The aim of the work is to use industrial waste as resource materials for formulating useful product for society. Materials are prepared using Fly ash as main ingredient through sintered process via solid state route. Different materials are prepared using various sintering temperature. The crystal structural and phases are explored by XRD analysis. Mulite phase are investigated, which is indicated the insulating properties of the materials. Surface topography of the prepared materials is analyzed by FESEM characterization. EDS analysis is also done during the FESEM characterization and is assessed the various chemical compositions. Identification of different chemical groups in the processed Fly Ash is carried out by FTIR analysis. Highest electrical resistivity is estimated and is found to be 35.1 MΩ, which indicates the very good insulating property.
High density of thermally stable Y-Si-O nanoparticles dispersed in the Fe matrix play a primary role in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel. In this study, the binding energies of solutes Y, O and Si with vacancies have been calculated in the framework of first-principles density functional theory. According to the calculations, any two solutes of Y, O and Si bound with each other strongly in the second nearest neighboring (NN) sites while not in 1NN. A vacancy (v) bounds strongly with Y and O in 1NN site. The binding sequence of solutes with v followed O-v → Y-v → Si-v, and the affinity of Y, Si and v with O followed O-Y → O-v → O-Si. The nucleation mechanism of Y-O-Si nanoclusters was determined, which gave the feasibility of adding Si to ODS steels. The core (consisting of Si and O)-shell (enriched Fe and Cr) structure of the microparticles was found in ODS steels containing Si, fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and vacuum sintering. Moreover the nanoparticles of monoclinic cubic Y2O3, Y2SiO5 and Y2Si2O7 with sizes of 5 ~ 12 nm were observed in ODS steel. Si reduced the sintering temperature by maximizing densities and mechanical properties at a lower sintering temperature. The steel with 3 wt% Si was sintered at 1280 °C, exhibiting the best comprehensive mechanical properties. The tensile strength, hardness and relative density were 1025 MPa, 442.44 HV and 95.3%, respectively.
The thermal behavior at the interfaces (of the deposited strands) during fused filament fabrication (FFF) technique strongly influences bond formation and it is a time- and temperature-dependent process. The processing parameters affect the thermal behavior at the interfaces and the purpose of the paper is to simulate using temperature-dependent (nonlinear) thermal properties rather than constant properties.
Nonlinear temperature-dependent thermal properties are used to simulate the FFF process in a simulation software. The finite-element model is first established by comparing the simulation results with that of analytical and experimental results of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid. Strand temperature and time duration to reach critical sintering temperature for the bond formation are estimated for one of the deposition sequences.
Temperatures are estimated at an interface and are then compared with the experimental results, which shows a close match. The results of the average time duration (time to reach the critical sintering temperature) of strands with the defined deposition sequences show that the first interface has the highest average time duration. Varying processing parameters show that higher temperatures of the extruder and envelope along with higher extruder diameter and lower convective heat transfer coefficient will have more time available for bonding between the strands.
A novel numerical model is developed using temperature-dependent (nonlinear) thermal properties to simulate FFF processes. The model estimates the temperature evolution at the strand interfaces. It helps to evaluate the time duration to reach critical sintering temperature (temperature above which the bond formation occurs) as it cools from extrusion temperature.
This study aims to determine the effect of milling time and sintering temperature parameters on the alumina transformation phase in the manufacture of Aluminium Matrix Composites (AMCs) reinforced by 20 % silica sand tailings using powder metallurgy technology. The matrix and fillers use waste to make the composites more efficient, clean the environment, and increase waste utilization. The milling time applied to the Mechanical Alloying (MA) process was 0.5, 6, 24, 48, and 96 hours, with a ball parameter ratio of 15:1 and a rotation of 93 rpm. Furthermore, hot compaction was carried out using a 100 MPa two-way hydraulic compression machine at a temperature of 300 °C for 20 minutes. The temperature variables of the sintering parameter process were 550, 600 to 650 °C, with a holding time of 10 minutes. Characterization of materials carried out included testing particle size, porosity, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), SEM-Image, and SEM-EDX. The particle measurement of mechanical alloying processed, using Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) instrument and based on XRD data using the Scherrer equation, showed a relatively similar trend, decreasing particle size occurs when milling time was increased 0.5 to 24 hours. However, when the milling time increases to 48 and 96 hours, the particle size tends to increase slightly, due to cold-weld and agglomeration when the Mechanical Alloying is processed. The impact is the occurrence of the matrix and filler particle pairs in the cold-weld state. So, the results of XRD and SEM-EDX characterization showed a second phase transformation to form alumina compounds at a relatively low sintering temperature of 600 °C after the mechanical alloying process was carried out with a milling time on least 24 hours
Attaining low-temperature sintering and high electrical conductivity is vital in the field of flexible electronics. Inks with silver oxalate as the precursor have recently received significant attention in this field; however, the high sintering temperature and long sintering time limit commercial applicability. High sintering temperature can shorten the sintering timereducing the conductivity. but lead to porous and uneven filmOn the other hand, morphology;low sintering temperature prolongthus,s thesintering time; thus, reducing the production efficiency. To solve the abovementionedproblems, a silver composite conductive ink modified by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)was prepared in this study. The ink used silver oxalate as the precursor, methanol and acetone as the solvent, and 1, 2-diaminopropane as the complexing agent, and could reduce the sintering temperature and time to 160℃ and 20 min, respectively. After sintering, the silver film showed good electrical conductivity, and low resistivity (4.56 μΩ·cm). Furthermore, the impact of sintering temperature on the surface morphology and electrical conductivity were also studied, and the results showed that PVP had a positive influence on the nucleation of silver and the microstructure of the sintered silver film.
In this study, ZK60 Mg alloys were prepared via hot-press sintering under a constant pressure of 30 MPa as well as Ar atmosphere. The sintering temperature was determined to be in the range of 450–600 °C with an interval of 50 °C. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the alloys was investigated. All the four sintered alloys mainly exhibited an α-Mg-phase structure and equiaxed grain microstructure. However, a specific amount of melt, enriched in Zn element, formed when the sintering temperature reached 500 °C. Thus, only the alloy sintered at 450 °C maintained the nominal composition of the alloy powder, and exhibited the favorable yield strength and hardness, which was 135.1 MPa and 57 HV, respectively. The alloys sintered at 550 °C and 600 °C exhibited a reduced yield strength and hardness due to the loss of Zn element.