immunomodulatory agents
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2022 ◽  
Charles Bruen ◽  
Mukhtar Al-Saadi ◽  
Edward Michelson ◽  
Maged Tanios ◽  
Raul Mendoza-Ayala ◽  

Abstract Background: Calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel inhibitors block proinflammatory cytokine release, preserve endothelial integrity and may effectively treat patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: CARDEA was a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the addition of Auxora, a CRAC channel inhibitor, to corticosteroids and standard of care in adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The primary endpoint was time to recovery through Day 60, with secondary endpoints of all-cause mortality at Day 60 and Day 30. Due to declining rates of COVID-19 hospitalizations and encroachment of prohibited medications as standard of care, the trial was stopped early. Results: The pre-specified efficacy set consisted of the 261 patients with a baseline imputed PaO2/FiO2 £200 with 130 and 131 in the Auxora and placebo groups, respectively. Time to recovery was 7 vs. 10 days (P=0.0979) for patients who received Auxora vs. placebo, respectively. The all-cause mortality rate at Day 60 was 13.8% with Auxora vs. 20.6% with placebo (P=0.1449); Day 30 all-cause mortality was 7.7% and 17.6%, respectively (P=0.0165). Similar trends were noted in patients on high flow nasal cannula at baseline or those with a baseline imputed PaO2/FiO2 ≤100. Serious adverse events occurred less frequently in patients treated with Auxora vs. placebo. Conclusions: Auxora was safe and well tolerated with strong signals in both time to recovery and all-cause mortality through Day 60 in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Further studies of Auxora in combination with corticosteroids and other immunomodulatory agents are warranted.Trial registration: NCT04345614

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Chen Yang ◽  
Zhicheng Liu ◽  
Shangce Du ◽  
Susan Can ◽  

Abstract Background In recent years, the application of functional genetic immuno-oncology screens has showcased the striking ability to identify potential regulators engaged in tumor-immune interactions. Although these screens have yielded substantial data, few studies have attempted to systematically aggregate and analyze them. Methods In this study, a comprehensive data collection of tumor immunity-associated functional screens was performed. Large-scale genomic data sets were exploited to conduct integrative analyses. Results We identified 105 regulator genes that could mediate resistance or sensitivity to immune cell-induced tumor elimination. Further analysis identified MON2 as a novel immune-oncology target with considerable therapeutic potential. In addition, based on the 105 genes, a signature named CTIS (CRISPR screening-based tumor-intrinsic immune score) for predicting response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and several immunomodulatory agents with the potential to augment the efficacy of ICB were also determined. Conclusion Overall, our findings provide insights into immune oncology and open up novel opportunities for improving the efficacy of current immunotherapy agents.

2022 ◽  
pp. 55-72
Lahcen Tamegart ◽  
Mjid Oukhrib ◽  
Hafida El Ghachi ◽  
Abdelali Ben Maloui ◽  
Abdelaati El Khiat ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a dangerous virus named SARS-CoV-2. The most important symptoms are fever, cough, fatigue, and breathing problems. In the most serious forms of the disease, the appearance of an acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by the virus can be deadly, especially when people are fragile due to their age or in case of comorbidities. The exacerbated innate immune response could be another deadly complication. Different strategies of treatments are proposed for COVID-19 such as inhibition of virus entry by blocking ACE2 receptor used by COVID-19, inhibition of virus replication by using replication inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents to stimulate a strong immune response against COVID-19, and by using vaccines as an effective method for a long-term strategy for prevention of COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 309-317
Altaf Mohammed ◽  
Roderick H. Dashwood ◽  
Sally Dickinson ◽  
Mary L. Disis ◽  
Elizabeth M. Jaffee ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 5366
Dimitrios Sagris ◽  
Matilda Florentin ◽  
Panagiotis Tasoudis ◽  
Eleni Korompoki ◽  
Nikolaos Gatselis ◽  

Background: We aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of immunomodulation therapy on the thromboembolic risk in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: We searched PubMed and Scopus for randomized trials reporting the outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, any thromboembolic event, and all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients treated with immunomodulatory agents. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the Mantel–Haenszel random effects method. Results: Among 8499 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 4638 were treated with an immunomodulatory agent, 3861—with usual care only. Among the patients prescribed immunomodulatory agents, there were 1.77 VTEs per 100 patient-months compared to 2.30 among those treated with usual care (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.61–1.16; I2: 0%). Among the patients who received an interleukin 6 (IL-6) antagonist, VTEs were reported in 12 among the 1075 patients compared to 20 among the 848 receiving the usual care (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.22–1.20; I2: 6%). Immunomodulators as an add-on to usual care did not reduce the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.50–2.40; I2: 0%) or of myocardial infarction (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.47–2.39; I2: 0%) and there was a nonsignificant reduction in any thromboembolic event (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.65–1.14; I2: 0%). Conclusions: We did not identify a statistically significant effect of immunomodulation on prevention of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. However, given the large effect estimate for VTE prevention, especially in the patients treated with IL-6 antagonists, we cannot exclude a potential effect of immunomodulation.

Emanuelle de Souza Santos ◽  
Dahara Keyse Carvalho Silva ◽  
Bruna Padilha Zurita Claro dos Reis ◽  
Breno Cardim Barreto ◽  
Carine Machado Azevedo Cardoso ◽  

Chagas disease is a parasitic infection caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) is the most severe manifestation of the disease, developed by approximately 20-40% of patients and characterized by occurrence of arrhythmias, heart failure and death. Despite having more than 100 years of discovery, Chagas disease remains without an effective treatment, especially for patients with CCC. Since the pathogenesis of CCC depends on a parasite-driven systemic inflammatory profile that leads to cardiac tissue damage, the use of immunomodulators has become a rational alternative for the treatment of CCC. In this context, different classes of drugs, cell therapies with dendritic cells or stem cells and gene therapy have shown potential to modulate systemic inflammation and myocarditis in CCC models. Based on that, the present review provides an overview of current reports regarding the use of immunomodulatory agents in treatment of CCC, bringing the challenges and future directions in this field.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Nobuyuki Shimizu ◽  
Tomoko Asatsuma-Okumura ◽  
Junichi Yamamoto ◽  
Yuki Yamaguchi ◽  
Hiroshi Handa ◽  

AbstractPomalidomide and lenalidomide are immunomodulatory agents that were derived from thalidomide. Cereblon (CRBN) is a common direct target of thalidomide and related compounds and works as a Cullin Ring 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) with DDB1, CUL4, and ROC1. The substrate specificity of CRL4CRBN is modulated by thalidomide-related compounds. While lenalidomide is approved for the treatment of several diseases including multiple myeloma, 5q- syndrome, mantle cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma, pomalidomide is approved only for the treatment of lenalidomide-resistant multiple myeloma. Here we show that PLZF/ZBTB16 and its fusion proteins are pomalidomide-dependent neosubstrates of CRL4CRBN. PLZF joins to RARα or potentially other partner genes, and the translocation causes leukemias, such as acute promyelocytic leukemia and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We demonstrate that pomalidomide treatment induces PLZF-RARα degradation, resulting in antiproliferation of leukemic cells expressing PLZF-RARα. This study highlights a potential therapeutic role of pomalidomide as a degrader of leukemogenic fusion proteins.

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