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Hamsalakshmi ◽  
Ann Maria Alex ◽  
Mahalakshmi Arehally Marappa ◽  
Suresh Joghee ◽  
Saravana Babu Chidambaram

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Mike-Andrew Westhoff ◽  
Marie Schuler-Ortoli ◽  
Daniela Zerrinius ◽  
Amina Hadzalic ◽  
Andrea Schuster ◽  

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common solid tumour in children and, despite current treatment with a rather aggressive combination therapy, accounts for 10% of all deaths associated with paediatric cancer. Breaking the tumour cells’ intrinsic resistance to therapy-induced cell death should lead to less aggressive and more effective treatment options. In other tumour entities, this has been achieved by modulating the balance between the various pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family with small molecule inhibitors. To evaluate the therapeutic benefits of ABT-199 (Venetoclax), a Bcl-2 inhibitor, and ABT-263 (Navitoclax), a dual Bcl-XL/Bcl-2 inhibitor, increasingly more relevant model systems were investigated. Starting from established MB cell lines, progressing to primary patient-derived material and finally an experimental tumour system imbedded in an organic environment were chosen. Assessment of the metabolic activity (a surrogate readout for population viability), the induction of DNA fragmentation (apoptosis) and changes in cell number (the combined effect of alterations in proliferation and cell death induction) revealed that ABT-263, but not ABT-199, is a promising candidate for combination therapy, synergizing with cell death-inducing stimuli. Interestingly, in the experimental tumour setting, the sensitizing effect of ABT-263 seems to be predominantly mediated via an anti-proliferative and not a pro-apoptotic effect, opening a future line of investigation. Our data show that modulation of specific members of the Bcl-2 family might be a promising therapeutic addition for the treatment of MB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yue Dong ◽  
Hai-Ying Tong ◽  
Xian-Ju Huang ◽  
Ghulam Murtaza ◽  
Yu-Jia Huang ◽  

Background. Anshen Buxin Liuwei pill (ABLP) is a Mongolian medicinal formula which has a therapeutic effect on the symptoms such as coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, depression and irritability, palpitation, and short breath. However, its bioactivity against cardiac injury remains unclear. Methods. The protective effect of ABLP was evaluated using H9c2 cells. Cell viability, intracellular Ca2+, reactive oxidative indices, and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψ) were assessed, respectively. The mRNA levels of Ca2+ channel-related genes (DHPR, RyR2, and SCN5A) and oxidative stress-related genes (Keap1, Nrf2, and HO-1) were measured by RT-PCR. Results. 0.5–50 μg/mL ABLP could significantly decrease H2O2-induced cell injury by suppressing cell necrosis/apoptosis and excess oxidative stress, ameliorating the collapse of ∆ψ, and reducing intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Furthermore, 0.5–50 μg/mL ABLP reversed H2O2-induced imbalance in the mRNA levels of DHPR, RyR2, SCN5A, Keap1, Nrf2, and HO-1 gene in H9c2 cells, which further illustrate the mechanism. Conclusion. ABLP provided protective and therapeutic benefits against H2O2-induced H9c2 cell injury, indicating that this formula can effectively treat coronary disease. In addition, the present study also provides an in-depth understanding of the pharmacological functions of ABLP, which may lead to further successful applications of Mongolian medicine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jan Kehr ◽  
Fu-Hua Wang ◽  
Fumio Ichinose ◽  
Shimako Yoshitake ◽  
Bence Farkas ◽  

The negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and related disorders may be due to reduced dopaminergic tone in cortical brain areas. Alteration in the function of dopamine (DA) D3 receptors may play a role in this cortical hypofunctionality and underlie the deficits in social behaviors and cognitive functions in schizophrenia. Cariprazine is a potent DA D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist that is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The objective of the study was to compare the abilities of cariprazine, aripiprazole (another DA receptor partial agonist with more D2 receptor preference), and ABT-925 (a selective DA D3 antagonist) to counteract the social deficit and neurochemical alterations induced by the D3 receptor-preferring agonist (+)-PD 128907 (PD) in rats. Administration of PD (0.16 mg/kg; s.c.) induced a marked (−72%) but short-lasting disruption of the defensive social aggregation behavior (huddling) in the first 10-min period. Cariprazine at all doses (0.1, 0.3, 1 mg/kg; p.o.) almost completely abolished the PD-induced disruption of huddling. Likewise, ABT-925 (3 mg/kg; p.o.) and to a lesser extent aripiprazole (20 mg/kg; p.o.) were effective in blocking the PD-induced disruption of huddling. As measured by microdialysis, the highest dose of cariprazine prevented a PD-induced decrease in DA levels (40–80 min post PD dose) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas aripiprazole did not have a significant effect. ABT-925 significantly counteracted the effect of PD at 80 min post-dose. In the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) shell, the highest dose of cariprazine, as well as ABT-925 and aripiprazole, significantly reversed the PD-induced decrease in DA levels. Taken together, these data provide behavioral and in vivo neurochemical evidence for the preferential DA D3 receptor action of cariprazine in the rat. This property of cariprazine may offer therapeutic benefits against the cognitive deficits and negative/depressive symptoms of schizophrenia and related disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 716-724
Ahmed Benmahammed

Citrus fruits have long been qualified as veritable foods in view of the many therapeutic benefits they bring to the body. Several researchers have stud-ied the relationship between the bioactive compounds of Citrus and the health benefits and reduction of the risk of disease. Citrus sinensis, used in the food industry and its extracts have also been used in traditional medicine to activate vital energy, circulation, and weight loss, and appetite control. However, limited efforts have been made on collecting data on antioxidant potential of peels orange from the northern region of Algeria. Our study, therefore, focuses on the evaluation of total polyphenols compounds and in vitro assessment of their antioxidant potential of peels orange from the northern region of Algeria. The ethyl acetate and n-butanolic fractions from peels orange have been tested for their antioxidant activities and their lipid peroxidation inhibiting effects. The total phenolic and flavonoids content showed high levels. The preliminary phytochemical screening of tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, coumarin, and alkaloids was also used. DPPH assay possesses strong potency to scavenge free radicals. The NO. radi-cal scavenging test exerts a good inhibitory effect. Furthermore, orange peels have been shown to suppress the lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid. Results further revealed a strong correlation between antioxidant effects and polyphenolic compounds. The high antioxidant activity of peel orange suggests that it could serve as a good natural antioxidant additive or food dietary supplement.

Tamim Ahsan ◽  
Abu Ashfaqur Sajib

Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) is an important cytokine that influences multiple biological processes. It is one of the key mediators of acute and chronic systemic inflammatory reactions and plays a central role in several autoimmune diseases. A number of approved monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are widely used to subside these autoimmune diseases. However, there is a high rate of non-responsiveness to treatments with these mAbs. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict responses of the patients in an individualistic manner to these therapeutic antibodies before administration. In the present study, we used in silico tools to explore the effects of missense variants in the respective epitopes of four therapeutic anti-TNFA mAbs—adalimumab (ADA), certolizumab pegol (CZP), golimumab (GLM), and infliximab (IFX)—on their interactions with TNFA. Results The binding affinities of CZP and ADA to corresponding epitopes appear to be reduced by four (TNFAR131Q, TNFAE135G, TNFAR138Q, and TNFAR138W) and two (TNFAG66C and TNFAG66S) variants, respectively. The binding of GLM and IFX appears to be affected by TNFAR141S and TNFAR138W, respectively. TNFAG66C and TNFAG66S may be associated with autoimmune diseases, whereas TNFAE135G, TNFAR138W, and TNFAR141S may be pathogenic per se. Conclusion These variants may contribute to the observed inter-individual variability in response to anti-TNFA mAbs treatments and be used as markers to predict responses, and thus optimize therapeutic benefits to the patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Farbod Shojaei ◽  
Bob Goodenow ◽  
Gloria Lee ◽  
Fairooz Kabbinavar ◽  
Mireille Gillings

