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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
I-Chen Li ◽  
Fang-Chia Chang ◽  
Ching-Chuan Kuo ◽  
Hsin-Tung Chu ◽  
Tsung-Ju Li ◽  

Sleep disturbances have been the hallmark of the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Studies have shown that once sleep is disrupted, it can lead to psychological and physical health issues which can, in turn, disrupt circadian rhythm and induce further sleep disruption. As consumers are trying to establish healthy routines, nutritional and preclinical safety investigation of fermented hispidin-enriched Sanghuangporus sanghuang mycelia (GKSS) as a novel food material for spontaneous sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats is conducted for the first time. Results showed that the nutritional analysis of GKSS including moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein, carbohydrate, and energy were found to be 2.4 ± 0.3%, 8.0 ± 2.5%, 1.7 ± 0.3%, 22.9 ± 1.2%, 65.1 ± 3.1%, and 367.1 ± 10.2 kcal/100 g respectively. In the 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study, only Sprague-Dawley male rats receiving 5 g/kg showed a slight decrease in feed consumption at week 3, but no associated clinical signs of toxicity or significant weight loss were observed. Although a significant reduction of the platelet count was found in mid- and high-dose GKSS treated male groups, such changes were noted to be within the normal range and were not correlated with relative spleen weight changes. Hence, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of GKSS was identified to be higher than 5 g/kg in rats. After the safety of GKSS is confirmed, the sleep-promoting effect of GKSS ethanolic extract enriched with hispidin was further assessed. Despite 75 mg/kg of GKSS ethanolic extract does not affect wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, GKSS ethanolic extract at 150 mg/kg significantly decreased wakefulness and enhanced NREM and REM sleep. Interestingly, such effects seem to be mediated through anti-inflammatory activities via NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings provide the preliminary evidence to studies support the claims suggesting that GKSS contained useful phytochemical hispidin could be considered as and is safe to use as a functional food agent or nutraceutical for relieving sleep problems mediated by Nrf2 pathway, which the results are useful for future clinical pilot study.

Global Jurist ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Jorge Freddy Milian Gómez ◽  
Yanelys Delgado Triana

Abstract The current research is about the sustainable management of environmental risks in agricultural production to ensure the right to food. In a globalized world, agricultural production is determined by external economic, environmental, social, legal, and political factors, as well as internal factors depending on each State’s conditions. Environmental risk factors, particularly, the growing climate change and its negative effects or the occurrence of a global pandemic, restrict agricultural industry development and create uncertainty in guaranteeing people’s right to food. Agricultural production is the first right to food material guarantee. Ensuring agricultural production is ensuring people’s right to food, their food security or at least the minimum necessary to avoid hunger. The aim is to systematize environmental risks sustainable management concepts and characteristics applied in agricultural production to guarantee the right to food. The environmental risk’s sustainable management entails an efficient use of financial and economic resources in agricultural production to prevent or reduce the environmental risk identified impact. The research establishes some general points of environmental risks sustainable management in agricultural production to guarantee the right to adequate food. The following research methods and techniques were selected: the theoretical-legal and document analysis.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 289
Oleg V. Ageev ◽  
Andrzej Dowgiałło ◽  
Monika Sterczyńska ◽  
Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk ◽  
Natalia V. Samojlova ◽  

Mathematical models for predicting the resistance forces that are developed during the inclined and sliding cutting of food materials have been developed. The dependence of the actual cutting angle on the angle of inclination and sliding speed of the cutting edge at various sharpening angles have been investigated. For the inclined cutting mode, the dependence of the useful resistance force on the cutting speed has been determined at various angles of inclination of the cutting edge and designed sharpening angles. For the sliding cutting mode, the dependence of the useful resistance force on the feeding speed has been demonstrated at various sliding speed values and designed knife sharpening angles. The dependence of the transformed dimensionless sharpness of the knife on the angle of inclination of the cutting edge and the sliding speed has been established for different constructional sharpness values of the knife. The results of the study indicate that the useful resistance force is significantly reduced during the inclined and sliding cutting processes when compared with the normal cutting process, and a change in the pattern of fiber destruction, which significantly increases the cutting efficiency of cutting tools, is obtained.

