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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Hasan Banitalebi ◽  
Ansgar Espeland ◽  
Masoud Anvar ◽  
Erland Hermansen ◽  
Christian Hellum ◽  

Abstract Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important tool in preoperative evaluation of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Reported reliability of various MRI findings in LSS varies from fair to excellent. There are inconsistencies in the evaluated parameters and the methodology of the studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the preoperative MRI findings in patients with LSS between musculoskeletal radiologists and orthopaedic spine surgeons, using established evaluation methods and imaging data from a prospective trial. Methods Consecutive lumbar MRI examinations of candidates for surgical treatment of LSS from the Norwegian Spinal Stenosis and Degenerative Spondylolisthesis (NORDSTEN) study were independently evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists and two orthopaedic spine surgeons. The observers had a range of experience between six and 13 years and rated five categorical parameters (foraminal and central canal stenosis, facet joint osteoarthritis, redundant nerve roots and intraspinal synovial cysts) and one continuous parameter (dural sac cross-sectional area). All parameters were re-rated after 6 weeks by all the observers. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was assessed by Gwet’s agreement coefficient (AC1) for categorical parameters and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the dural sac cross-sectional area. Results MRI examinations of 102 patients (mean age 66 ± 8 years, 53 men) were evaluated. The overall interobserver agreement was substantial or almost perfect for all categorical parameters (AC1 range 0.67 to 0.98), except for facet joint osteoarthritis, where the agreement was moderate (AC1 0.39). For the dural sac cross-sectional area, the overall interobserver agreement was good or excellent (ICC range 0.86 to 0.96). The intraobserver agreement was substantial or almost perfect/ excellent for all parameters (AC1 range 0.63 to 1.0 and ICC range 0.93 to 1.0). Conclusions There is high inter- and intraobserver agreement between radiologists and spine surgeons for preoperative MRI findings of LSS. However, the interobserver agreement is not optimal for evaluation of facet joint osteoarthritis. Trial registration identifier: NCT02007083, registered December 2013.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-49
Bela Shah ◽  
Dhara Gosai ◽  
Sonu Akhani ◽  
Mehul Jadav ◽  
Nirav Rathod

Background: Thousands of people in the world suffer from epilepsy. Inspite of modern advances, it can be controlled in only 80% of treated once. Diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is still challenged. The present study is attempted to highlight the importance of clinical findings and role of EEG and CT scan and MRI in diagnosis of epilepsy2.Aim:To study the incidence and epidemiological profile, various types of epilepsy and correlation with MRI, CT SCAN, EEG and the effectiveness of various Anti epilepticdrugs in different types of epilepsy. Settings and Design: This is a prospective study carried out at Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad.Methods:All the patients having 2 and/or more unprovoked seizures and already enrolled patients in epilepsy clinic in 1 year duration from January 1,2020 to December 31,2020 were included.Results &Conclusions:Out of 6930 total admissions, 163 patients with epilepsy were enrolled in this study from age group of 1 month to 12 years. Out of 163 patients, 97 were male and 66 were female. Most common age group affected is of 1-5 years. 128 patients (78.62%) were of generalized epilepsy and 35 patients were of partial epilepsy. Most common precipitating factor in epilepsy is inadequate drug dosages (45%). 45 patients (22.7%) have developmental delay. Abnormal EEG findings were present in 123 patients (75.46%). Abnormal MRI findings were present in 37 patients (22.7%). CT scan was done in 56 patients, 20 were abnormal. 107 patients were on monotherapy and 56 patients were on polytherapy. Valproate is most commonly used drug (76.6%).

Rashmi Parihar ◽  
Ruchi Shukla ◽  
Bikash Baishya ◽  
Jayantee Kalita ◽  
Rudrashish Haldar ◽  

2022 ◽  
Menno Stellingwerff ◽  
Corinne Nulton ◽  
Guy Helman ◽  
Stefan Roosendaal ◽  
William Benko ◽  

Objective Heterozygous NOTCH3 variants are known to cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), with patients typically presenting in adulthood. We describe three patients presenting at an early age with a vascular leukoencephalopathy. Genome sequencing revealed bi-allelic variants in the NOTCH3 gene. Methods Clinical records and available MRI and CT scans of three patients from two unrelated families were retrospectively reviewed. Results The patients presented at 9-14 months of age with developmental delay, seizures, or both. The disease course was characterized by cognitive impairment and variably recurrent strokes, migraine attacks, and seizures. MRI findings pointed at a small vessel disease, with extensive cerebral white matter abnormalities, atrophy, lacunes in the basal ganglia, microbleeds and microcalcifications. The anterior temporal lobes were spared. Bi-allelic cysteine-sparing NOTCH3 variants in exons 1, 32 and 33 were found. Interpretation This study indicates that bi-allelic loss-of-function NOTCH3 variants may cause a vascular leukoencephalopathy, distinct from CADASIL.

