high density lipoproteins
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. U. Asghar ◽  
A. Rahman ◽  
Z. Hayat ◽  
M. K. Rafique ◽  
I. H. Badar ◽  

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.

2022 ◽  
Lamazhapova Galina Petrovna ◽  
Syngeeva Erzhena Vladimirovna ◽  
Zhamsaranova Sesegma Dashievna ◽  
Kozlova Tatyana Sergeevna

We developed ω-3-enriched bread by adding a liposomal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) concentrate to the bread recipe. We determined that subsequent feeding of the ω-3-enriched bread to experimental animals in the alimentary dyslipidaemia state led to normalisation of the lipid profile of the blood serum, with a decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density and very lowdensity lipoproteins. The high-density lipoproteins, antioxidants, reduced glutathione and glutathione reductase activity index increased compared to the corresponding indicators in animals with alimentary dyslipidaemia that were fed bread without ω-3. The ω-3-enriched bread diet significantly decreased harmful oxidation products (diene conjugates and malondialdehyde) in the blood plasma, erythrocytes and liver. Therefore, the results suggested that bread enriched with ω-3 fatty acids is a functional food with hypolipidaemic action. The results on the total content of fatty acids in lipids from bread samples prepared according to a standard recipe and bread enriched with concentrate showed that the relative content of omega-3 PUFAs in the fortified bread significantly increased by 3.2 times compared to bread without the addition of concentrate. The additive did not change the consumer qualities of the finished product (taste and smell of the bread). Keywords: alimentary dyslipidaemia, antioxidant effect, bread, functional food, lipid profile, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Wei Li ◽  
Nargis Sultana ◽  
Linda Yuan ◽  
Claes Forssell ◽  
Xi-Ming Yuan

The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD74 levels in atherosclerotic lesions are associated with inflammation, apoptosis, plaque severity, and clinical symptoms among patients with carotid atherosclerosis. We further studied whether CD74 expression is associated with apoptosis in macrophages induced by 7ketocholesterol (7keto). Sixty-one carotid samples (39 males and 22 females) were immunostained with macrophages, smooth muscle cells, CD74, ferritin, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), and thrombin receptors. Double immunocytochemistry of CD74 and caspase 3 or CD74 and Annexin V was performed on THP-1 macrophages exposed to 7keto. In human carotid plaques, CD74 expression is lesion-dependently increased and is associated with necrotic core formation and plaque rupture, clinical symptoms, macrophage apoptosis, ferritin, and thrombin receptors. CD74 levels were inversely correlated to high-density lipoproteins and statin treatment, and positively correlated to triglycerides. In THP-1 macrophages, 7keto induced a significant increase in levels of CD74, ferritin, and apoptotic cell death. This study suggests that CD74 in apoptotic macrophages is linked to inflammation and thrombosis in progression of human atherosclerotic plaques, lipid metabolism, and clinical manifestation in atherosclerosis. Surface CD74 in apoptotic macrophages and ferritin production induced by oxidized lipids may contribute to inflammation and plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Wang-Yu Cai ◽  
Xi Luo ◽  
Jianyuan Song ◽  
Danpin Ji ◽  
Jun Zhu ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the effect of hyperinsulinemia (HI) and insulin resistance (IR) on endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive outcomes in women without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing assisted reproduction.Materials and Methods: The study included 1,104 non-PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-fresh embryo transfer. HI was evaluated by serum fasting insulin (FIN), and IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). In addition, biometric, sex hormone, and metabolic parameters were measured. Independent t-test, linear, and logistic regression examined associations between HI, IR, and endocrine, metabolic, ovarian stimulation characteristics, and reproductive outcomes.Results: Women with HI and IR had lower levels of progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, high-density lipoproteins, and increased levels of triglycerides low-density lipoproteins. For ovarian stimulation characteristics, those with HI and IR had a longer duration of stimulation, a higher total gonadotropin dose, and a lower peak estradiol level. Linear regression confirmed these associations. For reproductive outcomes, HI and IR were not associated with clinical pregnancy, live birth, and miscarriage.Conclusions: HI and IR did not impair reproductive outcomes in non-PCOS women undergoing assisted reproduction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (2) ◽  
pp. e2102953118
Varnavas D. Mouchlis ◽  
Daiki Hayashi ◽  
Alexis M. Vasquez ◽  
Jian Cao ◽  
J. Andrew McCammon ◽  

