plant tolerance
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2022 ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Shizhuo Lin ◽  
Jianping Wang ◽  
Meiling Tang ◽  
Jianfeng Huang ◽  

Abstract As one of the most abundant ions in cells, potassium (K+) is closely related to plant growth and development and contributes to plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However molecular mechanisms towards K+ uptake and transport are unclear in tropic fruit trees. In this study, 18 KT/HAK/KUP family genes (MiHAKs) were isolated and characterized in mango. Results showed that MiHAKs were unevenly expressed in distinct tissues and were differentially responded to K+ depletion, PEG, and NaCl stresses in roots, in which K+ depletion and PEG treatment significantly enhanced while NaCl treatment mainly reduced responsive MiHAK genes. In particular, MiHAK14 was the most abundant KT/HAK/KUP family gene in mango, especially in roots. Functional complementation in TK2420 mutant revealed that MiHAK14 could uptake external K+. Moreover, overexpression of MiHAK14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to K+ depletion and NaCl stresses with strengthened K+ nutritional status and ROS scavenging ability. This study provides molecular basis for further functional studies of KT/HAK/KUP transporters in tropic fruit trees, and favorably demonstrates the essentiality of K+ homeostasis in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, including K+ deficiency and NaCl stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 702
Shuya Tan ◽  
Jie Cao ◽  
Xinli Xia ◽  
Zhonghai Li

Priming is an adaptive strategy that improves plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. Stimuli from chemicals, abiotic cues, and pathogens can trigger the establishment of priming state. Priming with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a potential plant growth regulator, can enhance plant tolerance to the subsequent abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, heat, cold, and UV-B. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of ALA priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Here, we summarize recent progress made in the stress tolerance conferred by ALA priming in plants and provide the underlying molecular and physiology mechanisms of this phenomenon. Priming with ALA results in changes at the physiological, transcriptional, metabolic, and epigenetic levels, and enhances photosynthesis and antioxidant capacity, as well as nitrogen assimilation, which in turn increases the resistance of abiotic stresses. However, the signaling pathway of ALA, including receptors as well as key components, is currently unknown, which hinders the deeper understanding of the defense priming caused by ALA. In the future, there is an urgent need to reveal the molecular mechanisms by which ALA regulates plant development and enhances plant defense with the help of forward genetics, multi-omics technologies, as well as genome editing technology.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 154
Naveed Mushtaq ◽  
Yong Wang ◽  
Junmiao Fan ◽  
Yi Li ◽  
Jing Ding

Environmental stresses negatively affect the growth and development of plants. Several previous studies have elucidated the response mechanisms of plants to drought and heat applied separately; however, these two abiotic stresses often coincide in environmental conditions. The global climate change pattern has projected that combined drought and heat stresses will tend to increase in the near future. In this study, we down-regulated the expression of a cytokinin receptor gene SlHK2 using RNAi and investigated the role of this gene in regulating plant responses to individual drought, heat, and combined stresses (drought + heat) in tomato. Compared to the wild-type (WT), SlHK2 RNAi plants exhibited fewer stress symptoms in response to individual and combined stress treatments. The enhanced abiotic stress tolerance of SlHK2 RNAi plants can be associated with increased membrane stability, osmoprotectant accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, photosynthesis machinery was also protected in SlHK2 RNAi plants. Collectively, our results show that down-regulation of the cytokinin receptor gene SlHK2, and consequently cytokinin signaling, can improve plant tolerance to drought, heat, and combined stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rehman Sarwar ◽  
Rui Geng ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Yue Shan ◽  
Ke-Ming Zhu ◽  

BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT (BZR) are transcriptional factors that bind to the DNA of targeted genes to regulate several plant growth and physiological processes in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, information on such genes in Brassica napus is minimal. Furthermore, the new reference Brassica napus genome offers an excellent opportunity to systematically characterize this gene family in B. napus. In our study, 21 BnaBZR genes were distributed across 19 chromosomes of B. napus and clustered into four subgroups based on Arabidopsis thaliana orthologs. Functional divergence analysis among these groups evident the shifting of evolutionary rate after the duplication events. In terms of structural analysis, the BnaBZR genes within each subgroup are highly conserved but are distinctive within groups. Organ-specific expression analyses of BnaBZR genes using RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed complex expression patterns in plant tissues during stress conditions. In which genes belonging to subgroups III and IV were identified to play central roles in plant tolerance to salt, drought, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum stress. The insights from this study enrich our understanding of the B. napus BZR gene family and lay a foundation for future research in improving rape seed environmental adaptability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mirza Hasanuzzaman ◽  
Kamrun Nahar ◽  
Pedro García-Caparrós ◽  
Khursheda Parvin ◽  
Faisal Zulfiqar ◽  

Selenium (Se) supplementation can restrict metal uptake by roots and translocation to shoots, which is one of the vital stress tolerance mechanisms. Selenium can also enhance cellular functions like membrane stability, mineral nutrition homeostasis, antioxidant response, photosynthesis, and thus improve plant growth and development under metal/metalloid stress. Metal/metalloid toxicity decreases crop productivity and uptake of metal/metalloid through food chain causes health hazards. Selenium has been recognized as an element essential for the functioning of the human physiology and is a beneficial element for plants. Low concentrations of Se can mitigate metal/metalloid toxicity in plants and improve tolerance in various ways. Selenium stimulates the biosynthesis of hormones for remodeling the root architecture that decreases metal uptake. Growth enhancing function of Se has been reported in a number of studies, which is the outcome of improvement of various physiological features. Photosynthesis has been improved by Se supplementation under metal/metalloid stress due to the prevention of pigment destruction, sustained enzymatic activity, improved stomatal function, and photosystem activity. By modulating the antioxidant defense system Se mitigates oxidative stress. Selenium improves the yield and quality of plants. However, excessive concentration of Se exerts toxic effects on plants. This review presents the role of Se for improving plant tolerance to metal/metalloid stress.

2021 ◽  
Borja Belda-Palazon ◽  
Monica Costa ◽  
Tom Beeckman ◽  
Filip Rolland ◽  
Elena Baena-Gonzalez

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) promotes plant tolerance to major stresses like drought, partly by modulating plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that cell proliferation in the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem is controlled by the interplay between three kinases, SNF1-RELATED KINASE 2 (SnRK2), the main driver of ABA signaling, the SnRK1 energy sensor, and the growth-promoting TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) kinase. Under favorable conditions, the SnRK1α1 catalytic subunit is enriched in the nuclei of root meristematic cells and this is accompanied by normal cell proliferation and meristem size. Depletion of SnRK2s in a snrk2.2 snrk2.3 double mutant causes constitutive cytoplasmic localization of SnRK1α1 and a reduction in meristem size, suggesting that, under non-stress conditions, SnRK2s enable growth by retaining SnRK1α1 in the nucleus. In response to elevated ABA levels, SnRK1α1 translocates to the cytoplasm and this is accompanied by inhibition of TOR, decreased cell proliferation and meristem size. Blocking nuclear export with leptomycin B abrogates ABA-driven SnRK1α1 relocalization to the cytoplasm and the inhibition of TOR. Fusion of SnRK1α1 to an SV40 nuclear localization signal leads to defective TOR repression in response to ABA, demonstrating that SnRK1α1 nuclear exit is a premise for this repression. Finally, the SnRK2-dependent changes in SnRK1α1 subcellular localization are specific to the proliferation zone of the meristem, underscoring the relevance of this mechanism for growth regulation.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Alina Avanesyan ◽  
William O. Lamp

