size evolution
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Carlos Leonardo Di Prinzio ◽  
Pastor Ignacio Achaval

In this work, the migration of a three-dimensional (3D) spherical crystal in the presence of mobile particles using a Monte Carlo algorithm was studied. Different concentrations of particles (<i>f</i>) and different particle mobility (<i>M<sub>p</sub></i>) were used. It was found that the grain size reaches a critical radius (<i>R<sub>c</sub></i>) which depends exclusively on <i>f</i>. This dependence can be written as: <i>R<sub>c</sub></i>∝<i>f</i><sup>1/3</sup>. The dynamic equation of grain size evolution and its analytical solution were also found. The analytical solution proposed fits successfully the simulation results. The particle fraction in the grain boundary was also found analytically and it fits the computational data.

2022 ◽  
Fa-Guo Wang ◽  
Ai-Hua Wang ◽  
Cheng-Ke Bai ◽  
Dong-Mei Jin ◽  
Li-Yun Nie ◽  

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Somayeh Arghavani ◽  
Clémence Rose ◽  
Sandra Banson ◽  
Aurelia Lupascu ◽  
Mathieu Gouhier ◽  

We investigated the role of the passive volcanic plume of Mount Etna (Italy) in the formation of new particles in the size range of 2.5–10 nm through the gas-to-particle nucleation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) precursors, formed from the oxidation of SO2, and their evolution to particles with diameters larger than 100 nm. Two simulations were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) under the same configuration, except for the nucleation parameterization implemented in the model: the activation nucleation parameterization (JS1 = 2.0 × 10−6 × (H2SO4)) in the first simulation (S1) and a new parameterization for nucleation (NPN) (JS2 = 1.844 × 10−8 × (H2SO4)1.12) in the second simulation (S2). The comparison of the numerical results with the observations shows that, on average, NPN improves the performance of the model in the prediction of the H2SO4 concentrations, newly-formed particles (~2.5–10 nm), and their growth into larger particles (10–100 nm) by decreasing the rates of H2SO4 consumption and nucleation relative to S1. In addition, particles formed in the plume do not grow into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes (100–215 nm) within a few hours of the vent (tens of km). However, tracking the size evolution of simulated particles along the passive plume indicates the downwind formation of particles larger than 100 nm more than 100 km far from the vent with relatively high concentrations relative to the background (more than 1500 cm−3) in S2. These particles, originating in the volcanic source, could affect the chemical and microphysical properties of clouds and exert regional climatic effects over time.

2021 ◽  
Vol 923 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Yuji Matsumoto ◽  
Eiichiro Kokubo ◽  
Pin-Gao Gu ◽  
Kenji Kurosaki

Abstract The Kepler transit survey with follow-up spectroscopic observations has discovered numerous super-Earth sized planets and revealed intriguing features of their sizes, orbital periods, and their relations between adjacent planets. For the first time, we investigate the size evolution of planets via both giant impacts and photoevaporation to compare with these observed features. We calculate the size of a protoplanet, which is the sum of its core and envelope sizes, by analytical models. N-body simulations are performed to evolve planet sizes during the giant impact phase with envelope stripping via impact shocks. We consider the initial radial profile of the core mass and the initial envelope mass fractions as parameters. Inner planets can lose their whole envelopes via giant impacts, while outer planets can keep their initial envelopes, because they do not experience giant impacts. Photoevaporation is simulated to evolve planet sizes afterward. Our results suggest that the period-radius distribution of the observed planets would be reproduced if we perform simulations in which the initial radial profile of the core mass follows a wide range of power-law distributions and the initial envelope mass fractions are ∼0.1. Moreover, our model shows that the adjacent planetary pairs have similar sizes and regular spacings, with slight differences from detailed observational results such as the radius gap.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Alfio Alessandro Chiarenza ◽  
Matteo Fabbri ◽  
Lorenzo Consorti ◽  
Marco Muscioni ◽  
David C. Evans ◽  

