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2022 ◽  
Vol 148 ◽  
pp. 107764
Kun Zhao ◽  
Wei Yan ◽  
Menglin Liu ◽  
Lisha Wang ◽  
Huanxin Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Dongwan Kim ◽  
Mark Harfouche ◽  
Huolei Wang ◽  
Christos T. Santis ◽  
Yaakov Vilenchik ◽  

AbstractWe have recently introduced a new semiconductor laser design which is based on an extreme, 99%, reduction of the laser mode absorption losses. In previous reports, we showed that this was achieved by a laser mode design which confines the great majority of the modal energy (> 99%) in a low-loss Silicon guiding layer rather than in highly-doped, thus lossy, III–V p$${}^+$$ + and n$${}^+$$ + layers, which is the case with traditional III–V lasers. The resulting reduced electron-field interaction was shown to lead to a commensurate reduction of the spontaneous emission rate by the excited conduction band electrons into the laser mode and thus to a reduction of the frequency noise spectral density of the laser field often characterized by the Schawlow–Townes linewidth. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically and present experimental evidence of yet another major beneficial consequence of the new laser design: a near total elimination of the contribution of amplitude-phase coupling (the Henry $$\alpha $$ α parameter) to the frequency noise at “high” frequencies. This is due to an order of magnitude lowering of the relaxation resonance frequency of the laser. Here, we show that the practical elimination of this coupling enables yet another order of magnitude reduction of the frequency noise at high frequencies, resulting in a quantum-limited frequency noise spectral density of 130 Hz$$^2$$ 2 /Hz (linewidth of 0.4 kHz) for frequencies beyond the relaxation resonance frequency 680 MHz. This development is of key importance in the development of semiconductor lasers with higher coherence, particularly in the context of integrated photonics with a small laser footprint without requiring any sort of external cavity.

2021 ◽  
Bo-Han Chen ◽  
Tsu-Feng Lin ◽  
Marcelo Chen ◽  
Allen W. Chiu

Abstract Background Laser ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) is an efficacious treatment for ureteral stones. There have been few previous studies compared the different energy and frequency settings for URSL in a single center. The fragmentation and dusting laser mode were simultaneously used in our medical center. We compared the efficacy and outcomes of these two laser modalities for the treatment of ureteral stones.Methods Patients who underwent fragmentation or dusting laser URSL for ureteral stones were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic data, stone parameters, perioperative data and stone-free rates were analyzed between the two groups.Results There were a total of 421 patients with ureteral stones who met the study criteria. More patients in the dusting group had multiple ureteral stones and pyuria than in the fragmentation group. The fragmentation group had a better stone free rate and a lower push back rate compared with the dusting group. (82% vs. 71%; 10% vs. 20% respectively, both p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that stone basket use (odds ratio [OR] = 3.026; p<0.001) significantly improved the stone free rate, whereas multiple stones (OR=0.322; p <0.001), upper ureteral stone location (OR=0.098; p=0.002) and pyuria (OR=0.428; p=0.001) significantly decreased the stone free rate. The laser mode used was not significantly related to the stone free rate in the multivariate analysis.Conclusions Both laser modes were effective and safe for ureteral lithotripsy. Risk factors associated with a lower stone free rate were multiple stones, pyuria, upper ureteral stone location and an operation without the use of a stone basket.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3351
Arturs Bundulis ◽  
Ivan A. Shuklov ◽  
Vyacheslav V. Kim ◽  
Alaa A. Mardini ◽  
Jurgis Grube ◽  

We report measurements of the saturated intensities, saturable absorption, and nonlinear refraction in 70-nm thick films containing 4 nm HgTe quantum dots. We demonstrate strong nonlinear refraction and saturable absorption in the thin films using tunable picosecond and femtosecond pulses. Studies were carried out using tunable laser pulses in the range of 400–1100 nm. A significant variation of the nonlinear refraction along this spectral range was demonstrated. The maximal values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients and nonlinear refractive indices determined within the studied wavelength range were −2.4 × 10−5 cm2 W−1 (in the case of 28 ps, 700 nm probe pulses) and −3 × 10−9 cm2 W−1 (in the case of 28 ps, 400 nm probe pulses), respectively. Our studies show that HgTe quantum dots can be used in different fields e.g., as efficient emitters of high-order harmonics of ultrashort laser pulses or as laser mode-lockers.

2021 ◽  
Ying Han ◽  
Bo Gao ◽  
Jiayu Huo ◽  
Chunyang Ma ◽  
Ge Wu ◽  

Abstract We have numerically and experimentally observed the soliton pulsation with obvious breathing behavior in the anomalous fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation technique. The numerical study of the soliton pulsation with breathing behavior was analyzed through the split-step Fourier method at first, and it was found that the phase difference caused by the polarization controller would affect the breathing characteristics. Then, taking advantage of the dispersive Fourier transform technique, we confirmed the breathing characteristic of soliton pulsation in the same fiber laser as the simulation model experimentally. These results complement the research on the breathing characteristic of soliton pulsation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2144 (1) ◽  
pp. 012001
P S Rodin ◽  
V D Dubrov

Abstract The control of the track shape in laser metal deposition technology by the QCW laser mode has been studied. The different geometric characteristics of the tracks are shown to obtain at the same average laser power, depending on the selected laser power control mode. The difference in the temperature regimes of track formation is shown.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2015 (1) ◽  
pp. 012122
S. Ramezanpour ◽  
Y. Ra’di ◽  
A. Alù ◽  
A. Bogdanov

Abstract Exceptional point (EP) is a non-Hermitian spectral degeneracy that has application in ultrasensitive sensors and laser mode selectivity. By employing strong chirality in an optical system, the direction of light propagation can be controlled and subwavelength particles can be detected. Here, we show that EP with high chirality can appear in the coupled resonators perturbed by a scatterer, in which both the distance and position of the scatterer can be tuned. We achieve strong chiral EP in two different distances between the resonators, with chirality around 0.99 in both cases.

Nanophotonics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Hao Wang ◽  
Xilin Yang ◽  
Zeqi Liu ◽  
Jing Pan ◽  
Yuan Meng ◽  

Abstract Structured light with customized topological patterns inspires diverse classical and quantum investigations underpinned by accurate detection techniques. However, the current detection schemes are limited to vortex beams with a simple phase singularity. The precise recognition of general structured light with multiple singularities remains elusive. Here, we report deep learning (DL) framework that can unveil multi-singularity phase structures in an end-to-end manner, after feeding only two intensity patterns upon beam propagation. By outputting the phase directly, rich and intuitive information of twisted photons is unleashed. The DL toolbox can also acquire phases of Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) modes with a single singularity and other general phase objects likewise. Enabled by this DL platform, a phase-based optical secret sharing (OSS) protocol is proposed, which is based on a more general class of multi-singularity modes than conventional LG beams. The OSS protocol features strong security, wealthy state space, and convenient intensity-based measurements. This study opens new avenues for large-capacity communications, laser mode analysis, microscopy, Bose–Einstein condensates characterization, etc.

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 ◽  
pp. 102650
Boris Nyushkov ◽  
Aleksey Ivanenko ◽  
Sergey Smirnov ◽  
Sergey Kobtsev

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