aqueous environments
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Hyunhyuk Tae ◽  
Soohyun Park ◽  
Gamaliel Junren Ma ◽  
Nam-Joon Cho

AbstractCell-membrane-mimicking supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) provide an ultrathin, self-assembled layer that forms on solid supports and can exhibit antifouling, signaling, and transport properties among various possible functions. While recent material innovations have increased the number of practically useful SLB fabrication methods, typical SLB platforms only work in aqueous environments and are prone to fluidity loss and lipid-bilayer collapse upon air exposure, which limits industrial applicability. To address this issue, herein, we developed sucrose–bicelle complex system to fabricate air-stable SLBs that were laterally mobile upon rehydration. SLBs were fabricated from bicelles in the presence of up to 40 wt% sucrose, which was verified by quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. The sucrose fraction in the system was an important factor; while 40 wt% sucrose induced lipid aggregation and defects on SLBs after the dehydration–rehydration process, 20 wt% sucrose yielded SLBs that exhibited fully recovered lateral mobility after these processes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that sucrose–bicelle complex system can facilitate one-step fabrication of air-stable SLBs that can be useful for a wide range of biointerfacial science applications.

Organics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 415-423
Dawod Yousif ◽  
Silvia Tombolato ◽  
Elmehdi Ould Maina ◽  
Riccardo Po ◽  
Paolo Biagini ◽  

The Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction plays a fundamental role in modern synthetic organic chemistry, both in academia and industry. For this reason, scientists continue to search for new, more effective, cheaper and environmentally friendly procedures. Recently, micellar synthetic chemistry has been demonstrated to be an excellent strategy for achieving chemical transformations in a more efficient way, thanks to the creation of nanoreactors in aqueous environments using selected surfactants. In particular, the cheap and commercially available surfactant Kolliphor EL (a polyethoxylated castor oil derivative) has been used with success to achieve metal-catalyzed transformations in water with high yields and short reaction times, with the advantage of using air-sensitive catalysts without the need for inert atmosphere. In this work, the Kolliphor EL methodology was applied to the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between thiophene and aniline, using the highly effective catalyst Pd(dtbpf)Cl2. The cross-coupling products were achieved at up to 98% yield, with reaction times of up to only 15 min, working at room temperature and without the need for inert atmosphere.

2021 ◽  
pp. 126581
Sabry M. Shaheen ◽  
Natasha ◽  
Ahmed Mosa ◽  
Ali El-Naggar ◽  
Md Faysal Hossain ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vladimír Palivec ◽  
Christian Johannessen ◽  
Jakub Kaminský ◽  
Hector Martinez-Seara

Sugars are crucial components in biosystems and industrial applications. In aqueous environments, the natural state of short saccharides or charged glycosaminoglycans is floating and wiggling in solution. Therefore, tools to characterize their structure in a native aqueous environment are crucial but not always available. Here, we show that a combination of Raman/ROA and, on occasions, NMR experiments with Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) is a viable method to gain insights into structural features of sugars in solutions. Combining these methods provides information about accessible ring puckering conformers and their proportions. It also provides information about the conformation of the linkage between the sugar monomers, i.e., glycosidic bonds, allowing for identifying significantly accessible conformers and their relative abundance. For mixtures of sugar moieties, this method enables the deconvolution of the Raman/ROA spectra to find the actual amounts of its molecular constituents, serving as an effective analytical technique. For example, it allows calculating anomeric ratios for reducing sugars and analyzing more complex sugar mixtures to elucidate their real content. Altogether, we show that combining Raman/ROA spectroscopies with simulations is a versatile method applicable to saccharides. It allows for accessing many features with precision comparable to other methods routinely used for this task, making it a viable alternative. Furthermore, we prove that the proposed technique can scale up by studying the complicated Raffinose trisaccharide, and therefore, we expect its wide adoption to characterize sugar structural features in solution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 51
Amélie Banc ◽  
Laurence Navailles ◽  
Jacques Leng ◽  
Denis Renard

