fluid medium
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2022 ◽  
Vol 171 ◽  
pp. 108714
R. Abdollahi ◽  
R.D. Firouz-abadi ◽  
M. Rahmanian

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
David Hardman ◽  
Thomas George Thuruthel ◽  
Fumiya Iida

AbstractThe ability to remotely control a free-floating object through surface flows on a fluid medium can facilitate numerous applications. Current studies on this problem have been limited to uni-directional motion control due to the challenging nature of the control problem. Analytical modelling of the object dynamics is difficult due to the high-dimensionality and mixing of the surface flows while the control problem is hard due to the nonlinear slow dynamics of the fluid medium, underactuation, and chaotic regions. This study presents a methodology for manipulation of free-floating objects using large-scale physical experimentation and recent advances in deep reinforcement learning. We demonstrate our methodology through the open-loop control of a free-floating object in water using a robotic arm. Our learned control policy is relatively quick to obtain, highly data efficient, and easily scalable to a higher-dimensional parameter space and/or experimental scenarios. Our results show the potential of data-driven approaches for solving and analyzing highly complex nonlinear control problems.

Marcos Eduardo Viana de Araujo ◽  
Eloiny Guimarães Barbosa ◽  
Marcio Arêdes Martins ◽  
Paulo Cesar Corrêa

2021 ◽  
R. Senthil Kumaran ◽  
Dilipkumar B. Alone ◽  
Abdul Nassar ◽  
Pramod Kumar

Abstract Axial turbines are gaining prominence in supercritical carbon-di-oxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle power blocks. S-CO2 Brayton cycle power systems designed for 10 MW and upwards will need axial turbines for efficient energy conversion and compact construction. The real gas behavior of S-CO2 and its rapid property variations with temperature presents a strong challenge for turbomachinery design. Applying gas and steam turbine philosophies directly to S-CO2 turbine could lead to erroneous designs. Very little information is available in the open literature on the design of S-CO2 axial turbines. In this paper, design of a 10 MW axial turbine for a simple recuperated Brayton cycle waste heat recovery system is presented. Three repeating stages with nominal stage loading coefficient of 2.3 and flow coefficient of 0.37 were designed. An axial turbine mean-line design method tuned to S-CO2 real gas fluid medium is discussed. 3D blade design was made suing commercial turbomachinery design software AxSTREAM. The turbine was designed for inlet temperature of 818.15 K, pressure ratio of 2.2, rotational speed of 12000 rpm and mass flow rate of 104.5 kg/s. 3D CFD simulations were carried out using the commercial RANS solver ANSYS CFX 2020 R2 with SST turbulence model for closure. S-CO2 was modelled as real gas with Refrigerant Gas Property tables generated over the appropriate pressure and temperature ranges using NIST Refprop database. CFD studies were carried out over a range of mass flow rates and speeds, covering the design and several off-design conditions. The performance maps generated using 3D CFD simulations of the turbine are presented. The geometrical parameters obtained with the mean-line design matched well with that of the 3D turbine design arrived using AxSTREAM. It was observed that the turbine produced 10 MW power at the design condition while passing the required mass flow. CFD studies also showed that the preliminary turbine design achieved a moderate total-to-total efficiency of 80 % at the design condition. The design has potential for further optimization to obtain improved efficiency and for reducing the number of stages from three to two.

Zygote ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Sara Hosseini ◽  
Mohammad Salehi

Summary It has been documented that the inefficacy of round spermatid injection (ROSI) might be caused by abnormal epigenetic modifications. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of trichostatin A (TSA) as an epigenetic modifier of preimplantation embryo development in activated ROSI oocytes. Matured oocytes were collected from superovulated female mice. Testes were placed in human tubal fluid medium and masses were then cut into small pieces to disperse spermatogenic cells. Round spermatids were treated with TSA and subsequently injected into oocytes. The expression level of the development-related genes including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Dnmt and Hdac transcripts were evaluated using qRT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm the presence of Oct-4 protein at the blastocyst stage. There was no statistically significant difference in fertilization rate following ROSI/+TSA compared with the non-treated ROSI and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) groups. Importantly, TSA treatment increased blastocyst formation from 38% in non-treated ROSI to 68%. The relative expression level of developmentally related genes increased and Dnmt transcripts decreased in ROSI/+TSA-derived embryos, similar to the expression levels observed in the ICSI-derived embryos. In conclusion, our results indicate that spermatid treatment with TSA prior to ROSI would increase the success rate of development to the blastocyst stage and proportion of pluripotent cells.

Valdecir de Godoy Borges ◽  
RJ Lato Sensu

Brownian motion is small particles suspended in a liquid tend to move in pseudorandom or stochastic paths through the liquid, even if the liquid in question is inert. By Einstein's theories for Brownian motion referring to the 1905 works, equilibrium relations and viscous friction, osmotic pressure reaching the diffusion coefficient of Brownian particles. In the fluid medium, we will address the deviation (diffusion equation and basically the relationship between the mean square deviation of the particle position and the fluid temperature, the higher the temperature, the greater the mean square deviation, that is, directly proportional to the constant of the diffusion). The importance of this study is the movement of particles and molecules in the fluid medium, whether these molecules are lipids, proteins, we know that viruses and bacteria are having a certain movement in the organism and its systems, we will tend to study their movement within vessels and between fluids body, with two densities and particular conditions, knowing the likely displacement, we will know therapeutic interventions that are probably more effective. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through mathematical applications the Brownian motion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (9) ◽  
pp. 210646
Atul Srivastava ◽  
Kenji Kikuchi ◽  
Takuji Ishikawa

Given the ubiquity of bubbles and non-biodegradable wastes in aqueous environments, their transport through bubbles should be widely extant in water bodies. In this study, we investigate the effect of bubble-induced waste transport on microbial growth by using yeasts as model microbes and a silicone rubber object as model waste. Noteworthily, this object repeatedly rises and sinks in fluid through fluctuations in bubble-acquired buoyant forces produced by cyclic nucleation, growth and release of bubbles from object's surface. The rise–sink movement of the object gives rise to a strong bulk mixing and an enhanced resuspension of cells from the floor. Such spatially dynamic contaminant inside a nutrient-rich medium also leads to an increment in the total microbe concentration in the fluid. The enhanced concentration is caused by strong nutrient mixing generated by the object's movement which increases the nutrient supply to growing microbes and thereby, prolonging their growth phases. We confirm these findings through a theoretical model for cell concentration and nutrient distribution in fluid medium. The model is based on the continuum hypothesis and it uses the general conservation law which takes an advection–diffusion growth form. We conclude the study with the demonstration of bubble-induced digging of objects from model sand.

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