functional significance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 100929
Dobrin Vassilev ◽  
Niya Mileva ◽  
Carlos Collet ◽  
Pavel Nikolov ◽  
Kiril Karamfiloff ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Elyse K. McMahon ◽  
Elizabeth Youatt ◽  
Sonia A. Cavigelli

Animal behaviour research has experienced a renewed interest in consistent individual differences (i.e. animal personality or temperament). Recent ecological studies have identified environmental conditions that give rise to the development and evolution of temperaments and to fitness-related outcomes of temperament. Additional literature has also described relationships between temperaments and physiological regulation. However, one-to-one relationships between one behavioural trait and one physiological system do not account for co-selection of behavioural and physiological traits, nor the complex signalling among physiological systems. In the current paper, we review the literature on multiple physiological processes associated with temperament, propose temperament-specific physiological profiles, and focus on next steps to understand the functional significance, evolution and maintenance of temperaments. We propose that to understand causes and consequences of temperament we need to characterize integrative physiological profiles associated with different temperaments.

Jie Zhao ◽  
Jiazhi Liu ◽  
Xinnan Liu ◽  
Qi Cao ◽  
Hongbo Zhao ◽  

Gene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 808 ◽  
pp. 145989
Kirti Kumari Sinha ◽  
J. Vinay ◽  
Suryakant Parida ◽  
Shivaram Prasad Singh ◽  
Manjusha Dixit

Elena V. Aiyzhy ◽  
Rolanda B. Khovalyg ◽  

Introduction. The article aims to study key types of Tuvan women’s wedding headdresses as signs associated with certain stages of the wedding ritual. Materials and methods. The research is mostly based on pre-revolutionary historical and ethnographic materials from the Aldan-Maadyr National Museum of Tuva and the authors’ field data. The method of historicism employed for the analysis proves helpful in capturing the elements of culture in dynamics. The work also uses the comparative typological and field research methods that are traditional enough for ethnography studies. Results. The paper analyzes historical, ethnographic, and folklore materials to reveal the semantics of the Tuvan traditional wedding ritual and identify symbolism of wedding headdresses and their semiotics, materials used for their manufacture and decoration, local variants in terms of pragmatism and specific characteristics. Conclusions. The research indicates that despite some differences in several parameters (presence or absence of a particular rite or its functional significance), the traditional wedding ritual across different territories of Tuva is characterized by commonality of their basic structural and typological components, including matchmaking (Tuv. kudalaashkin and kudalai koor), bride show (dugdeeshkin), and wedding proper (kuda-doi). Accordingly, wedding clothes from different districts of Tuva have common ritual elements along with some specific local peculiarities. So, the paper focuses on key types of headdresses once used in wedding rites.

Heart ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-320304
Damián Sánchez-Quintana ◽  
Robert H Anderson ◽  
Justin T Tretter ◽  
José Angel Cabrera ◽  
Eduardo Back Sternick ◽  

Knowledge of the anatomy of the ‘conduction tissues’ of the heart is a 20th century phenomenon. Although controversies still continue on the topic, most could have been avoided had greater attention been paid to the original descriptions. All cardiomyocytes, of course, have the capacity to conduct the cardiac impulse. The tissues specifically described as ‘conducting’ first generate the cardiac impulse, and then deliver it in such a fashion that the ventricles contract in orderly fashion. The tissues cannot readily be distinguished by gross inspection. Robust definitions for their recognition had been provided by the end of the first decade of the 20th century. These definitions retain their currency. The sinus node lies as a cigar-shaped structure subepicardially within the terminal groove. There is evidence that it is associated with a paranodal area that may have functional significance. Suggestions of dual nodes, however, are without histological confirmation. The atrioventricular node is located within the triangle of Koch, with significant inferior extensions occupying the atrial vestibules and with septal connections. The conduction axis penetrates the insulating plane of the atrioventricular junctions to continue as the ventricular pathways. Remnants of a ring of cardiomyocytes observed during development are also to be found within the atrial vestibules, particularly a prominent retroaortic remnant, although that their role has still to be determined. Application of the initial criteria for nodes and tracts shows that there are no special ‘conducting tissues’ in the pulmonary venous sleeves that might underscore the abnormal rhythm of atrial fibrillation.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 268
Pawel Pawlus ◽  
Rafal Reizer ◽  
Wieslaw Żelasko

Two-process random textures seem to present better functional properties than one-process surfaces. There are many random two-process textures. Plateau-honed cylinder surfaces are the most popular example. Two-process surfaces are also created during the initial periods of life of machined elements. However, knowledge about two-process textures measurement, modeling, and behavior is low. Two-process surfaces are very sensitive to measurement errors. It is very difficult to model them. Special methods of their characterization were created. Their functional significance was studied in a small number of publications. In this paper, measurement, characterization, and modeling of two-process textures were presented. The functional impact of them was analyzed, the effects on contact mechanics and friction and wear were mainly studied. Finally, considerations of future challenges were addressed. The nature of two-process random textures should be taken into account during analyses of properties of machined elements. The plateau part decides about the asperity contact, and the valley portion governs the hydrodynamic lubrication.

2021 ◽  
Fanny Fievez ◽  
Gerard Derosiere ◽  
Frederick Verbruggen ◽  
Julie Duque

Errors and their consequences are typically studied by investigating changes in decision speed and accuracy in trials that follow an error, commonly referred to as "post-error adjustments". Many studies have reported that subjects slow down following an error, a phenomenon called "post-error slowing" (PES). However, the functional significance of PES is still a matter of debate as it is not always adaptive. That is, it is not always associated with a gain in performance and can even occur with a decline in accuracy. Here, we hypothesized that the nature of PES is influenced by one's speed-accuracy tradeoff policy, which determines the overall level of choice accuracy in the task at hand. To test this hypothesis, we investigated post-error adjustments in subjects performing the same task while they were required to either emphasize speed (low accuracy) or cautiousness (high accuracy) in two distinct contexts (hasty and cautious contexts, respectively) experienced on separate days. Accordingly, our data indicate that post-error adjustments varied according to the context in which subjects performed the task, with PES being solely significant in the hasty context. In addition, we only observed a gain in performance after errors in a specific trial type, suggesting that post-error adjustments depend on a complex combination of processes that affect the speed of ensuing actions as well as the degree to which such PES comes with a gain in performance.

Yulia Mochalova

The purpose of the study is to conduct an empirical verification of the validity of the theoretical assumption that there is an order in the structure of motives of activity, which is determined by the proportionality between the significance of each motive in their aggregate significance and is quantitatively manifested in the parameters of the hyperbolic H-distribution ranked by the parameter. The necessary conditions for solving this problem are highlighted: a) structural elements - weakly functionally dependent on each other motives; b) in the structure of motives, the functional significance of each has a quantitative expression, which must be measured through the organization of empirical research; c) the measure of the total functional significance of all motives is limited by the situation of activity and the costs of obtaining its product. On a sample of students of the first, second, third, fourth courses of technical and humanitarian specialties (N=860) using the method of subjective assessment of the significance of each of the three motives for studying at the university in their combined significance (“acquisition of knowledge”; “mastering a profession”; “obtaining a diploma”) and using a given level of the average error of approximation of empirical results with an H-distribution of 10%, it was found that statistically, at a level of error probability less than 20%, students with an average error below a given level predominate. The possible formal and substantive reasons that led to a decrease in the validity of the result are named. The interpretation of the results in the context of the “junction” of systems theory and activity theory is presented. The directions of further research in the context of the proposed model are determined.

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