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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Brain tumor (Glioma) is one of the deadliest diseases that attack humans, now even men or women aged 20-30 are suffering from this disease. To cure tumor in a person, doctors use MRI machine, because the results of MRI images are proven to provide better image results than CT-Scan images, but sometimes it is difficult to distinguish between the MRI images having tumors with that images not having tumor from MRI image results. It is because of resulting contrast is like any other normal organ. However, using features of image processing techniques like scaling, contrast enhancement and thresh-holding based in Deep Neural Networks the scheme can classify the results more appropriately and with high accuracy. In this paper, this study reveals the nitty-gritty of Brain tumor (Gliomas) and Deep Learning techniques for better inception in the field of computer-vision.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (11) ◽  
pp. 1142-1147
Author(s):  
F. K. Permyakov

In the light of modern teachings, parasitic worms are considered not only as causative agents of helminthic diseases, very diverse in etiology and clinical course, but to a large extent also as the primary source of very frequent infectious diseases, as inoculators of microbial flora, as a factor that acts with its poisonous properties on the body, disrupting normal organ function and predisposing it to other diseases and to severe disease. With the development of most infectious diseases, the first role belongs to worms, and the second to bacteria; the course and death of the disease should be considered as the result of the combined destructive work of both. One should not be hypnotized by germs only (Cadeak).


Author(s):  
Anthony T. Eduviere ◽  
Prosper E. Awhin ◽  
Kesiena E. Edje ◽  
Lily O. Otomewo ◽  
Olusegun A. Adeoluwa ◽  
...  

Background: Stress, whether internal or external, has been shown to play a role in the accumulation of oxidative free radicals which leads to cellular modification of normal organ or body function. Centella lujica (C. lujica) is a commonly cultivated herb with therapeutic benefits in various studies. This study aims to evaluate its beneficial effect on the brain and liver of mice exposed to sleep deprivation-induced stress.Methods: Albino mice were treated with distilled water (control), C. lujica (50 and 100 mg/kg) or astaxanthin (50 mg/kg) for seven days. All groups except control were then subjected to three-days of sleep deprivation using the grid suspended over water model beginning from day 4 of treatment. Behavioural assessments followed by biochemical assays and histological analysis were carried out thereafter.Results: Sleep deprivation caused an increase in blood glucose and triglycerides levels but reduced high density lipoproteins. Brain pro-oxidant levels were increased with a concomitant decrease in antioxidants, recognition memory was diminished while depressive-like symptoms were enhanced and neuronal viability of hippocampal CA1 as well as prefrontal cortex cells was reduced in sleep-deprived mice. However, supplementation with C. lujica reversed these effects as significantly as astaxanthin.Conclusions: C. lujica possesses antioxidant property that makes it an effective adaptogen against stress induced responses in mice. 


Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 5043
Author(s):  
Pei-Yu Hou ◽  
Chen-Hsi Hsieh ◽  
Le-Jung Wu ◽  
Chen-Xiong Hsu ◽  
Deng-Yu Kuo ◽  
...  

Background: For advanced breast cancer with lymph node involvement, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) with regional nodal irradiation (RNI) has been indicated to reduce cancer recurrence and mortality. However, an extensive RT volume is associated with normal organ exposure, which increases the toxicity and affects patient outcomes. Modern arc RT techniques can improve normal organ sparing compared with conventional techniques. The aim of this study was to explore the optimal technique for left-breast RT with RNI. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients receiving RT with RNI for left-breast cancer. We used modern arc RT techniques with either volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or helical tomotherapy (HT) with a novel block technique, and compared differences in dosimetry parameters between the two groups. Subgroup analysis of RNI with or without internal mammary node (IMN) volume was also performed. Results: A total of 108 eligible patients were enrolled between 2017 and 2020, of whom 70 received VMAT and 38 received HT. The median RT dose was 55 Gy. No significant differences were found regarding the surgery, RT dose, number of fractions, target volume, and RNI volume between the VMAT and HT groups. VMAT reduced the heart mean dose more than HT (3.82 vs. 5.13 Gy, p < 0.001), as well as the cardiac parameters of V5-V20, whole-lung mean dose, lung parameters of V5-V20, and contralateral-breast and esophagus mean dose. In the subgroup analysis of RNI with IMNs, the advantage of VMAT persisted in protecting the heart, lung, contralateral breast, and esophagus. HT was beneficial for lowering the thyroid mean dose. For RNI without IMN, VMAT improved the low-dose exposure of the heart and lung, but HT was similar to VMAT in terms of heart, whole-lung, and contralateral-breast mean dose. Conclusions: For patients with left-breast cancer receiving adjuvant RT with RNI, VMAT reduced the exposure dose to the heart, lung, contralateral breast, and esophagus compared with HT. VMAT was superior to HT in terms of normal organ sparing in the patients who underwent RNI with IMN irradiation. Considering the reduction in normal organ exposure and potential toxicity, VMAT is the optimal technique for patients receiving RNI when deep inspiration breath-hold is not available.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rugivan Sabaratnam ◽  
Per Svenningsen

