protein interaction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 523-532
Xin Yan ◽  
Chunfeng Liang ◽  
Xinghuan Liang ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Zhenxing Huang ◽  

<sec> <title>Objective:</title> This study aimed to identify the potential key genes associated with the progression and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). </sec> <sec> <title>Methods:</title> Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ACC cells and normal adrenocortical cells were assessed by microarray from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The biological functions of the classified DEGs were examined by Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses and a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was mapped using Cytoscape software. MCODE software was also used for the module analysis and then 4 algorithms of cytohubba software were used to screen hub genes. The overall survival (OS) examination of the hub genes was then performed by the ualcan online tool. </sec> <sec> <title>Results:</title> Two GSEs (GSE12368, GSE33371) were downloaded from GEO including 18 and 43 cases, respectively. One hundred and sixty-nine DEGs were identified, including 57 upregulated genes and 112 downregulated genes. The Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the upregulated genes were significantly enriched in the mitotic cytokines is, nucleus and ATP binding, while the downregulated genes were involved in the positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction, extracellular space, and heparin-binding (P < 0.05). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) pathway examination showed significant pathways including the cell cycle and the complement and coagulation cascades. The protein– protein interaction (PPI) network consisted of 162 nodes and 847 edges, including mitotic nuclear division, cytoplasmic, protein kinase binding, and cell cycle. All 4 identified hub genes (FOXM1, UBE2C, KIF11, and NDC80) were associated with the prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) by survival analysis. </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusions:</title> The present study offered insights into the molecular mechanism of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that may be beneficial in further analyses. </sec>

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 290
Zachary Graber ◽  
Desmond Owusu Kwarteng ◽  
Shannon M. Lange ◽  
Yannis Koukanas ◽  
Hady Khalifa ◽  

Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) is an anionic phospholipid formed in plants, yeast, and parasites under multiple stress stimuli. It is synthesized by the phosphorylation action of phosphatidic acid (PA) kinase on phosphatidic acid, a signaling lipid with multifunctional properties. PA functions in the membrane through the interaction of its negatively charged phosphomonoester headgroup with positively charged proteins and ions. DGPP, like PA, can interact electrostatically via the electrostatic-hydrogen bond switch mechanism but differs from PA in its overall charge and shape. The formation of DGPP from PA alters the physicochemical properties as well as the structural dynamics of the membrane. This potentially impacts the molecular and ionic binding of cationic proteins and ions with the DGPP enriched membrane. However, the results of these important interactions in the stress response and in DGPP’s overall intracellular function is unknown. Here, using 31P MAS NMR, we analyze the effect of the interaction of low DGPP concentrations in model membranes with the peptides KALP23 and WALP23, which are flanked by positively charged Lysine and neutral Tryptophan residues, respectively. Our results show a significant effect of KALP23 on the charge of DGPP as compared to WALP23. There was, however, no significant effect on the charge of the phosphomonoester of DGPP due to the interaction with positively charged lipids, dioleoyl trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and dioleoyl ethyl-phosphatidylcholine (EtPC). Divalent calcium and magnesium cations induce deprotonation of the DGPP headgroup but showed no noticeable differences on DGPP’s charge. Our results lead to a novel model for DGPP—protein interaction.

2022 ◽  
Aayush Grover ◽  
Laurent Gatto

Protein subcellular localization prediction plays a crucial role in improving our understandings of different diseases and consequently assists in building drug targeting and drug development pipelines. Proteins are known to co-exist at multiple subcellular locations which make the task of prediction extremely challenging. A protein interaction network is a graph that captures interactions between different proteins. It is safe to assume that if two proteins are interacting, they must share some subcellular locations. With this regard, we propose ProtFinder - the first deep learning-based model that exclusively relies on protein interaction networks to predict the multiple subcellular locations of proteins. We also integrate biological priors like the cellular component of Gene Ontology to make ProtFinder a more biology-aware intelligent system. ProtFinder is trained and tested using the STRING and BioPlex databases whereas the annotations of proteins are obtained from the Human Protein Atlas. Our model gives an AUC-ROC score of 90.00% and an MCC score of 83.42% on a held-out set of proteins. We also apply ProtFinder to annotate proteins that currently do not have confident location annotations. We observe that ProtFinder is able to confirm some of these unreliable location annotations, while in some cases complementing the existing databases with novel location annotations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 02 ◽  
Sergey Shityakov ◽  
Jane Pei-Chen Chang ◽  
Ching-Fang Sun ◽  
David Ta-Wei Guu ◽  
Thomas Dandekar ◽  

Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, have beneficial effects on human health, but their effect on gene expression in elderly individuals (age ≥ 65) is largely unknown. In order to examine this, the gene expression profiles were analyzed in the healthy subjects (n = 96) at baseline and after 26 weeks of supplementation with EPA+DHA to determine up-regulated and down-regulated dif-ferentially expressed genes (DEGs) triggered by PUFAs. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by mapping these DEGs to a human interactome and linking them to the specific pathways. Objective: This study aimed to implement supervised machine learning models and protein-protein interaction network analysis of gene expression profiles induced by PUFAs. Methods: The transcriptional profile of GSE12375 was obtained from the Gene Expression Om-nibus database, which is based on the Affymetrix NuGO array. The probe cell intensity data were converted into the gene expression values, and the background correction was performed by the multi-array average algorithm. The LIMMA (Linear Models for Microarray Data) algo-rithm was implemented to identify relevant DEGs at baseline and after 26 weeks of supplemen-tation with a p-value < 0.05. The DAVID web server was used to identify and construct the en-riched KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. Finally, the construction of machine learning (ML) models, including logistic regression, naïve Bayes, and deep neural networks, were implemented for the analyzed DEGs associated with the specific pathways. Results: The results revealed that up-regulated DEGs were associated with neurotrophin/MAPK signaling, whereas the down-regulated DEGs were linked to cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and long-term depression pathways. Additionally, ML approaches were able to cluster the EPA/DHA-treated and control groups by the logistic regression performing the best. Conclusion: Overall, this study highlights the pivotal changes in DEGs induced by PUFAs and provides the rationale for the implementation of ML algorithms as predictive models for this type of biomedical data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 309-328
Masoumeh Naserkheil ◽  
Farzad Ghafouri ◽  
Sonia Zakizadeh ◽  
Nasrollah Pirany ◽  
Zeinab Manzari ◽  

Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle that has a potential impact on profitability and animal welfare. Specifically designed multi-omics studies can be used to prioritize candidate genes and identify biomarkers and the molecular mechanisms underlying mastitis in dairy cattle. Hence, the present study aimed to explore the genetic basis of bovine mastitis by integrating microarray and RNA-Seq data containing healthy and mastitic samples in comparative transcriptome analysis with the results of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using a literature mining approach. The integration of different information sources resulted in the identification of 33 common and relevant genes associated with bovine mastitis. Among these, seven genes—CXCR1, HCK, IL1RN, MMP9, S100A9, GRO1, and SOCS3—were identified as the hub genes (highly connected genes) for mastitis susceptibility and resistance, and were subjected to protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and gene regulatory network construction. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis revealed 23, 7, and 4 GO terms related to mastitis in the biological process, molecular function, and cellular component categories, respectively. Moreover, the main metabolic-signalling pathways responsible for the regulation of immune or inflammatory responses were significantly enriched in cytokine–cytokine-receptor interaction, the IL-17 signaling pathway, viral protein interaction with cytokines and cytokine receptors, and the chemokine signaling pathway. Consequently, the identification of these genes, pathways, and their respective functions could contribute to a better understanding of the genetics and mechanisms regulating mastitis and can be considered a starting point for future studies on bovine mastitis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 634-645
Nimita Kant ◽  
Perumal Jayaraj ◽  

Eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) is a rare but life-threatening condi-tion. However, there is limited computational research associated with un-derlying protein interactions specific to eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma. The aim of our study is to identify and analyse the genes associated with eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma using text mining and to develop a protein-protein interaction network to predict significant biological pathways using bioinformatics tool. Genes associated with eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma were retrieved from the PubMed database using text mining with key terms ‘eyelid’, ‘sebaceous gland carcinoma’ and excluding the genes for ‘Muir-Torre Syndrome’. The interaction partners were identified using STRING. Cytoscape was used for visualization and analysis of the PPI network. Molec-ular complexes in the network were predicted using MCODE plug-in and ana-lyzed for gene ontology terms using DAVID. PubMed retrieval process identi-fied 79 genes related to eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma. The PPI network associated with eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma produced 79 nodes, 1768 edges. Network analysis using Cytoscape identified nine key genes and two molecular complexes to be enriched in the protein-protein interaction net-work. GO enrichment analysis identified biological processes cell fate com-mitment, Wnt signalling pathway, retinoic acid signalling and response to cytokines to be enriched in our network. Genes identified in the study might play a pivotal role in understanding the underlying molecular pathways in-volved in the development and progression of eyelid sebaceous gland carci-noma. Furthermore, it may aid in the identification of candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the treatment of eyelid sebaceous gland carcino-ma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alper Uzun ◽  
Jessica S. Schuster ◽  
Joan Stabila ◽  
Valeria Zarate ◽  
George A. Tollefson ◽  

AbstractThe likely genetic architecture of complex diseases is that subgroups of patients share variants in genes in specific networks sufficient to express a shared phenotype. We combined high throughput sequencing with advanced bioinformatic approaches to identify such subgroups of patients with variants in shared networks. We performed targeted sequencing of patients with 2 or 3 generations of preterm birth on genes, gene sets and haplotype blocks that were highly associated with preterm birth. We analyzed the data using a multi-sample, protein–protein interaction (PPI) tool to identify significant clusters of patients associated with preterm birth. We identified shared protein interaction networks among preterm cases in two statistically significant clusters, p < 0.001. We also found two small control-dominated clusters. We replicated these data on an independent, large birth cohort. Separation testing showed significant similarity scores between the clusters from the two independent cohorts of patients. Canonical pathway analysis of the unique genes defining these clusters demonstrated enrichment in inflammatory signaling pathways, the glucocorticoid receptor, the insulin receptor, EGF and B-cell signaling, These results support a genetic architecture defined by subgroups of patients that share variants in genes in specific networks and pathways which are sufficient to give rise to the disease phenotype.

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