2021 ◽  
Stephanie J. Swenson ◽  
Lisa Eichler ◽  
Thomas Hörren ◽  
Gerlind U. C. Lehmann ◽  
Martin Sorg ◽  

The declines observed in insect abundance and diversity in the past decades has also been observed in plants, and these events are most certainly correlated. Rapid largescale biomonitoring of both plants and insects can help monitor these changes and inform decisions for land management and species protection. Malaise traps have been used for nearly 80 years for passive insect sampling of primarily flying insects, and when they enter these traps, they carry the fragments of the plants they have visited, either as plant fragments and pollen on the body surface, or as digested food material in gut contents. DNA metabarcoding is a potential method to identify these plant traces in the ethanol of the malaise bottles, which is not possible with traditional microscopy. Metabarcoding could offer more insight into what plants insects are directly interacting with at a given time, and allow for the detection of rare plants, and neophyte species visited by insects. This study, to our knowledge, is the first examination of DNA metabarcoding plant traces from Malaise trap samples, we examine 105 samples from 21 sites throughout Germany collected in a 2-week period in May of 2020. Here we report on the feasibility of sequencing these sample types, analysis of the resulting taxa, the usage of cultivated plants by insects near nature conservancy areas, and the detection of rare and neophyte species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-84
A. Mahe ◽  
B. Sabiu ◽  
A.A. Adam ◽  
U.Z. Abdullahi,

Microorganisms are included among the major spoilers of food, they achieve this by using the nutrients present in food material. Susceptibility of microorganisms to the most currently used preservatives has been decreasing. Organic acids have been considered as valuable food preservatives. This study aimed to isolate, identify and determine the effect of citric acid at different pH levels on the survival of E. coli. The E. coli was isolated and a pure culture was obtained after series of sub-ulturing on Eosine Methylene Blue agar. The biochemical tests known as IMViC were performed to confirm the presence of the organism. The organism was also identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in which the DNA was extracted, amplified and viewed by gel electrophoresis. The organism was then inoculated in nutrient broth containing citric acid at pH levels of 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 in different test tubes. Negative controls were included. Results were analyzed using one way ANOVA to compare the means obtained. Results obtained was positive for indole and methyl red tests but negative for VogesProskauer and citrate tests which confirmed the organism. After 24 hours of inoculation, the results of spectrophotometry showed that at pH level of 3.0, the absorbance was lower than the results obtained at pH level of 4.5 and 6.0. This is an indication of higher reduction in the count of the organism at pH of 3.0. There was significant difference between the control and the test groups (p<0.05) but the difference obtained between the test groups were not significant (p>0.05). Results from this study showed that citric acid could not eliminate the whole organism but was effective in inhibiting the growth of the organism dependent on pH level. This indicates that a pH dependent citric acid can be used as a good preservative.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2004
Yan-Sheng Zhao ◽  
Aya Samy Eweys ◽  
Jia-Yan Zhang ◽  
Ying Zhu ◽  
Juan Bai ◽  

This review reports on the effects of fermentation on the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of plant-based food materials. Fermentation involves a series of reactions that modify the chemical components of the substrate. It could be considered a tool to increase the bioactive compounds and functional properties of food plant materials. Oxidative damage is key to the progression of many human diseases, and the production of antioxidant compounds by fermentation will be helpful to reduce the risk of these diseases. Fermentation also can improve antioxidant activity given its association with increased phytochemicals, antioxidant polysaccharides, and antioxidant peptides produced by microbial hydrolysis or biotransformation. Additionally, fermentation can encourage the breakdown of plant cell walls, which helps to liberate or produce various antioxidant compounds. Overall, results indicated that fermentation in many cases contributed to enhancing antioxidants’ content and antioxidant capacity, supporting the fermentation use in the production of value-added functional food. This review provides an overview of the factors that impact the effects of fermentation on bioactive compound composition and antioxidant activity. The impacts of fermentation are summarized as a reference to its effects on food plant material.

2021 ◽  
Sunil Dhiman ◽  
Kavita Yadav ◽  
BN Acharya ◽  
DP Nagar ◽  
Rama Rao Ghorpade