The binary phase diagram of γ-gliadin, a wheat storage protein, in water was explored thanks to the microevaporator, an original PDMS microfluidic device. This protein, usually qualified as insoluble in aqueous environments, displayed a partial solubility in water. Two liquid phases, a very dilute and a dense phase, were identified after a few hours of accumulation time in the microevaporator. This liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) was further characterized through in situ micro-Raman spectroscopy of the dilute and dense protein phases. Micro-Raman spectroscopy showed a specific orientation of phenylalanine residues perpendicular to the PDMS surfaces only for the diluted phase. This orientation was ascribed to the protein adsorption at interfaces, which would act as nuclei for the growth of dense phase in bulk. This study, thanks to the use of both aqueous solvent and a microevaporator, would provide some evidence for a possible physicochemical origin of the gliadin assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum of albumen cells, leading to the formation of dense phases called protein bodies. The microfluidic tool could be used also in food science to probe protein–protein interactions in order to build up phase diagrams.

2021 ◽  
Riccardo Dettori ◽  
Nir Goldman

The meteoritic mineral schreibersite, e.g., Fe3P, is a proposed abiotic source of phosphorus for phosphate ion (PO4-) production, needed for nucleobases, phospholipids, and other life building materials. Schreibersite could have acted as both a source of elemental phosphorus and as a catalyst, and the hostile conditions on early Earth could have accelerated its degradation in different environments. Here, we present results from quantum calculations of bulk schreibersite and of its low Miller index surfaces. We also investigate water surface adsorption and identify possible dissociation pathways on the most stable facet. Our calculations provide useful chemical insights into schreibersite interactions in aqueous environments, paving the way for further detailed investigation on more reactive surfaces. Our results help provide a ``bottom-up'' understanding for phosphorylated organic synthesis on the primitive planet and its role in producing life building molecules.

10.5006/3917 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Kang Wang ◽  
Charles Demarest ◽  
Mathew Asmussen ◽  
John Scully ◽  
Bi-Cheng Zhou

Rubidium (Rb) generated from the β-decay of Kr-85 has been theorized to be corrosive toward steel, specifically in the storage of Kr-85 nuclear waste streams. In the present study, the phase equilibria of RbxCryOz oxides with Rb in dry oxygen and water are investigated to understand a possible pathway to unusual deterioration of the corrosion resistance of canister steels in the presence of Rb. It was found that, in dry oxygen environments, the accumulation of Rb (more than 0.01 mol) can completely consume the Cr in 1 mol of AISI 4130 steel by forming -Rb2CrO4 and Rb3CrO4 and prevent the formation of protective Cr2O3 scale. In aqueous environments, RbxCryOz oxides are metastable species. In order to investigate their role, the probability of forming various oxides is invoked in order to avoid the all-or-nothing approach to oxide formation typical of E-pH diagram, which only predicts the most stable species dissolved, ionized or solid ionized. Thus, the probability of forming RbxCryOz was considered and reported herein. It was found RbxCryOz can possess a larger than 7% probability of forming over Cr2O3 in Rb rich case and 15% in Cr rich case, indicating that it is expected to find small amount of RbxCryOz in the thermodynamically formed reaction products. Even though Cr2O3 is more stable than RbxCryOz oxides, the protective Cr2O3 scale is likely to have some vulnerability to Rb, leading to one possible route for the decline in the corrosion resistance of steel canisters in aqueous environments. Therefore, from a thermodynamic perspective, the current study supports the hypothesis that Rb can thermodynamically react with Cr in steels and can lead to formation of RbxCryOz at certain potentials and pH levels, showing the Rb influence of steel corrosion cannot be discounted. The paper considers experimental mixed potential and pH levels observed and relationship to thermodynamic probability. From this relative corrosion resistance can be assessed in a preliminary way in aqueous environments.

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