AbstractDuring the latest Cretaceous, the European Archipelago was characterized by highly fragmented landmasses hosting putative dwarfed, insular dinosaurs, claimed as fossil evidence of the “island rule”. The Villaggio del Pescatore quarry (north-eastern Italy) stands as the most informative locality within the palaeo-Mediterranean region and represents the first, multi-individual Konservat-Lagerstätte type dinosaur-bearing locality in Italy. The site is here critically re-evaluated as early Campanian in age, thus preceding the final fragmentation stages of the European Archipelago, including all other European localities preserving hypothesized dwarfed taxa. New skeletal remains allowed osteohistological analyses on the hadrosauroid Tethyshadros insularis indicating subadult features in the type specimen whereas a second, herein newly described, larger individual is likely somatically mature. A phylogenetic comparative framework places the body-size of T. insularis in range with other non-hadrosaurid Eurasian hadrosauroids, rejecting any significant evolutionary trend towards miniaturisation in this clade, confuting its ‘pygmy’ status, and providing unmatched data to infer environmentally-driven body-size trends in Mesozoic dinosaurs.

2021 ◽  
Rebecca Hooper ◽  
Becky Brett ◽  
Alex Thornton

There are multiple hypotheses for the evolution of cognition. The most prominent hypotheses are the Social Intelligence Hypothesis (SIH) and the Ecological Intelligence Hypothesis (EIH), which are often pitted against one another. These hypotheses tend to be tested using broad-scale comparative studies of brain size, where brain size is used as a proxy of cognitive ability, and various social and/or ecological variables are included as predictors. Here, we test how methodologically robust such analyses are. First, we investigate variation in brain and body size measurements across >1000 species of bird. We demonstrate that there is substantial variation in brain and body size estimates across datasets, indicating that conclusions drawn from comparative brain size models are likely to differ depending on the source of the data. Following this, we subset our data to the Corvides infraorder and interrogate how modelling decisions impact results. We show that model results change substantially depending on variable inclusion, source and classification. Indeed, we could have drawn multiple contradictory conclusions about the principal drivers of brain size evolution. These results reflect recent concerns that current methods in comparative brain size studies are not robust. We add our voices to a growing community of researchers suggesting that we move on from using such methods to investigate cognitive evolution. We suggest that a more fruitful way forward is to instead use direct measures of cognitive performance to interrogate why variation in cognition arises within species and between closely related taxa.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1921
Karen Alvarado ◽  
Ilusca Janeiro ◽  
Sebastian Florez ◽  
Baptiste Flipon ◽  
Jean-Michel Franchet ◽  

Second phase particles (SPP) play an essential role in controlling grain size and properties of polycrystalline nickel base superalloys. The understanding of the behavior of these precipitates is of prime importance in predicting microstructure evolutions. The dissolution kinetics of the primary γ′ precipitates during subsolvus solution treatments were investigated for three nickel base superalloys (René 65, AD730 and N19). A temperature-time codependency equation was established to describe the evolution of primary γ′ precipitates of each material using experimental data, the Thermo-Calc software and the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. The dissolution kinetics of precipitates was also simulated using the level-set (LS) method and the former phenomenological model. The precipitates are represented using an additional LS function and a numerical treatment around grain boundaries in the vicinity of the precipitates is applied to reproduce their pinning pressure correctly. Thus, considering the actual precipitate dissolution, these simulations aim to predict grain size evolution in the transient and stable states. Furthermore, it is illustrated how a population of Prior Particle Boundaries (PPB) particles can be considered in the numerical framework in order to reproduce the grain size evolution in the powder metallurgy N19 superalloy. The proposed full-field strategy is validated and the obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data regarding the precipitates and grain size.

2021 ◽  
Vol 288 (1963) ◽  
Nobuaki Mizumoto ◽  
Thomas Bourguignon

Termites are social cockroaches. Because non-termite cockroaches are larger than basal termite lineages, which themselves include large termite species, it has been proposed that termites experienced a unidirectional body size reduction since they evolved eusociality. However, the validity of this hypothesis remains untested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we reconstructed termite body size evolution using head width measurements of 1638 modern and fossil termite species. We found that the unidirectional body size reduction model was only supported by analyses excluding fossil species. Analyses including fossil species suggested that body size diversified along with speciation events and estimated that the size of the common ancestor of modern termites was comparable to that of modern species. Our analyses further revealed that body size variability among species, but not body size reduction, is associated with features attributed to advanced termite societies. Our results suggest that miniaturization took place at the origin of termites, while subsequent complexification of termite societies did not lead to further body size reduction.

2021 ◽  
Di Sun ◽  
Simin Chai ◽  
Xin Huang ◽  
Yingying Wang ◽  
Linlin Xiao ◽  

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