relative risk
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. Q. Alkhedaide ◽  
A. Mergani ◽  
A. A. Aldhahrani ◽  
A. Sabry ◽  
M. M. Soliman ◽  

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.

Natasha Pritchard ◽  
Susan Walker ◽  
Stephen Tong ◽  
Anthea C. Lindquist

Objective: Many growth charts provide single centile cutoffs for each week of gestation, yet fetuses gain weight throughout the week. We aimed to assess whether using a single centile per week distorts the proportion of infants classified as small and their risk of stillbirth across the week. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Victoria, Australia. Population: Singleton, non-anomalous infants born from 2005-2015 (529,261). Methods: We applied growth charts to identify small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses on week-based charts (single centile per gestational week) and day-based charts (centile per gestational day). Main outcome measures: Proportions <10th centile by each chart, and stillbirth risk amongst SGA infants. Results: Using week-based charts, 12.1% of infants born on the first day of a gestational week were SGA, but only 7.8% on the final day; ie. an infant born at the end of the week was 44% less likely to be classed as SGA (p<0.0001). The relative risk of stillbirth amongst SGA infants born on the final day of the week compared with the first was 1.47 (95%CI 1.09-2.00, p=0.01). Using day charts, SGA proportions were similar and stillbirth risk equal between the beginning and end of the week (9.5% vs 9.9%). Conclusions: Growth standards using a single cutoff for a gestational week overestimate the proportion of infants that are small at the beginning of the week and underestimate the proportion at the end. This distorts the risk of stillbirth amongst SGA infants based on when in the week an infant is born. Day-based charts should be used

2022 ◽  
Jeremy Manry ◽  
Paul Bastard ◽  
Adrian Gervais ◽  
Tom Le Voyer ◽  
Jérémie Rosain ◽  

Abstract SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality rate (IFR) doubles with every five years of age from childhood onward. Circulating autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α, IFN-ω, and/or IFN-β are found in ~20% of deceased patients across age groups. In the general population, they are found in ~1% of individuals aged 20-70 years and in >4% of those >70 years old. With a sample of 1,261 deceased patients and 34,159 uninfected individuals, we estimated both IFR and relative risk of death (RRD) across age groups for individuals carrying autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs, relative to non-carriers. For autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, the RRD was 17.0[95% CI:11.7-24.7] for individuals under 70 years old and 5.8[4.5-7.4] for individuals aged 70 and over, whereas, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules, the RRD was 188.3[44.8-774.4] and 7.2[5.0-10.3], respectively. IFRs increased with age, from 0.17%[0.12-0.31] for individuals <40 years old to 26.7%[20.3-35.2] for those ≥80 years old for autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, and from 0.84%[0.31-8.28] to 40.5%[27.82-61.20] for the same two age groups, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs increase IFRs, and are associated with high RRDs, particularly those neutralizing both IFN-α2 and -ω. Remarkably, IFR increases with age, whereas RRD decreases with age. Autoimmunity to type I IFNs appears to be second only to age among common predictors of COVID-19 death.

Ziba Taherian ◽  
Mostafa Rezaei ◽  
Asefeh Haddadpour ◽  
Zahra Amini

Background: We aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing infection, hospitalization, and mortality due to COVID-19 in Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: Following a retrospective cohort design, data of all vaccinated individuals since the rollout of vaccination of the general population are analyzed, Mar 2020 to Aug 13, 2021. Moreover, the data of all non-vaccinated people were collected by the census method for this period. The two groups were compared concerning hospitalization and mortality using the Chi-square test. Kaplan-Meyer was also used to calculate the median interval between receiving a vaccine and outcome (hospitalization and death). Results: Overall, 583434 people have received a second dose of a vaccine from Mar 2020 to Aug 2021, which 74% (n=433403) was Sinopharm, 18.2% (n=106027) AstraZeneca, 3.6% (n=21216) Sputnik, and 3.9% (n=22,788) Barekat. In contrast, 2,551,140 people living in the Isfahan Province did not receive a vaccine. The median interval between injection of the first dose and the hospitalization for those who received Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, Sputnik, and Barekat was 22, 61, 19, and 19 days, respectively. For unvaccinated cases, the rates of infection, hospitalization, and mortality (per 1000 population) were 69.7, 12.1, and 1.04, respectively. In contrast, for vaccinated individuals, these rates were 3.9, 1.08, and 0.09, two weeks after the second dose, respectively. Conclusion: The highest and lowest reduction in relative risk was for those who received AstraZeneca and Sputnik, respectively.  

2022 ◽  
Philippe Bégin ◽  
Jeannie Callum ◽  
Richard Cook ◽  
Erin Jamula ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Michael J. Joyner ◽  
Nigel S. Paneth ◽  
Jonathon W. Senefeld ◽  
DeLisa Fairweather ◽  
Katelyn A. Bruno ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 7-12
A. O. Kovrigin ◽  
V. A. Lubennikov ◽  
I. B. Kolyado ◽  
I. V. Vikhlyanov ◽  
A. F. Lazarev ◽  

The purpose of the study was to analyze the cancer incidence in the males born from 1932 to 1949 and living in rural settlements of the municipal districts of the altai Krai affected by the traces from semipalatinsk first nuclear test on august 29, 1949. Material and methods. an epidemiological retrospective cohort study was based on the analysis of anonymized data on newly diagnosed and morphologically verified cases of cancer in a male cohort for the period from 2007 to 2016. the study included a cohort fixed by the date of the first nuclear test with a total of 6383 males. in total, 633 cases were identified in the cohort with newly diagnosed and morphologically verified cancer. at the beginning of the study, all males were alive and had no previous diagnosis of cancer. For a comparative analysis of the cancer incidence, the main (exposed) cohort comprised 2 291 men, and the control cohort included 4 092 men, who lived in rural settlements of municipal districts of the region and were not tracked during the first nuclear test conducted at the semipalatinsk test site. the person-time incidence rate (ptR), standard error (mptR) and confidence intervals (95 % ci) were calculated. the incidence and the relative risk of developing cancer were assessed. statistical analysis was carried out using microsoft office 2016. Results. the number of person-years in the main cohort was 1 6731 person-years, and in the control was 30 747. The incidence rate of person-time (ptR) in the main cohort was 2 032.22 × 105 person-years, with mptR equal to 110.21 and confidence intervals (95 % ci) – (1 811.80–2 252.64). in the control cohort, the corresponding values were: ptR – 952.94 × 105 person-years with mptR – 55,67 and 95 % ci (841.60–1 064.28). the most common cancer localizations in men of the main cohort were: digestive organs (c15-c26), respiratory and chest organs (c30-c39), skin (c43-c44), male genitals (c60-c63). in the control group, the most common localizations were respiratory and chest organs (c30-c39), digestive organs (c15-c26), male genital organs (c60-c63) and skin (c43-c44). Conclusion. an increased relative risk of developing malignant neoplasms in men born and living in the altai territory during the first nuclear test conducted at the semipalatinsk test site was revealed (RR=2.133; 95 % ci 1.824–2.493) with standard error of relative risk (s) equal to 0.0797. there were differences in cancer localization between the main and the control cohorts.

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