monitoring systems
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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 63-71
Sergey N. Razinkov ◽  
Olga E. Razinkova

Using spectral energy equations of transmission-reception of wave processes in radio channel with scattering on object and direct radio channel, analysis of energy ratios of information signals and active masking interference at inputs of receivers of remote monitoring systems is carried out. Measures to reduce visibility are aimed at changing the reflective signatures of objects in the interests of reducing the de-masking features contained in secondary electromagnetic radiation to limits that exclude the performance of radar monitoring tasks at established distances and time intervals. Active interference is designed to mask information signals in receiving channels of radar at power that does not allow detecting their designers by passive radar. In case of joint application of not iceability reducing devices and active jammers, radar range reducing coefficient is determined by product of coefficient characterizing possibility of autonomous masking of information signals and coefficient achievable due to reduction of secondary electromagnetic radiation power in the second degree. The laws of increase of aircraft stealth from radar observation with joint application of technologies of reduction of radar visibility and masking by intentional interference created from sides of protected objects and from assigned points have been investigated. In order to maintain the desired signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the receiver with a decrease in the duration of the probing signal, it is necessary to proportionally increase the density of the emitted energy. With given antenna sizes, the maximum signal transmission range is proportional to the root square of their cyclic carrier frequency; increase of this parameter leads to increase of partial coefficient of directional action and effective area of antenna. With a decrease in the cyclic frequency of the carrier of the probing signal, inorder to maintain the required directional properties of the antennas, it is necessary to increase their dimensions.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 169
Vyacheslav Klyukhin ◽  
Austin Ball ◽  
Felix Bergsma ◽  
Henk Boterenbrood ◽  
Benoit Curé ◽  

This review article describes the performance of the magnetic field measuring and monitoring systems for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. To cross-check the magnetic flux distribution obtained with the CMS magnet model, four systems for measuring the magnetic flux density in the detector volume were used. The magnetic induction inside the 6 m diameter superconducting solenoid was measured and is currently monitored by four nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes installed using special tubes at a radius of 2.9148 m outside the barrel hadron calorimeter at ±0.006 m from the coil median XY-plane. Two more NRM probes were installed at the faces of the tracking system at Z-coordinates of −2.835 and +2.831 m and a radius of 0.651 m from the solenoid axis. The field inside the superconducting solenoid was precisely measured in 2006 in a cylindrical volume of 3.448 m in diameter and 7 m in length using ten three-dimensional (3D) B-sensors based on the Hall effect (Hall probes). These B-sensors were installed on each of the two propeller arms of an automated field-mapping machine. In addition to these measurement systems, a system for monitoring the magnetic field during the CMS detector operation has been developed. Inside the solenoid in the horizontal plane, four 3D B-sensors were installed at the faces of the tracking detector at distances X = ±0.959 m and Z-coordinates of −2.899 and +2.895 m. Twelve 3D B-sensors were installed on the surfaces of the flux-return yoke nose disks. Seventy 3D B-sensors were installed in the air gaps of the CMS magnet yoke in 11 XY-planes of the azimuthal sector at 270°. A specially developed flux loop technique was used for the most complex measurements of the magnetic flux density inside the steel blocks of the CMS magnet yoke. The flux loops are installed in 22 sections of the flux-return yoke blocks in grooves of 30 mm wide and 12–13 mm deep and consist of 7–10 turns of 45 wire flat ribbon cable. The areas enclosed by these coils varied from 0.3 to 1.59 m2 in the blocks of the barrel wheels and from 0.5 to 1.12 m2 in the blocks of the yoke endcap disks. The development of these systems and the results of the magnetic flux density measurements across the CMS magnet are presented and discussed in this review article.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-42
Md. Kausar Alam ◽  
Oli Ahad Thakur

