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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Anim Okyere Samuel ◽  
Bao-Ting Huang ◽  
Yuan Chen ◽  
Feng-Xia Guo ◽  
Dou-Dou Yang ◽  

AbstractUsed as traditional Chinese medicine, Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (A. membranaceus) roots are also used as tonic food material in a wide range of applications, while the leaves are left in the field, unused. Therefore, comprehensively exploring and utilizing the leaves will inevitably reduce the associated resource waste and environment pollution. In this study, the plant leaves were processed into tea using green tea processing technology. Bioactive components, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the Leaf Tea (LT) and Dry Leaves (DL) were studied, and compared to that of the Dry Roots (DR). The results showed that the polysaccharides content (POL) in the DR (20.44%) was twice as high as the DL (10.18%) and LT (8.68%). However, the DL contained 36.85% more water-soluble extracts (WSE), 35.09% more ethanol-soluble extracts (ESE), 409.63% more total flavonoid content (TFC), 221.01% more total phenolic content (TPC) and 94.34% more proteins, and the LT contained 26.21% more WSE, 40.64% more ESE, 326.93% more TFC, 191.90% more TPC and 37.71% more proteins. The total amino acid (AA) content in the DR was 8.89%, while in that of the DL and LT were 24.18% and 28.96% respectively, nearly 3-times higher than that of the DR. The antioxidant activity of DR was much lower than those of DL and LT, both of which had antioxidant activity closer to that of Vitamin C (VC) and the antioxidant activities were even stronger when the optimal concentration was reached. Except for Aspergillus niger and Staphylococcus aureus, the DL and DR exhibited inhibition activities to Salmonella, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and yeast, while the LT had antimicrobial activities against all the strains except for A. niger. In summary, compared with the most commonly used DR, the DL and LT from A. membranaceus contained higher bioactive components, and stronger antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Producing leaf tea may be an appropriate way to economically and reasonably utilize the plant leaves which are by-products.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 2495
Keyseok Choe ◽  
Misun Yun ◽  
Sanghoon Park ◽  
Eunjin Yang ◽  
Jinyoung Jung ◽  

The macromolecular concentrations and compositions of phytoplankton are crucial for the growth or nutritional structure of higher trophic levels through the food web in the ecosystem. To understand variations in macromolecular contents of phytoplankton, we investigated the macromolecular components of phytoplankton and analyzed their spatial pattern on the Chukchi Shelf and the Canada Basin. The carbohydrate (CHO) concentrations on the Chukchi Shelf and the Canada Basin were 50.4–480.8 μg L−1 and 35.2–90.1 μg L−1, whereas the lipids (LIP) concentrations were 23.7–330.5 μg L−1 and 11.7–65.6 μg L−1, respectively. The protein (PRT) concentrations were 25.3–258.5 μg L−1 on the Chukchi Shelf and 2.4–35.1 μg L−1 in the Canada Basin. CHO were the predominant macromolecules, accounting for 42.6% on the Chukchi Shelf and 60.5% in the Canada Basin. LIP and PRT contributed to 29.7% and 27.7% of total macromolecular composition on the Chukchi Shelf and 30.8% and 8.7% in the Canada Basin, respectively. Low PRT concentration and composition in the Canada Basin might be a result from the severe nutrient-deficient conditions during phytoplankton growth. The calculated food material concentrations were 307.8 and 98.9 μg L−1, and the average calorie contents of phytoplankton were 1.9 and 0.6 kcal m−3 for the Chukchi Shelf and the Canada Basin, respectively, which indicates the phytoplankton on the Chukchi Shelf could provide the large quantity of food material and high calories to the higher trophic levels. Overall, our results highlight that the biochemical compositions of phytoplankton are considerably different in the regions of the Arctic Ocean. More studies on the changes in the biochemical compositions of phytoplankton are still required under future environmental changes.

2021 ◽  
Muhammed Niyas Maliyekkal ◽  
Andavan Shaija

Abstract It is well known that biodiesel from pure coconut oil is suited best for diesel engine operation. However, the commercialization of coconut oil biodiesel is unfeasible due to its higher cost and demand as a food material. In this study, biodiesels were produced from coconut testa oil and coconut waste cooking oil, two waste feedstock derivatives of coconut. Fatty acid composition and properties such as density, calorific value, kinematic viscosity, cloud and pour points, flash and fire points, Conradson carbon residue, and copper strip corrosion of these two biodiesels were determined and compared with those of fresh coconut oil biodiesel and the standard diesel. It was found that the properties and fatty acid profiles of all three biodiesels were similar. Furthermore, from the engine testing using B20 (diesel-biodiesel blend with 20% biodiesel) blends of prepared biodiesels, it was found that the engine performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were comparable for coconut testa oil and coconut waste cooking oil biodiesels with fresh coconut oil biodiesel. Thus the coconut testa oil and coconut waste cooking oil can be used as low-cost feedstocks for biodiesel production with all advantages of fresh coconut oil.

