucial impact on the development of the disease, as well as innate lymphoid cells, which have received a particular attention in recent years. On the other hand, mechanisms of the adaptive immune response involve cells such as: cytotoxic lymphocytes, regulatory lymphocytes Treg, or helper lymphocytes Th–Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, among which significant discoveries about Th9 and Th17 lymphocytes have been made in recent years. Due to the presence of antibodies directed against resident microbiota or one’s own tissues, the influence of B lymphocytes on the development of UC is also highlighted. Additionally, the impact of cytokines on shaping the immune response as well as sustaining inflammation seems to be crucial. This review briefly describes the current state of knowledge about the involvement of the innate and adaptive immune systems in the pathogenesis of UC. The review is based on personal selection of literature that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed using the terms “ulcerative colitis” and “pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis”. It included systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical trials. Our knowledge of the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of IBD has advanced rapidly over the last two decades, leading to the development of several immune-targeted treatments with a biological source, known as biologic agents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
M. Abdul Alim ◽  
Duncan Njenda ◽  
Anna Lundmark ◽  
Marta Kaminska ◽  
Leif Jansson ◽  

Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a bacteria-driven inflammatory disease characterized by the breakdown of gingival tissue, the periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, leading ultimately to tooth loss. We previously reported the pleckstrin gene (PLEK) to be highly upregulated in gingival tissue of patients with CP and the only gene concurrently upregulated in other inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. Using saliva from 169 individuals diagnosed with CP and healthy controls, we investigated whether pleckstrin could serve as a novel biomarker of periodontitis. Additionally, we explored signal pathways involved in the regulation of PLEK using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Pleckstrin levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the saliva samples of patients with CP compared to controls and closely associated with CP severity. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of pleckstrin in inflammatory cells and gingival fibroblasts of CP patients. To explore the signal pathways involved in pleckstrin regulation, we stimulated HGFs with either interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) alone, or in combination with inhibitors targeting c-Jun N-terminal kinase, tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, or p38 MAP kinase. Results showed that IL-1β and LPS significantly increased PLEK mRNA and pleckstrin protein levels. VX-745, the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor significantly decreased IL-1β- and LPS-induced pleckstrin levels at both the mRNA and the protein level. Together, these findings show that pleckstrin could serve as a salivary biomarker for the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis and a regulator of inflammation via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

Tucheng Huang ◽  
Kangjie Wang ◽  
Yuewei Li ◽  
Yanchen Ye ◽  
Yangxin Chen ◽  

Atheroclerosis refers to a chronic inflammatory disease featured by the accumulation of fibrofatty lesions in the intima of arteries. Cardiovasular events associated with atherosclerosis remain the major causes of mortality worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that ferroptosis, a novel programmed cell death, might participate in the process of atherosclerosis. However, the ferroptosis landscape is still not clear. In this study, 59 genes associated with ferroptosis were ultimately identified in atherosclerosis in the intima. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed for functional annotation. Through the construction of protein–protein interaction (PPI) network, five hub genes (TP53, MAPK1, STAT3, HMOX1, and PTGS2) were then validated histologically. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network of hub genes was ultimately constructed to explore the regulatory mechanism between lncRNAs, miRNAs, and hub genes. The findings provide more insights into the ferroptosis landscape and, potentially, the therapeutic targets of atherosclerosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Antoine Roy ◽  
Amel Ben Lagha ◽  
Reginaldo Gonçalves ◽  
Daniel Grenier

Background: Periodontitis is a multifactorial, bacteria-mediated chronic inflammatory disease that results in the progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. It is well-known that saliva from subjects suffering from this disease generally contains higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and bacteria-derived toxic products. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of saliva from periodontally healthy and diseased subjects on the barrier function and inflammatory response in in vitro models of the oral epithelium.Methods: Unstimulated saliva samples from two groups of subjects, one with a healthy periodontium (n = 12) and one with severe generalized periodontitis (n = 11), were filter-sterilized. All the saliva samples were analyzed using an immunological multiplex assay to determine the levels of various cytokines and MMPs relevant to periodontitis. The impact of saliva on epithelial barrier integrity was assessed by monitoring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in an oral epithelium model using the B11 keratinocyte cell line. GMSM-K oral epithelial cells were treated with saliva from both groups to determine their ability to induce the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: Saliva from the periodontitis subjects contained significantly higher concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), IL-8, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) compared to saliva from the healthy subjects. Saliva from the healthy and periodontitis subjects affected cytokine secretion and TER in a similar manner. More specifically, saliva from both groups increased TER and induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in the in vitro oral epithelium models used.Conclusion: Independently of the presence or absence of periodontitis, saliva can increase the relative TER and the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in in vitro models of the oral epithelium.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-19
Tomasz Pytrus ◽  
Katarzyna Akutko ◽  
Anna Kofla-Dłubacz ◽  
Andrzej Stawarski

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a diagnostic endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, during which ultrasound of nearby organs is also performed. It is also possible to perform a fine needle aspiration biopsy. Currently, EUS is performed more frequently in adults. Despite some limitations, this diagnostic method is also more and more often performed in pediatric patients. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus, which also occurs in children, and leads to irreversible fibrosis of the esophagus wall, if left untreated. Traditional methods of diagnosing and monitoring EoE treatment have significant limitations, and the use of EUS and total esophageal wall thickness (TWT) assessment may bring measurable benefits. Several studies have shown an increased thickening of TWT in EoE in children compared to pediatric patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and a decrease in TWT in adults who responded to EoE treatment. These results suggest that EUS and TWT measurement may become an important test in diagnostics, monitoring the effectiveness of therapy, assessing disease progression, and in individualizing the method and duration of EoE treatment also in children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 92-98
Zhongxiang Fan ◽  
Dan Tang ◽  
Qiang Wu ◽  
Qun Huang ◽  
Jie Song ◽  

Background: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airway, and airway remodeling and the proliferation mechanism of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is of great significance to combat this disease.Objective: To assess possible effects of scopoletin on asthma and the potential signaling pathway.Materials and methods: ASMCs were treated PDGF-BB and scopoletin and subjected to cell viability detection by CCK-8 assay. Cell migration of ASMCs was determined by a wound closure assay and transwell assay. The protein level of MMP2, MMP9, calponin and α-SMA were measured using western blot. The levels of NF-κB signaling pathway were detected by Western blotting.Results: Scopoletin inhibited proliferation of PDGF-BB - induced ASMCs. Also it suppressed the migration and invasion of PDGF-BB - induced ASMCs. We further showed that Scopoletin regulated phenotypic transition of ASMCs. Mechanically, Scopoletin inhibited proliferation and invasion of ASMCs by regulating NF-κB signaling pathway.Conclusions: We therefore thought Scopoletin could serve as a promising drug for the treatment of asthma.

Folia Medica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (6) ◽  
pp. 990-993
Kalliopi Kokkali ◽  
Christos Iavazzo ◽  
Efthimia Souka ◽  
Sofia Lekka ◽  
Alexandros Fotiou ◽  

Crohn’s disease is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various organs besides the gastrointestinal tract such as joints, uvea, and the skin. Vulvar Crohn’s disease is a rare entity occurring with vulvar lesions that show typical Crohn’s disease granulomatous inflammation but are not contiguous with the gastrointestinal involvement. Vulvar Crohn’s disease can be easily confused with other granulomatous diseases and awareness that such involvement may precede gastrointestinal symptoms must be raised. Few cases of vulvar Crohn’s disease have been reported in the literature to date. Here, we report a case of a 43-year-old woman with a 6-month history of a vulvar lesion; the patient was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease of the large bowel just over a year ago.

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