salmonella typhimurium
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2022 ◽  
Atish Roy Chowdhury ◽  
Debapriya Mukherjee ◽  
Ashish Kumar Singh ◽  
Dipshikha Chakravortty

The invasive non-typhoidal serovar of Salmonella enterica, namely Salmonella Typhimurium ST313, causes bloodstream infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Like other bacterial pathogens, the development of antimicrobial resistance is a severe problem in curing non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. In this work, we have investigated the role of four prominent outer membrane porins of S. Typhimurium, namely OmpA, OmpC, OmpD, and OmpF, in resistance against broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics- ceftazidime and meropenem. We found that deleting OmpA from Salmonella makes the bacteria susceptible to β-lactam drugs. The MIC for both the antibiotics reduced significantly for STM ΔompA compared to the wild-type and the ompA complemented strains. Despite the presence of antibiotics, the uninterrupted growth of STM ΔompC, ΔompD, and ΔompF endorsed the dispensability of these three porins in antimicrobial resistance. The β-lactam antibiotics caused massive depolarization in the outer membrane of the bacteria in the absence of OmpA. We have proved that none of the extracellular loops but the complete structure of perfectly folded OmpA is required by the bacteria for developing antimicrobial resistance. Our data revealed that STM ΔompA consumed more antibiotics than the wild-type and the complemented strain, resulting in severe damage of the bacterial outer membrane and subsequent killing of the pathogen by antibiotic-mediated oxidative stress. Upon deleting ompA, the steady decrease in the relative proportion of antibiotic-resistant persisters and the clearance of the STM ΔompA from the liver and spleen of C57BL/6 mice upon treatment with ceftazidime proved the role of OmpA in rendering protection against β-lactam antibiotics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 185-197
F.G. Eabasha ◽  
K.K Al- Awadi

Twelve horses were divided into three equal groups. Group I animals were inoculated orally with (3.7 X1012)CFU of a highly virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium 3,;a_r cop§_n__hagen. Group 11 animals were inoculated orally with 2 doses of Salmonella and then challenged with a high dose. Group III horses, served as non - infected control. ‘ The main lesions were primarily confined to the digestive tract and were characterized by catarrhal enteritis. Pseudornembrane covered the mucosa of the ileum at the ileo — cecal Valve region. Histopathological examination revealed marked rnononuclear cellular infiltration in the lamina propria and occasionally necrosis and edema in the mucosa and submucosa of the intestine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 160-184
F.G. Habasha ◽  
K, Michael ◽  
K.O. Al-Jebouril

The experimental design of this study was included (12) Friesian calves aged between 3-5 weeks. Calves were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of (8) calves were infected experimentally with 1.5 x 10“ of Salmonella typhimurium and often that treatment with chloramphenicol and electrolytes fluid were takes place. Group II consisted of (4) calves were infected with organisms but without treatment. The clinical findings of the disease were characterized by two forms which includes the septicemic and enteric forms. Haematological changes revealed a variable number of the total and differential leukocytic count, increased PCV, fibnnogen and decreased of the total plasma protein. . The changes in the acid-based balance indicate the development of metabolic acidosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 72-84
Yass, A.W. ◽  
Habasha, F.G. F.G. ◽  
Al-Sammarai, S.

A systemic study was done on the pathogenesis of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection in calves. The present investigation was carried out on sixteen normal colostrum fed friesian calves, ranging in age from 3 to 6 weeks. The calves were divided into two equal groups. Group I inoculated orally with (1.5 x 10'') Salmonella typhimurium and group IA served as control.  • The early ultrastructural alteration in the mesenteric lymph nodes was the presence of many free Salmonella in localized vacuoles. The interaction between the host cells and phagocytized Salmonella was also observed.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 475
Devendra Bhandari ◽  
Fur-Chi Chen ◽  
Roger C. Bridgman

Salmonella is one of the major foodborne pathogens responsible for many cases of illnesses, hospitalizations and deaths worldwide. Although different methods are available to timely detect Salmonella in foods, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has the benefit of real-time detection with a high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to develop an SPR method in conjunction with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium. The assay utilizes a pair of well-characterized, flagellin-specific monoclonal antibodies; one is immobilized on the sensor surface and the other is coupled to the MNPs. Samples of romaine lettuce contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium were washed with deionized water, and bacterial cells were captured on a filter membrane by vacuum filtration. SPR assays were compared in three different formats—direct assay, sequential two-step sandwich assay, and preincubation one-step sandwich assay. The interaction of flagellin and MNPs with the antibody-immobilized sensor surface were analyzed. SPR signals from a sequential two-step sandwich assay and preincubation one-step sandwich assay were 7.5 times and 14.0 times higher than the direct assay. The detection limits of the assay were 4.7 log cfu/mL in the buffer and 5.2 log cfu/g in romaine lettuce samples.

2022 ◽  
Shilpa Ray ◽  
Nishant Kumar Pandey ◽  
Gajraj Singh Kushwaha ◽  
Susmita Das ◽  
Akshay Kumar Ganguly ◽  

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 136
Du Guo ◽  
Yichen Bai ◽  
Shengyi Fei ◽  
Yanpeng Yang ◽  
Jiahui Li ◽  

Salmonella Typhimurium is a widely distributed foodborne pathogen and is tolerant of various environmental conditions. It can cause intestinal fever, gastroenteritis and bacteremia. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of illumination with 405 nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the resistance of S. Typhimurium to environmental stress. Beef slices contaminated with S. Typhimurium were illuminated by 405 nm LEDs (18.9 ± 1.4 mW/cm2) for 8 h at 4 °C; controls were incubated in darkness at 7 °C. Then, the illuminated or non-illuminated (control) cells were exposed to thermal stress (50, 55, 60 or 65 °C); oxidative stress (0.01% H2O2 [v/v]); acid stress (simulated gastric fluid [SGF] at pH 2 or 3); or bile salts (1%, 2%, or 3% [w/v]). S. Typhimurium treated by 405 nm LED irradiation showed decreased resistance to thermal stress, osmotic pressure, oxidation, SGF and bile salts. The transcription of eight environmental tolerance-related genes were downregulated by the illumination. Our findings suggest the potential of applying 405 nm LED-illumination technology in the control of pathogens in food processing, production and storage, and in decreasing infection and disease related to S. Typhimurium.

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