risk of falls
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 344
Author(s):  
Anika Weber ◽  
Julian Werth ◽  
Gaspar Epro ◽  
Daniel Friemert ◽  
Ulrich Hartmann ◽  
...  

Use of head-mounted displays (HMDs) and hand-held displays (HHDs) may affect the effectiveness of stability control mechanisms and impair resistance to falls. This study aimed to examine whether the ability to control stability during locomotion is diminished while using HMDs and HHDs. Fourteen healthy adults (21–46 years) were assessed under single-task (no display) and dual-task (spatial 2-n-back presented on the HMD or the HHD) conditions while performing various locomotor tasks. An optical motion capture system and two force plates were used to assess locomotor stability using an inverted pendulum model. For perturbed standing, 57% of the participants were not able to maintain stability by counter-rotation actions when using either display, compared to the single-task condition. Furthermore, around 80% of participants (dual-task) compared to 50% (single-task) showed a negative margin of stability (i.e., an unstable body configuration) during recovery for perturbed walking due to a diminished ability to increase their base of support effectively. However, no evidence was found for HMDs or HHDs affecting stability during unperturbed locomotion. In conclusion, additional cognitive resources required for dual-tasking, using either display, are suggested to result in delayed response execution for perturbed standing and walking, consequently diminishing participants’ ability to use stability control mechanisms effectively and increasing the risk of falls.


Author(s):  
Hand F Mahmoud ◽  
Hebatullah EMZ Elmedany

Introduction: Fall is considered by far one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Fall is almost always multifactorial. This study looks into the relation between different comorbidities, polypharmacy and falls.Methods: A descriptive and prospective study, the study population comprised 150 elderly patients aged > 60 years old, males and females, patients with previous history of falls are excluded. Comorbidity burden, polypharmacy and risk of falls were assessed.Results and Discussion: There was a significant positive correlation between Number of comorbidities, medications and risk of falls and there was a significant association between high risk of falls and presence of DM, PVD, OLD CVA and UI. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between age and risk of falls.Conclusion: Multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy and increasing age increase risk of falls.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 75-79


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lidia Ferreira de Souza ◽  
Ruth Ester Assayag Batista ◽  
Cássia Regina Vancini Camapanharo ◽  
Paula Cristina Pereira da Costa ◽  
Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira Lopes ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the factors associated with risk, perception, and knowledge of falls; and pain among older adults. Method: A cross-sectional study carried out in the Emergency Service of a teaching hospital in the city of São Paulo between September 2019 and March 2020. We selected 197 older adults aged 65 and over, who were not disoriented or confused, of both genders. The instruments Awareness Questionnaire on the Risk of Falls, Morse Fall Scale and Numerical Pain Scales were applied. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. Results: Interviewees with a high risk of falls in older adults (p = 0.0041); those with a support network had a lower perception and knowledge about the risk of falls (p = 0.0025) and lower percentage of severe pain (p = 0.0033). Conclusion: Factors associated with risk, perception and knowledge of falls and pain among older adults were age, family income, number of dependents, caregiver, support network, hypertension, impaired walking, antihypertensive medication, lipid-lowering medication, level of education, comorbidities and religion.


2022 ◽  
Vol 76 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elizabeth G. Hunter ◽  
Elizabeth Rhodus

Importance: Practitioners need to be familiar with, and involved in, managing quality-related adverse events in postacute care. Objective: To determine interventions within the scope of occupational therapy that address preventable adverse events in adult postacute inpatient and home health settings. Data Sources: Articles published from January 1995 through 2019 identified through searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and Cochrane databases. Study Selection and Data Collection: Articles were collected, evaluated, and analyzed by two independent reviewers. They were assessed and synthesized with a goal of informing clinical practice. Findings: Twenty-four articles were included in the review. Of the 10 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services preventable adverse events, 6 were addressed: diabetes management (n = 2), dysphagia (n = 5), infection control (n = 1), pressure ulcers (n = 6), falls (n = 5), and discharge management (n = 5). There was strong strength of evidence that exercise programs should, when appropriate, be implemented in both inpatient and home health settings to decrease the risk of falls. There was moderate strength of evidence that practitioners could consider implementing a facility wide evidence-based pressure ulcer program; providing multidisciplinary rehabilitation and swallow strengthening exercises for dysphagia; implementing a multidisciplinary, multicomponent falls program; and using a manualized depression intervention in home health to decrease hospital readmission. Conclusions and Relevance: The review highlights the importance of preventable adverse events and of occupational therapy practitioners acknowledging and managing these events to enhance health outcomes and to control health care costs. What This Article Adds: Many interventions typically performed by occupational therapy practitioners address preventable adverse events. The review highlights the importance of practitioners being aware of this category of impairment or injury.