The main objective of this article is to describe the logical reasons why a Centralized Shariah Governance Framework (CSGF) provided by the Central Bank of Bangladesh (Bangladesh Bank) is essential for the country’s Islamic banks. In doing so, it identifies the major regulatory challenges (self-developed and disparate use of Shariah Governance (SG) practices) faced by Islamic banks in Bangladesh. It considers an analytical approach to explore the significance of a CSGF for Islamic banks in Bangladesh and examines the current diversified procedures of SG practices. This article reveals that the self-developed SG practices of Islamic banks in Bangladesh have created confusion and pessimism among the practitioners, bankers and even to the general people and regulators which is negatively affecting the overall image of Islamic banks. Such incongruent governance practices have led to inconsistencies in SG structures, implementation procedures, monitoring activities. In addition, this article reveals that these deficiencies usually exist due to weak monitoring systems of the Central Bank, ineffective functioning of individual Shariah Supervisory Boards (SSB) and the absence of comprehensive SGF. The article argues that the Central Bank of Bangladesh should initiate to reform its Islamic banking industry by introducing a CSGF aimed to identify the roles, responsibilities, powers, and functions of SSB; thereby improving governance, accountability, and overall Shariah compliance quality. This article is hoped to be beneficial for the regulators and practitioners to consider revising current practices.   Keywords: Centralization, Bangladesh Bank, Islamic banks, Shariah governance framework.   Cite as: Alam, M. K., & Thakur, O. A. (2022). Why does Bangladesh require a centralized Shariah governance framework for Islamic banks?  Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 24-42.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 558
Laura Schröder ◽  
Nikolay Krasimirov Dimitrov ◽  
David Robert Verelst ◽  
John Aasted Sørensen

This paper introduces a novel, transfer-learning-based approach to include physics into data-driven normal behavior monitoring models which are used for detecting turbine anomalies. For this purpose, a normal behavior model is pretrained on a large simulation database and is recalibrated on the available SCADA data via transfer learning. For two methods, a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) and an autoencoder, it is investigated under which conditions it can be helpful to include simulations into SCADA-based monitoring systems. The results show that when only one month of SCADA data is available, both the prediction accuracy as well as the prediction robustness of an ANN are significantly improved by adding physics constraints from a pretrained model. As the autoencoder reconstructs the power from itself, it is already able to accurately model the normal behavior power. Therefore, including simulations into the model does not improve its prediction performance and robustness significantly. The validation of the physics-informed ANN on one month of raw SCADA data shows that it is able to successfully detect a recorded blade angle anomaly with an improved precision due to fewer false positives compared to its purely SCADA data-based counterpart.

Caitlin E. Malik ◽  
David M. Wong ◽  
Katarzyna A. Dembek ◽  
Katherine E. Wilson

Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of 2 interstitial glucose-monitoring systems (GMSs) for use in horses compared with a point-of-care (POC) glucometer and standard laboratory enzymatic chemistry method (CHEM). ANIMALS 8 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES One of each GMS device (Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day) was placed on each horse, and blood glucose concentration was measured via POC and CHEM at 33 time points and compared with simultaneous GMS readings. An oral glucose absorption test (OGAT) was performed on day 2, and glucose concentrations were measured and compared. RESULTS Glucose concentrations were significantly correlated with one another between all devices on days 1 to 5. Acceptable agreement was observed between Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day when compared with CHEM on days 1, 3, 4, and 5 with a combined mean bias of 10.45 mg/dL and 1.53 mg/dL, respectively. During dextrose-induced hyperglycemia on day 2, mean bias values for Dexcom G6 (10.49 mg/dL) and FreeStyle Libre 14-day (0.34 mg/dL) showed good agreement with CHEM. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Serial blood glucose measurements are used to diagnose or monitor a variety of conditions in equine medicine; advances in near-continuous interstitial glucose monitoring allow for minimally invasive glucose assessment, thereby reducing stress and discomfort to patients. Data from this study support the use of the Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day interstitial glucose-monitoring systems to estimate blood glucose concentrations in horses.

Yu Hu ◽  
Ji-Eun Joo ◽  
Eunju Choi ◽  
Leeho Yoo ◽  
Dukyoo Jung ◽  

This paper presents a few meal-monitoring systems for elder residents (especially patients) in LTCFs by using electronic weight and temperature sensors. These monitoring systems enable to convey the information of the amount of meal taken by the patients in real-time via wireless communication networks onto the mobile phones of their nurses in charge or families. Thereby, the nurses can easily spot the most patients who need immediate assistance, while the families can have relief in seeing the crucial information for the well-being of their parents at least three times a day. Meanwhile, the patients tend to suffer burns of their tongues because they can hardly recognize the temperature of hot meals served. This situation can be avoided by utilizing the meal temperature-monitoring system, which displays an alarm to the patients when the meal temperature is above the reference. These meal-monitoring systems can be easily implemented by utilizing low-cost sensor chips and Arduino NANO boards so that elder-care hospitals and nursing homes can afford to exploit them with no additional cost. Hence, we believe that the proposed monitoring systems would be a potential solution to provide a great help and relief for the professional nurses working in elder-care hospitals and nursing homes.