Amit Choubey ◽  
Rahul Dev Chauhan ◽  
Sourabh Kumar

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries of knee are commonly encountered in sportsmen during sports activities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for evaluation of traumatic knee injuries and arthroscopic interventions. By knowing the pattern and burden of surgically significant injuries in sportsmen, the artificial intelligence (AI) software may be developed accordingly so that surgically significant injuries may be identified by the young radiologists. Methods: It was a retrospective study on MRI for knee injuries in sportsmen. The digital data from Radiology department at a zonal level hospital was analysed. The MRI findings were correlated with the arthroscopic records available. For surgically insignificant injuries, the literature was referred for the typical MRI findings of the injuries. Results: Of 272 cases of MRI knee, 74.3% cases were detected to have acute traumatic injuries. Among various types of injuries found in this study, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (55.9%) was the commonest injury followed by medial meniscal tear (40%). 40 (19.8%) cases were found to have surgically significant MRI findings which were subsequently corroborated with knee arthroscopy.Conclusions: Since majority of soft tissue injuries of knee constitute ACL and meniscal tears, the industries involved in developing AI software for soft tissue injuries of knee, should primarily focus on identification of ACL and meniscal injuries. The AI software may also be helpful for the young radiologists in early training days in MRI for knee injuries and may also help in big scale research projects of post traumatic MRI knees.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Francesco Baldo ◽  
Maura Marin ◽  
Flora Maria Murru ◽  
Egidio Barbi ◽  
Gianluca Tornese

Neuroimaging is a key tool in the diagnostic process of various clinical conditions, especially in pediatric endocrinology. Thanks to continuous and remarkable technological developments, magnetic resonance imaging can precisely characterize numerous structural brain anomalies, including the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. Sometimes the use of radiological exams might become excessive and even disproportionate to the patients’ medical needs, especially regarding the incidental findings, the so-called “incidentalomas”. This unclarity is due to the absence of well-defined pediatric guidelines for managing and following these radiological findings. We review and summarize some indications on how to, and even if to, monitor these anomalies over time to avoid unnecessary, expensive, and time-consuming investigations and to encourage a more appropriate follow-up of brain MRI anomalies in the pediatric population with endocrinological conditions.

Ravikanth Reddy

Abstract Background Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most commonly diagnosed neurological abnormality affecting children leading to severe neurological deficits and a cause of neonatal mortality. HIE constitutes a diagnostic challenge in the prematurely born and full-term neonates. HIE causes severe neurological deficit in children and many a times goes unnoticed in early stages. The various patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in HIE are dependent on factors, such as severity and duration of hypoxia, and brain maturity in preterm and full-term patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has prognostic significance in detecting patterns of HIE secondary to mild-to-moderate and severe hypoxias and the imaging findings are highly dependent on the time at which imaging is done. MRI helps determine the prognosis of brain development in patients with HIE. Objective This retrospective study elucidates the spectrum of MRI findings in preterm and full-term patients with HIE on MRI. Materials and Methods This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at a tertiary care center between April 2017 and May 2019 on 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of HIE using a General Electric (GE) 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner. Various patterns of HIE were evaluated on MRI in preterm and full-term patients. Results This retrospective study evaluated MRI findings in 50 infants diagnosed with HIE. Eighteen (36%) were preterm and 32 (64%) were full-term patients. Thirty-five (70%) were male and 15 (30%) were female patients. In the current study, developmental delay was the most commonly associated clinical entity in both preterm and full-term patients. In preterm patients, periventricular leukomalacia was the most prevalent MRI finding, and in full-term patients, subcortical and periventricular white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences were most commonly encountered. Conclusion MRI is the primary imaging modality of choice in preterm and full-term patients with HIE, as it helps determine the severity of hypoxic–ischemic injury by understanding the pattern of brain involvement. In the current study, distinguishable patterns of MRI findings secondary to birth asphyxia and ischemic insult were elucidated in both preterm and full-term patients who are highly dependent on the level of brain maturity at the time of imaging. Regular MRI follow-up has a prognostic significance in HIE with accurate prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome on follow-up studies.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 334
Paola Mapelli ◽  
Samuele Ghezzo ◽  
Ana Maria Samanes Gajate ◽  
Erik Preza ◽  
Anna Palmisano ◽  

