Energy Input
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Rosangela Addesso ◽  
Jo De Waele ◽  
Simona Cafaro ◽  
Daniela Baldantoni

AbstractCaves are usually oligotrophic ecosystems, where the organic matter represents a limiting factor to the hypogeal community and sediments are often a significant energy source. With a view to identifying the energy input influencing the ecological processes occurring in caves, as well as the potential alteration sources of the natural equilibriums, geochemical features of several typologies of clastic sediments from the Pertosa-Auletta Cave (Italy) were investigated. The collected sediments, analyzed for a number of chemical (organic matter, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, Zn concentrations) and mineralogical (quartz, calcite, dolomite, clay minerals) characteristics, showed a different composition. Overall, their origin is supposed to be allochthonous, related to the important fluviokarst activities interesting the cave in the past, whereas the abundance of calcitic and dolomitic compounds can be autochthonous, being the carbonate the main host rock. The highest concentrations of organic matter, together with C, Cu, Mo, N, P, Pb, S and Zn, highlighted in one sample composed mainly of bats guano, revealed an important bioavailable energy input as well as a pollutant accumulation, mainly of anthropogenic origin.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Menghui Zhu ◽  
Chao Wei ◽  
Wei Guo ◽  
Zhizhou Zhang ◽  
Jinglei Ouyang ◽  

Although laser drilling of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites offers the advantages of zero tool-wear and avoidance of fibre delamination compared with mechanical drilling, it consumes considerably more energy during the drilling process. This research shows that by using a new, stepped parameter parallel ring laser hole drilling method, an energy saving of 78.10% and an 18.37 gCO2 reduction for each hole, while improving productivity by more than 300%, can be achieved in laser drilling of 6 mm diameter holes in CFRP sheets of 2 mm in thickness, compared with previous laser drilling methods under the same drilling quality. The key reason for this is an increase in energy input to the inner rings enabling more rapid removal of the material, while the lower energy input for the outer ring provides a shielding trench to reduce the heat loss into the parent material. The results are compared with single-ring laser drilling and multiple-ring laser drilling with constant processing parameters, and a discussion is given on comparing with mechanical drilling and future prospects, including a combined mechanical drilling and laser pre-scribing process.

2022 ◽  
Niklas von Wolff ◽  
Damien Tocqueville ◽  
Esther Nubret ◽  
Marc Robert ◽  
David Milstein

Novel energy and atom efficiency processes will be keys to develop the sustainable chemical industry of the future. Electrification could play an important role, by allowing to fine-tune energy input and using the ideal redox agent: the electron. Here we demonstrate that a commercially available Milstein ruthenium cata-lyst (1) can be used to promote the electrochemical oxidation of ethanol to ethyl acetate and acetate, thus demonstrating the four electron oxidation under preparative conditions. Cyclic voltammetry and DFT-calculations are used to devise a possible catalytic cycle based on a thermal chemical step generating the key hydride intermediate. Successful electrification of Milstein-type catalysts opens pathway to use alcohols as renewable feedstock for the generation of esters and other key building blocks in organic chemistry, thus contributing to increase energy efficiency in organic redox chemistry.

2022 ◽  
pp. 301-355
Stephen R. Kaeppler ◽  
Delores J. Knipp ◽  
Olga P. Verkhoglyadova ◽  
Liam M. Kilcommons ◽  
Weijia Zhan

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Mariola M. Błaszczyk ◽  
Łukasz Przybysz

The process of forming an emulsion is an energy-consuming process. The smaller the internal phase droplets we want to produce and the closer the droplets are in size to each other (monodisperse), the more energy we need to put into the system. Generating energy carries a high economic cost, as well as a high environmental footprint. Considering the fact that dispersive systems are widely used in various fields of life, it is necessary to search for other, less-energy-intensive methods that will allow the creation of dispersive systems with adequate performance and minimal energy input. Therefore, an alternative way to obtain emulsions characterized by small droplet sizes was proposed by using an imbibition process in porous materials. By applying this technique, it was possible to obtain average droplet sizes at least half the size of the base emulsion while reducing the polydispersity by about 40%. Oil-in-water emulsions in which vegetable oil or kerosene is the oily phase were tested. The studies were carried out at three different volume concentrations of the emulsions. Detailed analyses of diameter distributions and emulsion concentrations are presented. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the method are presented and the potential for its application is indicated.

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