Universe ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Elena Bonvech ◽  
Dmitry Chernov ◽  
Miroslav Finger ◽  
Michael Finger ◽  
Vladimir Galkin ◽  

The SPHERE project studies primary cosmic rays by detection of the Cherenkov light of extensive air showers reflected from the snow covered surface of the earth. Measurements with the aerial-based detector SPHERE-2 were performed in 2011–2013. The detector was lifted by a balloon to altitudes of up to 900 m above the snow covered surface of Lake Baikal, Russia. The results of the experiment are summarized now in a series of papers that opens with this article. An overview of the SPHERE-2 detector telemetry monitoring systems is presented along with the analysis of the measurements conditions including atmosphere profile. The analysis of the detector state and environment atmosphere conditions monitoring provided various cross-checks of detector calibration, positioning, and performance.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 482
Jiachen Yang ◽  
Tianlei Ni ◽  
Lin Liu ◽  
Jiabao Wen ◽  
Jingyi He ◽  

Marine surveying is an important part of marine environment monitoring systems. In order to improve the accuracy of marine surveying and reduce investment in artificial stations, it is necessary to use high-precision GNSS for shipborne navigation measurements. The basic measurement is based on the survey lines that are already planned by surveyors. In response to the needs of survey vessels sailing to the survey line, a method framework for the shortest route planning is proposed. Then an intelligent navigation system for survey vessels is established, which can be applied to online navigation of survey vessels. The essence of the framework is that the vessel can travel along the shortest route to the designated survey line under the limitation of its own minimum turning radius. Comparison and analysis of experiments show that the framework achieves better optimization. The experimental results show that our proposed method can enable the vessel to sail along a shorter path and reach the starting point of the survey line at the specified angle.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Laécio Rodrigues ◽  
Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues ◽  
Antonio de Barros Serra ◽  
Francisco Airton Silva

Following the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Internet of Space (IoS), we are now approaching IoP (Internet of People), or the Internet of Individuals, with the integration of chips inside people that link to other chips and the Internet. Low latency is required in order to achieve great service quality in these ambient assisted living facilities. Failures, on the other hand, are not tolerated, and assessing the performance of such systems in a real-world setting is difficult. Analytical models may be used to examine these types of systems even in the early phases of design. The performance of aged care monitoring systems is evaluated using an M/M/c/K queuing network. The model enables resource capacity, communication, and service delays to be calibrated. The proposed model was shown to be capable of predicting the system’s MRT (mean response time) and calculating the quantity of resources required to satisfy certain user requirements. To analyze data from IoT solutions, the examined architecture incorporates cloud and fog resources. Different circumstances were analyzed as case studies, with four main characteristics taken into consideration. These case studies look into how cloud and fog resources differ. Simulations were also run to test various routing algorithms with the goal of improving performance metrics. As a result, our study can assist in the development of more sophisticated health monitoring systems without incurring additional costs.

Juma S. Tina ◽  
Beatrica B. Kateule ◽  
Godfrey W. Luwemba

Clean water is a scarce resource for the human life and is subject to wastage due to leakage of the distribution pipes in large cities.  Water pipe leakage is a big problem around the world of which most of the water distribution authorities faces difficulties to detect the location of the fault. This problem of leakage can be caused by several factors such as breakage of the pipelines due to aging or ongoing constructions in urban cities like Dar es salaam, consequently due to that case, the distribution authorities face hardship to identify the cause and enable them to take action.  Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop an IoT-based system for water leakage detection. The prototype was developed comprising two sensors embedded at the source and destination points to measure the flow rate of water.  The result indicated that the volume of water generated at the start point can be compared with the other end to determine if there is any leakage. A greater focus on distance calculation could produce interesting findings that account for more research on IoT monitoring systems.

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