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Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 141
Torben Tvedebrink

The inference of ancestry has become a part of the services many forensic genetic laboratories provide. Interest in ancestry may be to provide investigative leads or identify the region of origin in cases of unidentified missing persons. There exist many biostatistical methods developed for the study of population structure in the area of population genetics. However, the challenges and questions are slightly different in the context of forensic genetics, where the origin of a specific sample is of interest compared to the understanding of population histories and genealogies. In this paper, the methodologies for modelling population admixture and inferring ancestral populations are reviewed with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses in relation to ancestry inference in the forensic context.

Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 254-259
E.C. Pappa ◽  
E. Kondyli ◽  
A.M. Vlachou ◽  
A. Kakouri ◽  
E. Malamou

As artisanal cheeses are gaining recognition during the last years by consumers, efforts should be made to standardize their manufacture in order to produce safe products of high and constant quality, supporting the local economy and spreading them outside the region of origin. In this work, the biochemical and microbiological characteristics of Kefalotyri cheese produced during summer in the mountains of Pindos using an artisanal cheesemaking procedure were studied. Sheep raw cheese milk was used without starter culture addition for Kefalotyri cheese manufacture. At 90 days of ripening and storage (the date that hard cheese can be sold in the market), its moisture was 40.4%, fat 28.8%, salt 4.1% and proteins 23.3%. Butyric acid and 3methyl butanoic acid were the most abundant volatile compounds found in this cheese. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and cocci were dominated; high numbers of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria and cocci, enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae were also present and the microbiological data revealed a rather satisfactory hygienic sanitary condition of the cheeses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S781-S782
Hikari Yoshii ◽  
Charles Bark

Abstract Background Adherence in the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is closely related to reactivation and infection control in the population. However, there has been little research on which populations are at higher risk of loss to follow-up. The aim of this study is to investigate how the adherence of LTBI patients in the United States (US) differs by region of origin. Methods A retrospective, observational study was conducted from 2001 to 2020. LTBI patients were identified from the Cuyahoga County Tuberculosis Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio. Only patients who were informed of the diagnosis of LTBI were included. Patients were discharged from the Tuberculosis outpatient clinic upon completion of treatment or when the physician decided to discontinue treatment. We defined loss to follow-up as a case where LTBI was diagnosed but the patient was not formally discharged. Patients whose treatment was interrupted due to side effects were not considered loss to follow-up. Odds ratios were calculated using a multivariable regression model with patients from North America as the reference group. Results Of 4018 LTBI patients, 1171 (28.7%) were lost to follow-up, of which 950/2314 (41.0%) were from North America. Compared with LTBI patients from North America, significantly lower loss to follow-up rates were observed for those from Middle East and North Africa 30/170 (17.7% OR 0.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.31-0.89), South Asia 60/692 (8.7% OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.78), and Sub-Saharan Africa 69/526 (13.1% OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14-0.36). Conclusion The analysis showed that a high loss to follow-up rate was observed in the patient groups from North America, Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America & the Caribbean. LTBI patients from North America had a significantly higher loss to follow-up rate than those from Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa, respectively. Further research is needed to determine how to intervene in the poorly adherent patient population, such as LTBI patients from North America, Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America & the Caribbean. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

2021 ◽  
pp. 59-70

This paper investigates the level of standard Albanian use by primary school teachers for grades 1-5 in Kosovo as well as in the cities of Presheva and Bujanoc in Serbia. This paper investigates concrete situations and problems of standard Albanian and other varieties use in school. The research was conducted with a total number of 66 teachers in the form of a questionnaire and test on concrete problems of standard Albanian spelling norm. In order to have an example of a fourdimensional space, information on sociolinguistic factors, such as: work experience, region of origin, education, and gender of respondents were collected intentionally as important dimensions for a language. The research is of a descriptive nature and does not intend to provide assessments of a prescriptive nature nor take a stance on the investigated cases. Instead, in a more complete way, through the survey corpus, it intends to process the data statistically and present the current situation of standard Albanian use in its written form by primary school teachers. According to the research results, standard Albanian is not well mastered by the primary school teachers in Kosovo. However, based on the research results, in school we have a diglossic situation of different varieties use: standard Albanian, literary Gheg, dialectical (local) Gheg, which coexist depending on the situations of formal and informal communication that can occur in school, although in this domain of formal communication it is the high variety that is intended to be used.

2021 ◽  
Brook Herman ◽  
William Slack ◽  
Todd Swannack

In this report, we describe how aspects of existing freshwater mussel indices of biological integrity can be modified to fit within the planning paradigm established for developing and certifying ecological models for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ planning purposes. Herein, we present examples of using freshwater mussels for biological monitoring, how to calculate their associated IBIs specific to their region of origin and their potential use in ecosystem restoration planning. Additionally, we present general conceptual models that may be used in ecological model development and environmental benefits analysis for projects that focus on freshwater mussel habitat restoration.

2021 ◽  
Vol III (III) ◽  
pp. 115-131
Paweł Opitek

The article under the title “Real estate agent as an institution obliged to counteract money laundering” discusses statutory responsibilities of agents as regards the AML policy. The second part of the paper examines how to identify the risk associated with a particular client and assignment and how to make a correct assessment and to eliminate the threats. Risk assessment criteria have been discussed with respect to the type of the counterparty, the specific nature of products and services offered, the geographical region of origin of the money and transaction identifiers. The signs of potential threats have been described and systematised in Chapter Six. The paper underlines the fact that the agent’s activities are based on internal AML procedures and should be adequately evidenced. The paper ends with a summary of the researched topic.

10.31611/78 ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Dolores G. Morris ◽  
Kathleen Morris ◽  
Christopher J. Thawley ◽  
Jason J. Kolbe ◽  
Sozos N. Michaelides

In the state of Florida, USA, lizards of the genus Anolis are well represented with at least nine established non-native species and a single native species, A. carolinensis. The most recently introduced species is A. allisoni, a close relative to both the native A. carolinensis and one of the introduced species (A. porcatus). Anolis allisoni is thought to have been present in two locations in Florida since at least 2013 based on photographic evidence. Here, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from these three closely related Anolis species to infer the most likely region of origin in the native range and confirm the establishment of the recent invader in Tampa, Florida. We found a single haplotype belonging to A. allisoni, which was closely related to native sequences from east-central Cuba. The most likely geographic origin is a tourist destination in the province of Sancti Spiritus, suggesting the potential for human-mediated introduction of A. allisoni to Florida. Given the evidence of hybridization within the carolinensis subgroup, the presence and establishment of the phylogenetically related and ecomorphologically similar A. allisoni may create novel opportunities for interspecific genetic exchange.

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