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) associates with low- and high-density lipoproteins in human plasma and specifically hydrolyzes circulating oxidized phospholipids involved in oxidative stress. The association of this enzyme with the lipoprotein’s phospholipid monolayer to access its substrate is the most crucial first step in its catalytic cycle. The current study demonstrates unequivocally that a significant movement of a major helical peptide region occurs upon membrane binding, resulting in a large conformational change upon Lp-PLA2 binding to a phospholipid surface. This allosteric regulation of an enzyme’s activity by a large membrane-like interface inducing a conformational change in the catalytic site defines a unique dimension of allosterism. The mechanism by which this enzyme associates with phospholipid interfaces to select and extract a single phospholipid substrate molecule and carry out catalysis is key to understanding its physiological functioning. A lipidomics platform was employed to determine the precise substrate specificity of human recombinant Lp-PLA2 and mutants. This study uniquely elucidates the association mechanism of this enzyme with membranes and its resulting conformational change as well as the extraction and binding of specific oxidized and short acyl-chain phospholipid substrates. Deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled with molecular dynamics simulations was used to define the precise specificity of the subsite for the oxidized fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the phospholipid backbone. Despite the existence of several crystal structures of this enzyme cocrystallized with inhibitors, little was understood about Lp-PLA2‘s specificity toward oxidized phospholipids.

Alexander C. Reisinger ◽  
Max Schuller ◽  
Harald Sourij ◽  
Julia T. Stadler ◽  
Gerald Hackl ◽  

Background: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are thought to play a protective role in sepsis through several mechanisms, such as promotion of steroid synthesis, clearing bacterial toxins, protection of the endothelial barrier, and antioxidant/inflammatory activities. However, HDL levels decline rapidly during sepsis, but the contributing mechanisms are poorly understood.Methods/Aim: In the present study, we investigated enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in sepsis and non-sepsis patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).Results: In 53 ICU sepsis and 25 ICU non-sepsis patients, we observed significant differences in several enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activity, LCAT concentration, and cholesteryl transfer protein (CETP) activity were significantly lower, whereas phospholipid transfer activity protein (PLTP) and endothelial lipase (EL) were significantly higher in sepsis patients compared to non-sepsis patients. In addition, serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were increased 10-fold in sepsis patients compared with non-sepsis patients. Furthermore, we found that LCAT activity was significantly associated with ICU and 28-day mortality whereas SAA levels, representing a strong inflammatory marker, did not associate with mortality outcomes.Conclusion: We provide novel data on the rapid and robust changes in HDL metabolism during sepsis. Our results clearly highlight the critical role of specific metabolic pathways and enzymes in sepsis pathophysiology that may lead to novel therapeutics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 79-88
إبراهيم خلف حميد الدليمي ◽  
أسماء هاشم شاكر ◽  
فهد خلف ياسين ◽  

The present study aimed to identify the therapeutic evaluation of chitosan extracted from the fungus cushroom and pure chitosan on glucose and lipid profile in the blood of 35 male rabbits with hyperlipidemia induced experimentally by cholesterol. The tests included estimation of glucose levels, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and very low-density lipoproteins. hyperlipidemia was induced in the male rabbits used in the study which was administered orally with cholesterol 150mg/kg body weight for a week. rabbits were divided into seven groups: control, cholesterol, pure chitosan, mushroom chitosan, cholesterol and pure chitosan, cholesterol and mushroom chitosan and cholesterol and simvastatin. The results of the study showed, the hyperlipidemia induced experimentally resulted a significant increase (P<0.05) in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL, while no significant difference in HDL compared with control group, on the otherwise the glucose level significantly increase than control. Also, groups of animals treatment with pure chitosan and mushroom chitosan showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL, and no significant difference in HDL compared with control group. While, the groups showed treatment with cholesterol and pure chitosan, cholesterol and mushroom chitosan, cholesterol and simvastatin a significant decrease (P<0.05) in glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL, and a significant increase (P<0.05) in HDL compared with the cholesterol group. The research study revealed that chitosan extracted from mushroom can control the levels of fat concentrations and their complications, in addition to its important role in biochemical variables, and treatment of most disease cases, especially cardiovascular disease.