Obesity is characterized by pathological adipose tissue (AT) expansion. While healthy AT expansion enhances systemic insulin sensitivity, unhealthy AT expansion through increased adipocyte size is associated with insulin resistance, fibrosis, hypoxia, and reduced adipose-derived adiponectin secretion. The mechanisms causing the unhealthy AT expansion are not fully elucidated; yet, dysregulated crosstalk between cells within the AT is an important contributor. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests a crucial role of the crosstalk between vascular endothelium (the innermost cell type in blood vessels) and adipocytes for metabolic homeostasis. Arterial endothelial cells are directly involved in maintaining normal organ functions through local blood flow regulation. The endothelial-dependent regulation of blood flow in AT is hampered in obesity, which negatively affects the adipocyte. Moreover, endothelial cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) that target adipocytes in vivo. The endothelial EVs secretion is hampered in obesity and may be affected by the adipocyte-derived adipokine adiponectin. Adiponectin targets the vascular endothelium, eliciting organ-protective functions through binding to T-cadherin. The reduced obesity-induced adiponectin binding of T-cadherin reduces endothelial EV secretion. This affects endothelial health and cell-cell communication between AT cells and distant organs, influencing systemic energy homeostasis. This review focuses on the current understanding of endothelial and adipocyte crosstalk. We will discuss how obesity changes the AT environment and how these changes contribute to obesity-associated metabolic disease in humans. Particularly, we will describe and discuss the EV-dependent communication and regulation between adipocytes, adiponectin, and the endothelial cells regulating systemic energy homeostasis in health and metabolic disease in humans.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Anthony Ku ◽  
Misaki Kondo ◽  
Zhongli Cai ◽  
Jalna Meens ◽  
Min Rong Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are overexpressed on many head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with F(ab')2 of the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody panitumumab labeled with the β-particle emitter, 177Lu may be a promising treatment for HNSCC. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of a theranostic strategy that combines positron emission tomography (PET) with [64Cu]Cu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 to image HNSCC and predict the radiation equivalent doses to the tumour and normal organs from RIT with [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2. Results Panitumumab F(ab')2 were conjugated to DOTA and complexed to 64Cu or 177Lu in high radiochemical purity (95.6 ± 2.1% and 96.7 ± 3.5%, respectively) and exhibited high affinity EGFR binding (Kd = 2.9 ± 0.7 × 10− 9 mol/L). Biodistribution (BOD) studies at 6, 24 or 48 h post-injection (p.i.) of [64Cu]Cu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 (5.5–14.0 MBq; 50 μg) or [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 (6.5 MBq; 50 μg) in NRG mice with s.c. HNSCC patient-derived xenografts (PDX) overall showed no significant differences in tumour uptake but modest differences in normal organ uptake were noted at certain time points. Tumours were imaged by microPET/CT with [64Cu]Cu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 or microSPECT/CT with [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 but not with irrelevant [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-trastuzumab F(ab')2. Tumour uptake at 24 h p.i. of [64Cu]Cu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 [14.9 ± 1.1% injected dose/gram (%ID/g) and [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 (18.0 ± 0.4%ID/g) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-trastuzumab F(ab')2 (2.6 ± 0.5%ID/g), demonstrating EGFR-mediated tumour uptake. There were no significant differences in the radiation equivalent doses in the tumour and most normal organs estimated for [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 based on the BOD of [64Cu]Cu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 compared to those estimated directly from the BOD of [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 except for the liver and whole body which were modestly underestimated by [64Cu]Cu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of microPET/CT images provided dose estimates for the tumour and liver that were not significantly different for the two radioimmunoconjugates. Human doses from administration of [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 predicted that a 2 cm diameter HNSCC tumour in a patient would receive 1.1–1.5 mSv/MBq and the whole body dose would be 0.15–0.22 mSv/MBq. Conclusion A PET theranostic strategy combining [64Cu]Cu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 to image HNSCC tumours and predict the equivalent radiation doses in the tumour and normal organs from RIT with [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 is feasible. RIT with [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 may be a promising approach to treatment of HNSCC due to frequent overexpression of EGFR.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Futri Alifia Rezkiyanti
Keyword(s):  