AbstractCockroach species Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica potentially survive in locations close to human activity. Besides spoiling food material, cockroaches also transfer pathogens of different diseases among human. Since the insecticides have been used extensively to control cockroaches, information on their insecticide susceptibility and toxicity at cellular level may be crucial. In the study, deltamethrin toxicity as well as the deltamethrin-mediated cytomorphological changes in brain, ovary and midgut of the two important cockroach species has been assessed. Different concentrations [0.00025% (0.0025mg/ml), 0.0025% (0.025mg/ml), 0.025 (0.25mg/ml), 0.25% (2.5mg/ml), 0.5% (5mg/ml), 1% (10mg/ml)] of deltamethrin in acetone were used to expose test species in WHO bottle assay. Knockdown was recorded after 5 min interval while delayed mortality was observed after 24 hr. Brain, ovary and gut were dissected post 1 hr exposure and 24 hr holding (for 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% concentration), and tissues were processed for microscopic analysis. Deltamethrin exposed cockroaches and dissected tissues were used to estimate deltamethrin using HPLC. At 0.00025% (lowest concentration), the percentage knock-down observed was 66.7% for P. americana and 80% B. germanica respectively (R2= 0.78; p=0.0001) in 1 hr. KDT50 value was found to be 8.7 min (95% CI: 7.3-10.2), while KDT99 was 20.7 min (95% CI: 16.0-35.7) in P. americana at 1% concentration. Whereas, the KDT50 and KDT99 values for B. germanica were 7.4 min (95% CI: 5.4-9.1) and 27.4 min (95% CI: 18.2-80.0) at similar concentration. LD50 and LD95 values (for 60 min standard exposure) were 0.0006 % (95% CI: 0.00-0.001) and 0.034% (95% CI: 0.013-0.49) respectively for P. americana, while these values were 0.0005 (95% CI: 0.00-0.001) and 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01-0.23) for B. germanica. Exposure to 1% deltamethrin induced considerable toxic effect in the epithelial cells in the midgut. HPLC estimated 0.21±0.05 mg (95% CI - 0.18-0.25; CoV 23.9%) deltamethrin in P. americana post 1% exposure. Even short term exposure of low concentration of synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin displayed immediate knockdown and delayed mortality in both the test species. Considerable histological damage was observed in both the insects at 1% exposure. In India, resistance to deltamethrin may have been reported among different insects due its extensive use, however the formulations such as insecticide paints, attractant baits etc. developed using deltamethrin as active ingredient could be useful in cockroach control operations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 46-58
O.V. Ageev ◽  
N.V. Samojlova ◽  
V.A. Naumov ◽  
Yu. A. Fatykhov ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 924 (1) ◽  
pp. 012011
B Susilo ◽  
M Lutfi ◽  
H E Lu’ay

Abstract Osmosis dehydration is a process of reducing water content by immersing the material in a hypertonic solution. It usually uses a sugar solution likes mono-saccharide or disaccharide. Trehalose is one type of disaccharide that can be used as a solute. Trehalose is able to maintain the nutrition content of food material and the aroma of horticulture products because it maintains and stabilizes complex molecules. Immersing of sweet corn kernel in trehalose solution was expected to maintain kernel sweet corn quality in relation to the next process. The objective of the research is to investigate the effects of the different immersing temperatures and trehalose concentrations on the physical quality of sweet corn. This study used solution with concentrations of 4%, 8%, and 12% trehalose. The variations of immersing temperature were 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C. The experiment was done with a factorial completely randomized design. The first factor was immersing temperature and the second factor was the concentration of trehalose solution. The data was analyzed using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) method. The temperature treatment of 50°C and trehalose concentration of 12% showed the highest weight reduction (6.18%), solid gain (4.5%), and water loss (10.38%). The lowest water content of corn kernel was also obtained in this treatment i.e 78.7%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 913 (1) ◽  
pp. 012037
Zainuri ◽  
Sukmawaty ◽  
E Basuki ◽  
B R Handayani ◽  
Y Sulastri ◽  

Abstract As a primary source of glucomannan, porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus Prain) has a decisive role in the food and non-food industry development. However, the naturally high calcium oxalate content in the corm is one obstacle why it is not safe as a food material. This paper describes and discusses the optimizing process to reduce the level of calcium oxalate content and improve the quality of the flour of porang locally grown in Lombok. Porang samples were obtained from the center of growing area in North Lombok. Series of trials were carried out, including treatment using a salt solution, blanching, and fermentation technology. The parameters observed in this study were the calcium oxalate content, moisture content, and the color of porang flour. The results from these trials indicated that soaking in salt solution and blanching technology significantly reduced the calcium oxalate concentration in the flour. However, the oxalate levels in the flour were slightly higher than the quality standard requirement. In contrast, fermentation treatment was not effective in reducing the oxalate level. In general, all treatments significantly reduced the flour-moisture content. Further research is required in order to produce quality local porang flour that meets quality standards.

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