control and management
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 70
Jéssica S. Cardoso ◽  
Sâmela S. Mendes ◽  
Ana Maria Waldschmidt ◽  
Maria Aparecida Castellani ◽  
Iara S. Joachim-Bravo ◽  

This study aimed at determining the population genetic structure of Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) in North-eastern Brazil, so as to improve our understanding of the viability of the inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers in Brazilian populations, along with inferences on population genetic composition which can be used in management programs. For this, ISSR markers were used in groups collected from four municipalities in this region. Primers were polymorphic, revealing moderate expected heterozigosity, with 80% of the variation occurring within populations and moderate structure. Bayesian analysis revealed K = 3, consistent with pairwise FST and indicating low structure between Barra do Choça and Planalto, and moderate structure between Caraíbas and Planalto. Data indicated high diversity, suggesting two interpretations: the analyzed populations arose from a single population and are now under structuring processes, or populations had different origins, but are currently connected by gene flow. Thus, ISSR primers were affective in obtaining information about genetic structure of C. capitata populations in North-eastern Brazil, as evidenced by high polymorphism and separation or grouping of populations according to their allelic compositions. Furthermore, this paper provides useful information for understanding the genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow of C. capitata populations in this region and developing regional strategies for the control and management of the species.

Samar A. Bamofleh ◽  
Mohammed S. Almuammar ◽  
Aljawhara I. Bin Osseil ◽  
Roaa A. Alorf ◽  
Sultan M. Alqhtani ◽  

Although there have been many advances in the medical field regarding disease control and management, it has been demonstrated that certain diseases and infections still represent a significant challenge. For example, the presence of oral biofilms indicates the virulence of the underlying infection in different dental infections diseases, including peri-implantitis, periapical periodontitis, periodontitis, gingivitis, and dental caries. We have discussed various mechanical, chemical, and biological modalities that can be applied to control biofilms and limit plaque formation and secondary caries. Although physical brushing might be efficacious in cleaning, evidence indicates that it cannot eradicate the underlying bacteria. Accordingly, using biological and chemical materials is essential to achieve adequate disinfection and enhance the outcomes. Many modalities have been proposed in the literature, such as nanomaterials, organic compounds such as arginine, dietary substances, and the various chemical oral cleansers discussed in the current study. Bacteriophages are also promising in this context. However, they need further exploration regarding their efficacy and safety. In addition, resistance against these compounds is a serious issue and needs to be addressed in future research.

Marchica lagoon offers very favourable conditions for practice of artisanal fishing which is the main socioeconomic activity carried out in this coastal ecosystem. However, artisanal fishing there suffers from a lack of control and management due to the absence of a data collection system on the various biological and socioeconomic aspects of this fishery. Thus, it considers serious threaten their sustainability. The main purpose of the paper to give a comprehensive account of artisanal fishing and its socioeconomic aspects in the Marchica lagoon, through a survey carried out at five sites around the lagoon. It has been found that there a low level of education among fishermen. The fishermen practiced two gears, pound net and trammel net. The economical analysis showed that the total annual gross product per boat is about 15766,80 USD, which gives an average monthly income of about 1148, 10USD par boat. Therefore, the wealth produced by these fisheries have a real impact on the quality of the fishermen live. Hence, ensure sustainable development of this fishery.

Pomorstvo ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (2) ◽  
pp. 207-214
Katarina Balić ◽  
Damir Zec

The paper analyses statutory foundations applicable to ships requiring to be exempted from the mandatory installation of the ballast water management system. In particular, it deals with ships sailing on regular international lines but within the semi-closed seas, such as the Adriatic Sea. The legal framework is set out in the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM, 2004), the IMO Guidelines for Risk Assessment A-4 (G7), and the Croatian Ordinance on Ballast Water Control and Management, 2012 [Pravilnik o upravljanju i nadzoru balastnih voda]. The paper presents the model procedure to be followed by main stakeholders, mainly national maritime administrations and shipping companies. The paper outlines the main advantages and disadvantages of the whole process and analyses several cases of good practice. Furthermore, the main stakeholders in the approval procedure and their responsibilities are described, available risk assessment models are analysed, with the particular emphasis on the species-specific risk assessment method as the most preferred method. Finally, the need for cooperation between the involved states and their maritime administrations is considered. It is concluded that bilateral and regional cooperations are an essential element in preserving the marine environment of any sea area. In that respect, the proposed model of the BWM system exemption approval in closed and semi-closed seas, such as the Adriatic Sea, is essential for shipping companies connecting ports in different countries on regular routes. Although demanding in respect of efforts and time, a procedure is viable and may be carried out in due time and with satisfactory outcomes.

2021 ◽  
pp. 176-182
Vera V. Krainova Krainova

The article substantiates the relationship between internal control and management accounting. In the course of the substantiation, the content of the definition of "management accounting" is specified in the context of the study of the role of the management accounting system in the information support of internal control; on the example of shipping companies, the information of management accounting for the purposes of internal control is systematized. A conceptual model of management accounting is constructed, the system-forming elements of the management accounting system are identified and clarified, each of which has control elements "embedded" in it.

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