2021 ◽  
Adi Zheng ◽  
Gilles Dubuis ◽  
Maria Georgieva ◽  
Carla Susana Mendes Ferreira ◽  
Marc Serulla ◽  

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) prevent cell death induced by a variety of cytotoxic drugs. The underlying mechanisms are however still poorly understood. Here we present evidence that HDLs efficiently protect cells against thapsigargin (TG), a sarco/ endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor, by extracting the drug from cells. Drug efflux could also be triggered to some extent by low-density lipoproteins and serum. HDLs did not reverse the non-lethal mild ER stress response induced by low TG concentrations or by SERCA knock-down but HDLs inhibited the toxic SERCA-independent effects mediated by high TG concentrations. HDLs could extract other lipophilic compounds, but not hydrophilic substances This work shows that HDLs utilize their capacity of loading themselves with lipophilic compounds, akin to their ability to extract cellular cholesterol, to reduce the cell content of hydrophobic drugs. This can be beneficial if lipophilic xenobiotics are toxic but may be detrimental to the therapeutic benefit of lipophilic drugs such as glibenclamide.

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (11) ◽  
pp. 29-37
Momin Munira ◽  
Apurva Kadam ◽  
Chintan Bhavsar ◽  
Anisha D’Souza

Poor solubility of orlistat limits its luminal concentration and hence needs to be administered in higher doses, leading to drug related side effects. The aim of the present research was to investigate nanocrystallization approach to increase the solubility of orlistat using melt extrusion and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) methods. The effect of factors like type and amount of polymer, homogenization pressure and time, and number of cycles on orlistat solubility was investigated. A ~10-fold increase in the solubility of orlistat was attained using OPo11N with a subsequent increase in the dissolution rate of the drug. Poloxamer 188-orlistat nanocrystals (OPo11N) as compared to pure orlistat led to a decrease in T90%(20 mins for OPo11N and 51 mins for marketed sample). In vivo studies in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats showed that post one month of oral administration the total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins of female SD rats remained unchanged compared to the control group. The triglycerides content and high-density lipoproteins levels were significantly increased with increase in the treatment time i.e. 12 weeks compared to the group treated with pure orlistat drug. In conclusion, the NC approach could serve as an effective formulation strategy for solubility enhancement of orlistat.

2021 ◽  
Danielle L Michell ◽  
Ryan M Allen ◽  
Ashley B Cavnar ◽  
Danielle M Contreras ◽  
Minzhi Yu ◽  

Extracellular small RNAs (sRNA) are abundant in many biofluids, but little is known about their mechanisms of transport and stability in RNase-rich environments. We previously reported that high-density lipoproteins (HDL) of mice were enriched with multiple classes of sRNA derived from the endogenous transcriptome, but also exogenous organisms. Here, we show that human HDL transports tRNA-derived sRNAs (tDRs) from host and non-host species which were found to be altered in human atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that HDL binds to tDRs through apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and these interactions are conferred by RNA-specific features. We tested this using microscale thermophoresis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays and found that HDL bind tDRs and other single-stranded sRNAs with strong affinity, but not double-stranded RNA or DNA. Natural and synthetic RNA modifications influenced tDR binding to HDL. Reconstituted HDL bound tDRs only in the presence of apoA-I and purified apoA-I alone was sufficient for binding sRNA. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine vesicles did not bind tDRs. In summary, HDL preferentially binds to single-stranded sRNAs likely through non-ionic interactions with apoA-I. These studies highlight binding properties that likely enable extracellular RNA communication and provide a foundation for future studies to manipulate HDL-sRNA for therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat disease.

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