AbstractDispersal and colonisation determine the survival and success of organisms, and influence the structure and dynamics of communities and ecosystems in space and time. Both affect the gene flow between populations, ensuring sufficient level of genetic variation and improving adaptation abilities. In haplodiploids, such as Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM), a population may be founded even by a single unfertilised female, so there is a risk of heterozygosity loss (i.e. founder effect). It may lead to adverse outcomes, such as inbreeding depression. Yet, the strength of the founder effect partly depends on the genetic variation of the parental population. WCM is an economically important pest with a great invasive potential, but its dispersal and colonisation mechanisms were poorly studied before. Therefore, here we assessed WCM dispersal and colonisation potential in relation to the genetic variation of the parental population. We checked whether this potential may be linked to specific pre-dispersal actions (e.g. mating before dispersal and collective behaviour). Our study confirms that dispersal strategies of WCM are not dependent on heterozygosity in the parental population, and the efficient dispersal of this species depends on collective movement of fertilised females.
Melanoma is currently known as one of the most aggressive malignant tumors. The prognostic factors and particularities of this neoplasm are a persistent hot topic in the medical field. This review has multiple purposes. First, we aim to summarize the known data regarding the histological and immunohistochemical appearance of this versatile tumor and to look further into the analysis of several widely used prognostic markers, such as B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase BRAF. The second purpose is to analyze the data on the new prognostic markers, V-domain Immunoglobulin Suppressor of T cell Activation (VISTA) and Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). VISTA is a novel target that is considered to be highly important in determining the invasive potential and treatment response of a melanoma, and there are currently only a limited number of studies describing its role. PD-L1 is a marker with whose importance has been revealed in multiple types of malignancies, but its exact role regarding melanoma remains under investigation. In conclusion, the gathered data highlights the importance of correlations between these markers toward providing patients with a better outcome.
Aim. Anthropogenically transformed ecotopes act as a centre for existance of many adventive species. The distribution of North-American species Euphorbia davidii subsp. Poinsettia across various continents is often attributed to the export of grain. For some time scientists have been bringing up the issue about identification of plants E. davidii in new territories, because the species is morphologically similar to E. dentata agg.
The species E. davidii is characterised by a high invasive potential, it is a neophyte. In Ukraine the species is represented by separate localities almost throughout the country. It is related to sectors of ports, railway tracks, and abandoned lands.
Methods. In the year 2021, by means of route method, in sectors of railway tracks of the Dniester bay bar, between the railway stops Karolina-Buhas and Soniachna (total length is up to eight kilometers) seven localities of E. davidii were distinguished; the coordinates of the locations are listed in the publication. The examined ecotopes are characterised by a crushed stone substratum, with higher temperatures, and also by specific vibrational, insolational and hydrological modes.
Results. Both inconsiderable in number of plants localities (32 exemplars) and zones, where the number of plants reaches over 2000 are represented. The extent of habitats ranges from 2 to 20 meters. The height of particular, the most developed individuals constituted 20 cm. As a rule, in the inter-rail space there is a considerably smaller number of plants, however, they are better developed, well-branched and have more inflorescences with fruits.
Conclusions. A number of plants from the southern slopes of the railways is typically bigger, however, the plants on the southern slopes (in comparison with the northern ones) are worse developed, branch out less and, at the time of conducting the research were represented by a smaller number of generative individuals. In sandy sectors of the bay bar adjoining the railway tracks the plants E. davidii were almost not noticed. The individuals found in the above-mentioned sectors are characterised by stunted growth, a single stem, almost did not bloom, and did not produce seeds.
Introduced grasses can aggressively expand their range and invade native habitats, including protected areas. Miscanthus sinensis is an introduced ornamental grass with 100+ cultivars of various invasive potential. Previous studies have demonstrated that the invasive potential of M. sinensis cultivars may be linked to seed viability, and some of the physiological traits, such as growth rate. Little is known, however, about whether these traits are associated with response of M. sinensis to insect herbivory, and whether plant tolerance and resistance to herbivory vary among its cultivars; which, in turn, can contribute to the invasive potential of some of M. sinensis cultivars. To address this issue, in our study we explored the response of five cultivars of M. sinensis to herbivory by Melanoplus grasshoppers. We demonstrated that plant responses varied among the cultivars during a season; all the cultivars, but “Zebrinus”, demonstrated a significant increase in plant tolerance by the end of the growing season regardless of the amount of sustained leaf damage. Different patterns in plant responses from “solid green” and “striped/spotted” varieties were recorded, with the lowest plant resistance detected for “Autumn Anthem” in the cage experiment. Our results have important applications for monitoring low-risk invaders in protected areas, as well as for biotic resistance of native communities to invasive grasses.
Stomach cancer is the 4th most common cancer diagnosed worldwide. Despite intensive research on its etiopathology, its treatment strategies have not changed in the last 50 years. Mushrooms have recently attracted much attention as the source of bioactive compounds that can potentially complement cancer therapies. Here, we extracted a phenolic fraction from Lactarius deterrimus and analyzed its composition and bioactivity against the gastric cancer (AGS) cells. The complexity of L. deterrimus compounds was revealed by an HPLC assay, and was accompanied by cytostatic, cytotoxic and anti-invasive effects of the L. deterrimus extract (LDE). These are illustrated by inhibition of the AGS cells’ proliferation, metabolic activity and motility, and by induction of the cytoskeleton rearrangements. Apparently, these effects are exerted via activation of intracellular oxidative stress and decreased ATP production in AGS cells that could not be compensated by induction of autophagy. Less severe LDE effects were seen on physiology of normal gastric fibroblasts; however, inhibition of their motility indicates that LDE can interfere with gastric cancer development via an effect on stromal cells. Along with the observed synergy of LDE and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil effects on AGS cells, our data show the potential of LDE for supplementation of the gastric cancer therapy.