HBI-8000 is a small molecule inhibitor of class I HDACs and has been approved for the treatment of PTCL, ATL and, in combination with exemestane, in a subpopulation of breast cancer. Given the roles of HDACs in normal and cancerous cells, there are currently multiple clinical trials, by HUYABIO International, to test the efficacy of HBI-8000 in monotherapy or in combination settings in leukemias and in solid tumors. The current review is focused on the applications of HDACi HBI-8000 in cancer therapy and its potential in combination with DDR agents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mingma Thsering Sherpa ◽  
Takumi Kiwamoto ◽  
Masashi Matsuyama ◽  
Yoshiya Tsunoda ◽  
Kai Yazaki ◽  

HAS2 is a member of the gene family encoding the hyaluronan synthase 2, which can generate high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA). Our previous study identified HAS2 as a candidate gene for increased susceptibility to adult asthma. However, whether HAS2 dysfunction affects airway remodeling and steroid insensitivity is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the Has2 dysfunction, triggering severe airway remodeling and steroid insensitivity in a murine model of asthma. Has2 heterozygous-deficient (Has2+/−) mice and their wild-type littermates have been evaluated in a model of chronic ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Mice present a higher sensitivity to OVA and higher IL-17 release as well as eosinophilic infiltration. RNA sequencing demonstrated the downregulation of EIF2 signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling pathways, and heat shock proteins with Th17 bias in Has2+/−-OVA mice. The combined treatment with anti-IL-17A antibody and dexamethasone reduces steroid insensitivity in Has2+/−-OVA mice. Has2 attenuation worsens eosinophilic airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and steroid insensitivity. These data highlight that HAS2 and HMW-HA are important for controlling intractable eosinophilic airway inflammation and remodeling and could potentially be exploited for their therapeutic benefits in patients with asthma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Diego Rocco ◽  
Luca Rizzi ◽  
Gaia Dell’Arciprete ◽  
Raffaella Perrella

Objective: The present work aims to conduct the first naturalistic empirical investigation of the process and outcome assessment of functional psychotherapy (FP) treatment. The FP model of psychotherapy is rooted in psychoanalysis and integrates the verbal communication approach founded on transference and countertransference dynamics with the analysis of bodily processes.Method: The study sample included ten patients recruited on a voluntary basis and treated by clinicians in their private practices. Each patient received FP with an average duration of 40 h (min 35 and max 42). Therapies had weekly sessions, were audio-recorded with the patient’s written consent, and lasted for an average of 10 months (min 9 and max 12). Outcome and process tools included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Luborsky’s the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT), used to assess therapeutic benefit, and the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Italian Discourse Attributes Analysis Program (IDAAP) system, used to evaluate therapeutic benefit and process. The MMPI-2 was used also in the follow-up assessment.Results: Results show that FP had a positive therapeutic outcome on the patients assessed in this study, and that the therapeutic benefits were maintained over time. Some specific features of the FP approach were found to contribute more than others to the observed therapeutic benefits.Conclusion: The current investigation constitutes a first step toward assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness of FP. Future developments should apply the methodology to a larger sample, possibly introducing different methodologies to enable detection of specific bodily oriented processes and techniques.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Asma Akbar ◽  
Farzaneh Malekian ◽  
Neda Baghban ◽  
Sai Priyanka Kodam ◽  
Mujib Ullah

The use of extracellular vesicles (EV) in nano drug delivery has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In this study, we discuss the sources of extracellular vesicles, including plant, salivary and urinary sources which are easily available but less sought after compared with blood and tissue. Extensive research in the past decade has established that the breadth of EV applications is wide. However, the efforts on standardizing the isolation and purification methods have not brought us to a point that can match the potential of extracellular vesicles for clinical use. The standardization can open doors for many researchers and clinicians alike to experiment with the proposed clinical uses with lesser concerns regarding untraceable side effects. It can make it easier to identify the mechanism of therapeutic benefits and to track the mechanism of any unforeseen effects observed.

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