2022 ◽  
Vol 145 ◽  
pp. 105489
Author(s):  
Feng Yang ◽  
Rebecca Ban ◽  
Fei Yang

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 186
Author(s):  
Natascha Schweighofer ◽  
Caterina Colantonio ◽  
Christoph W. Haudum ◽  
Barbara Hutz ◽  
Ewald Kolesnik ◽  
...  

Sarcopenia is linked with increased risk of falls, osteoporosis and mortality. No consensus exists about a gold standard “dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) index for muscle mass determination” in sarcopenia diagnosis. Thus, many indices exist, but data on sarcopenia diagnosis agreement are scarce. Regarding sarcopenia diagnosis reliability, the impact of influencing factors on sarcopenia prevalence, diagnosis agreement and reliability are almost completely missing. For nine DXA-derived muscle mass indices, we aimed to evaluate sarcopenia prevalence, diagnosis agreement and diagnosis reliability, and investigate the effects of underlying parameters, presence or type of adjustment and cut-off values on all three outcomes. The indices were analysed in the BioPersMed cohort (58 ± 9 years), including 1022 asymptomatic subjects at moderate cardiovascular risk. DXA data from 792 baselines and 684 follow-up measurements (for diagnosis agreement and reliability determination) were available. Depending on the index and cut-off values, sarcopenia prevalence varied from 0.6 to 36.3%. Height-adjusted parameters, independent of underlying parameters, showed a relatively high level of diagnosis agreement, whereas unadjusted and adjusted indices showed low diagnosis agreement. The adjustment type defines which individuals are recognised as sarcopenic in terms of BMI and sex. The investigated indices showed comparable diagnosis reliability in follow-up examinations


2021 ◽  
pp. 089198872110600
Author(s):  
Danielle, Nimmons ◽  
Cini Bhanu ◽  
Mine Orlu ◽  
Anette Schrag ◽  
Kate Walters

Background Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is multifactorial in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Antiparkinsonian medication can contribute to OH, leading to increased risk of falls, weakness and fatigue. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antiparkinsonian drugs associated with OH as an adverse effect, compared to placebo. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases until November 2020. Analysis used fixed-effects models and the GRADE tool to rate quality of evidence. Meta-analysis was performed if 3 or more studies of a drug group were available. Results Twenty-one RCTs including 3783 patients were included comparing 6 PD drug groups to placebo (MAO-B inhibitors, dopamine agonists, levodopa, COMT inhibitors, levodopa and adenosine receptor antagonists). OH was recorded as an adverse event or measurement of vital signs, without further specification on how this was defined or operationalised. Meta-analysis was performed for MAO-B inhibitors and dopamine agonists, as there were 3 or more studies for these drug groups. In this analysis, compared with placebo, neither MAO-B inhibitors or dopamine agonists were associated with increased risk of OH, (OR 2.28 [95% CI:0.81–6.46]), (OR 1.39 [95% CI:0.97–1.98]). Conclusions Most studies did not specifically report OH, or reporting of OH was limited, including how and when it was measured. Furthermore, studies specifically reporting OH included participants that were younger than typical PD populations without multimorbidity. Future trials should address this, for example,, by including individuals over the age of 75, to improve estimations of how antiparkinsonian medications affect risk of OH.


2021 ◽  
pp. 52-57
Author(s):  
M. A. Korotysh ◽  
S. N. Svetozarskiy ◽  
S. V. Kopishinskaia

Sarcopenia is a progressive generalized muscle disorder, associated with an increased risk of falls, fractures, physical disability, and mortality. Sarcopenia criteria are based on an assessment of a triad of symptoms – a decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength, and impaired physical performance. The most common diagnostic methods are handgrip dynamometry, densitometry, bioimpedansometry, and gait speed measurement. These methods have high accuracy and prognostic value, but are not always applicable to neurological patients. The article discusses sarcopenia detection in neurological practice, as well as its connection with neurodegenerative disorders – Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Having a number of common pathophysiological mechanisms, each of the diseases is characterized by a specific phenotype of muscle atrophy. The high incidence of sarcopenia symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases and the common mechanisms of their development allow us to treat sarcopenia as an overlap syndrome of neurodegenerative disorders.


Author(s):  
Guilherme Silva Ramos ◽  
Carla Silva-Batista ◽  
Bartira Pereira Palma ◽  
Carlos Ugrinowitsch ◽  
Telma Fátima da Cunha

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