Gizi merupakan zat-zat yang ada dalam makanan yang diperlukan oleh tubuh sehingga tubuh memperoleh energi yang dapat digunakan untuk menjalani aktivitas sehari-hari, zat-zat tersebut seperti karbohidrat, lemak, protein, mineral, vitamin dan air. Selain itu gizi dapat diartikan juga sebagai suatu proses penyerapan, maupun pengeluaran zat gizi untuk mempertahankan kehidupan, pertumbuhan dan fungsi normal organ tubuh serta menghasilkan tenaga.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anita Yudianti
Keyword(s):  

Gizi atau makanan di perlukan manusia untuk pemeliharaan tubuh termasuk pertumbuhan dan pergantian jaringan yang rusak akibat kerja atau kegiatan fisik. Gizi merupakan salah satu faktor yang sangat penting dalam meningkatkan kesegaran jasmani. Keadaan gizi dikatakan baik atau normal apabila terdapat keseimbangan antara kebutuhan hidup terhadap zat-zat gizi dengan makanan yang dikonsumsi, maksudnya jumlah energi dan zat gizi yang dikonsumsi tubuh sama dengan yang dibutuhkan oleh tubuh serta sama dengan energi yang dikeluarkan dari dalam tubuh.Pola makan akan menentukan jumlah zat-zat gizi yang diperlukan oleh tubuh untuk pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya. Tujuan adalah untuk meningkatkan derajat kesehatan, kualitas sumber daya manusia, taraf hidup, kecerdasan dan kesejahteraan rakyat pada umumnya. Peningkatan kualitas sumber daya manusia berkaitan erat dengan pangan dan gizi. Gizi diartikan sebagai suatu proses organisme menggunakan makanan yang di konsumsi secara normal melalui proses pencernaan, penyerapan, transportasi, penyimpanan, metabolisme dan pengeluaran zat gizi untuk mempertahankan kehidupan, pertumbuhan dan fungsi normal organ tubuh untuk menghasilkan tenaga.Status gizi baik atau status gizi optimal terjadi apabila tubuh mendapat asupan zat gizi yang cukup. Status gizi kurang dapat terjadi apabila tubuh mengalami kekurangan satu atau lebih zat gizi esensial. Status gizi lebih dapat terjadi apabila tubuh memperoleh zat gizi yang melebihi dari angka kecukupan, sehingga menimbulkan efek yang membahayakan bagi tubuh.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Futri Alifia
Keyword(s):  

Gizi merupakan zat-zat yang ada dalam makanan yang diperlukan oleh tubuh sehingga tubuh memperoleh energi yang dapat digunakan untuk menjalani aktivitas sehari-hari, zat-zat tersebut seperti karbohidrat, lemak, protein, mineral, vitamin dan air. Selain itu gizi dapat diartikan juga sebagai suatu proses penyerapan, maupun pengeluaran zat gizi untuk mempertahankan kehidupan, pertumbuhan dan fungsi normal organ tubuh serta menghasilkan tenaga.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Futri Alifia Rezkiyanti
Keyword(s):  

Gizi merupakan zat-zat yang ada dalam makanan yang diperlukan oleh tubuh sehingga tubuh memperoleh energi yang dapat digunakan untuk menjalani aktivitas sehari-hari, zat-zat tersebut seperti karbohidrat, lemak, protein, mineral, vitamin dan air. Selain itu gizi dapat diartikan juga sebagai suatu proses penyerapan, maupun pengeluaran zat gizi untuk mempertahankan kehidupan, pertumbuhan dan fungsi normal organ tubuh serta menghasilkan tenaga.


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