The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the performances of 68Ga-PSMA and 68Ga-DOTA-RM2 PET/MRI in identifying recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) after primary treatment and to explore the association of dual-tracer PET findings with clinical and histopathological characteristics. Thirty-five patients with biochemical relapse (BCR) of PCa underwent 68Ga PSMA PET/MRI for restaging purpose, with 31/35 also undergoing 68Ga-DOTA-RM2 PET/MRI scan within 16 days (mean: 3 days, range: 2–16 days). Qualitative and quantitative image analysis has been performed by comparing 68Ga-PSMA and 68Ga-DOTA-RM2 PET/MRI findings both on a patient and lesion basis. Clinical and instrumental follow-up was used to validate PET findings. Fisher’s exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to investigate the association between dual-tracer PET findings, clinical and histopathological data. p-value significance was defined below the 0.05 level. Patients’ mean age was 70 years (range: 49–84) and mean PSA at time of PET/MR scans was 1.88 ng/mL (range: 0.21–14.4). A higher detection rate was observed for 68Ga-PSMA PET/MRI, with more lesions being detected compared to 68Ga-DOTA-RM2 PET/MRI (26/35 patients, 95 lesions vs. 15/31 patients, 41 lesions; p = 0.016 and 0.002). 68Ga-PSMA and 68Ga-DOTA-RM2 PET/MRI findings were discordant in 11/31 patients; among these, 10 were 68Ga-PSMA positive (9/10 confirmed as true positive and 1/10 as false positive by follow-up examination). Patients with higher levels of PSA and shorter PSA doubling time (DT) presented more lesions on 68Ga-PSMA PET/MRI (p = 0.006 and 0.044), while no association was found between PET findings and Gleason score. 68Ga-PSMA has a higher detection rate than 68Ga-DOTA-RM2 in detecting PCa recurrence. The number of 68Ga-PSMA PET positive lesions is associated with higher levels of PSA and shorter PSA DT, thus representing potential prognostic factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Neta Aviran ◽  
Gil Amarilyo ◽  
Yaniv Lakovsky ◽  
Rotem Tal ◽  
Jenny Garkaby ◽  

Abstract Background Protracted febrile myalgia syndrome (PFMS) is a rare complication of Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and is often challenging, especially when PFMS is the initial manifestation of FMF. The aim of this report was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in pediatric patients with PFMS. Results There were three girls and two boys ranging in age from 6 months to 16 years, all of Mediterranean ancestry. Three had high-grade fever, and all had elevated inflammatory markers. MRI of the extremities yielded findings suggestive of myositis, which together with the clinical picture, normal CPK levels, and supporting family history of FMF, suggested the diagnosis of PFMS. Out of most common MEFV mutations tested, one patient was homozygous for M694V mutation, three were heterozygous for M694V mutation, and one was compound heterozygous for the M694V and V726A mutations. Conclusions MRI may serve as an auxiliary diagnostic tool in PFMS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Weihang Guo ◽  
Baolei Xu ◽  
Hong Sun ◽  
Jinghong Ma ◽  
ShanShan Mei ◽  

Parkinsonism is a rare phenotype of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarction and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), all of which involve cognitive decline. Normal cognition has not been reported in previous disease studies. Here we report the case of a 60-year-old female patient with a 2-year history of progressive asymmetric parkinsonism. On examination, she showed severe parkinsonism featuring bradykinesia and axial and limb rigidity with preserved cognition. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed white matter hyperintensity in the external capsule and periventricular region. Dopaminergic response was limited. A missense mutation c.1630C>T (p.R544C) on the NOTCH3 gene was identified on whole-exome sequencing, which confirmed the diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism secondary to CADASIL. A diagnosis of CADASIL should be considered in asymmetric parkinsonism without dementia. Characteristic MRI findings support the diagnosis.

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