Introduced grasses can aggressively expand their range and invade native habitats, including protected areas. Miscanthus sinensis is an introduced ornamental grass with 100+ cultivars of various invasive potential. Previous studies have demonstrated that the invasive potential of M. sinensis cultivars may be linked to seed viability, and some of the physiological traits, such as growth rate. Little is known, however, about whether these traits are associated with response of M. sinensis to insect herbivory, and whether plant tolerance and resistance to herbivory vary among its cultivars; which, in turn, can contribute to the invasive potential of some of M. sinensis cultivars. To address this issue, in our study we explored the response of five cultivars of M. sinensis to herbivory by Melanoplus grasshoppers. We demonstrated that plant responses varied among the cultivars during a season; all the cultivars, but “Zebrinus”, demonstrated a significant increase in plant tolerance by the end of the growing season regardless of the amount of sustained leaf damage. Different patterns in plant responses from “solid green” and “striped/spotted” varieties were recorded, with the lowest plant resistance detected for “Autumn Anthem” in the cage experiment. Our results have important applications for monitoring low-risk invaders in protected areas, as well as for biotic resistance of native communities to invasive grasses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Yihan Wang ◽  
Fengxin Dong ◽  
Ming Tang

Casuarina glauca grows in coastal areas suffering long-term damage due to high salt stress. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can colonize their roots to alleviate the effects of salt stress. However, the specific molecular mechanism still needs to be further explored. Our physiological and biochemical analysis showed that Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation played an important role in promoting plant growth, regulating ion balance, and changing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Transcriptome analysis of roots revealed that 1827 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were affected by both R. irregularis inoculation and NaCl stress. The enrichment of GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) showed that most of these DEGs were significantly enriched in ion transport, antioxidant enzyme activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell wall. HAK5, KAT3, SKOR, PIP1-2, PER64, CPER, GLP10, MYB46, NAC43, WRKY1, and WRKY19 were speculated to play the important roles in the salt tolerance of C. glauca induced by R. irregularis. Our research systematically revealed the effect of R. irregularis on the gene expression of C. glauca roots under salt stress, laying a theoretical foundation for the future use of AMF to enhance plant tolerance to salt stress.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2024
Fei Cheng ◽  
Min Gao ◽  
Junyang Lu ◽  
Yuan Huang ◽  
Zhilong Bie

Grafting with pumpkin rootstock could improve chilling tolerance in watermelon, and salicylic acid (SA) as a signal molecule is involved in regulating plant tolerance to chilling and other abiotic stresses. To clarify the mechanism in pumpkin rootstock-induced systemic acquired acclimation in grafted watermelon under chilling stress, we used self-grafted (Cl/Cl) and pumpkin rootstock-grafted (Cl/Cm) watermelon seedlings to study the changes in lipid peroxidation, photosystem II (PSII) activity and antioxidant metabolism, the spatio–temporal response of SA biosynthesis and H2O2 accumulation to chilling, and the role of H2O2 signal in SA-induced chilling tolerance in grafted watermelon. The results showed that pumpkin rootstock grafting promoted SA biosynthesis in the watermelon scions. Chilling induced hydrolysis of conjugated SA into free SA in the roots and accumulation of free SA in the leaves in Cl/Cm plants. Further, pumpkin rootstock grafting induced early response of antioxidant enzyme system in the roots and increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the leaves, thus maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. Exogenous SA improved while the inhibition of SA biosynthesis reduced chilling tolerance in Cl/Cl seedlings. The application of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, inhibitor of NADPH oxidase) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU, H2O2 scavenger) decreased, while exogenous H2O2 improved the PSII activity in Cl/Cl plants under chilling stress. Additionally, the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate in DMTU- and DPI-pretreated Cl/Cl plants under chilling conditions could be alleviated by subsequent application of H2O2 but not SA. In conclusion, pumpkin rootstock grafting induces SA biosynthesis and redistribution in the leaves and roots and participates in the regulation of antioxidant metabolism probably through interaction with the H2O2 signal, thus improving chilling tolerance in watermelon.

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