2021 ◽  
Vol 848 (1) ◽  
pp. 012005
Nasillo Urinov ◽  
Mukhabbat Saidova ◽  
Mahmud Amonov ◽  
Rustam Odinaev

Shivani Sharma ◽  
Navdeep Singh ◽  
Amar Deep Ankalgi ◽  
Arti Rana ◽  
Mahendra Singh Ashawat

Direct real time analysis (DART) is the most successful tool for the analysis of the compounds. This technique is useful for the identification, and classification of compounds. It is widely followed by the forensic chemistry, and also used for many purposes. Their main applications include inks, paints, drugs, bank dyes, explosives, beverages, and gunshot etc. The basic concepts of DART-MS were highlighted to understand the process. Also the basic fundamentals of DART-MS including special function were discussed. Various natural products were discovered by DART-MS includes plant tissue, insects, and microbe etc. The main focus of this review article is on the applications of direct real time analysis, which covers the varieties of uses in our pharmaceutical as well as chemical industries. This technique was helpful in the production of food material, and to identify the contaminants from animal sources in the part of veterinary drugs. Also, used in food processing in the form of additives, and adulterants. DART-MS has huge applications on analysis of seized drug like steroids supplements, psychoactive plants etc. Also, in inks, paint, and documents industry this technique has been widely used. So, this review covers the basic fundamentals of direct real time analysis DART-MS, and their applications.

Marlyne-Josephine Mananga ◽  
Kouandjoua Brice Didier ◽  
Kotue Taptue Charles ◽  
Bebbe Fadimatou ◽  
Djuikwo Nkonga Ruth ◽  

Beans are nutritionally and economically important food crop in Cameroon. However, data on the nutritional value of the different red bean cultivars remain poorly known to consumers. The objective of this study is to characterize 10 red bean cultivars in order to determine theirs nutrients, minerals and antinutrients contents. Grains of raw and cooked beans were evaluated for proximate, mineral and antinutrients composition. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the ANOVA and the Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05). The results of chemical analysis of the raw and cooked cultivar bean revealed moisture content ranging from 4.19 to 12.34%, protein from 10.56 to 46%,. lipids from 5.31 to 7.38%, ash from 1.93 to 4.61%, fiber from 2.42 to 7.97% and carbohydrates 38.30 to 68.85%. Different bean cultivars showed statistically significant differences in minerals. The most abundant minerals in the samples were potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) with contents ranging from 565.17 to 912.99 mg/100g dry matter (DM) and 78.5 to 933.85 mg/100g DM respectively. Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents ranged from 1.89 to 4.19 mg/100g DM and 2.10 to 5.15 mg/100g DM respectively. Antinutrients contents ranging from 0.14 to 1.00%, 2.86 to 8.82%, 0.07 to 0.18% and 0.26 to 1.22% respectively for tannins, phytates. oxalates and saponins after treatment. After soaking associated with cooking, red beans cultivars were found to contain the least minerals contents and that treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) all the antinutrients evaluated. Red beans cultivars are potential nutrients rich food material for food formulation.

Dinesh Kumar Patel

Background: Herbal drugs and their derived phytochemicals are valuable for human being as a source of vital component of food material and drugs. Flavonoids are naturally occurring phytochemical produced in plants through metabolisms and they are having anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. Flavonoids have been identified in the fruits, nuts, vegetables, seeds, stem, flowers and tea. Kaempferol is a natural flavonoidal compound present in edible plants such as apples, broccoli, strawberries, beans, grapefruit, propolis and medicinal plants such as Aloe vera, Ginkgo biloba, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus L., Hypericum perforatum L. Kaempferol have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, pro-apoptotic, cardio-protective and anti-cancer activities. Methods: Glycosides of kaempferol such as kaempferitrin also called kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside are known to be more abundant than their flavonoid monomers in plants. Various literature databases have been searched to collect all the scientific information of kaempferitrin in the present investigation and analyzed in order to know the therapeutic benefit and biological potential of kaempferitrin. Moreover all the information has been presented here in two broad sections i.e. pharmacological and analytical. Results: From the analysis of all the collected and presented information, it was found that kaempferitrin has potent insulin-mimetic potential and could be used for the treatment of diabetes and related complication. However, it has also shown anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, anti-osteoporotic, anti-depressant, anthelmintic, immunostimulatory and natriuretic properties and inhibits cell proliferation and apoptosis. Kaempferitrin also improves meat quality of broiler chickens. Conclusions: The presented information in this work will be valuable to justify the biological importance and therapeutic potential of kaempferitrin in the scientific field.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
C. Bussolo de Souza ◽  
S. M. I. Saad ◽  
K. Venema

The aim of the study was to investigate the potential prebiotic effects of food-by-products (cassava bagasse (n=3), orange bagasse (n=2) and passion fruit peel (n=3)) using an in vitro model simulating the proximal colon, and to assess possible differences in fermentation when using faecal microbiota from lean or obese people. Fermentation of the by-products was compared to a control medium and the prebiotic inulin. The effects of the by-products on the dynamics of the gut microbiota differed according to the type of microbiota, as well as the type of by-product used. Principal Coordinate Analysis of the microbiota showed evidence of a clear separate clustering of lean and obese microbiota before the addition of substrates, which disappeared after fermentation, and instead, distinct clusters due to primary carbohydrate composition of the by-products (starch, fructan and pectin) were present. This is evidence that the substrates drove the obese microbiota to a healthier profile, more similar to that of the lean microbiota. Cassava bagasses enriched the beneficial genus Bifidobacterium in the obese microbiota. The production of total SCFA by cassava bagasses by the obese microbiota was higher than for control medium and inulin. Orange bagasses stimulated the growth of the butyrate-producing genus Coprococcus. Passion fruit peels were poorly fermented and generated negligible amounts of intermediate metabolites, indicating slow fermentation. Nevertheless, passion fruit peel fermentation resulted in a microbiota with the highest diversity and evenness, a positive trait regarding host health. In conclusion, the use of food-by-products could be an important step to tackle obesity and decrease the waste of valuable food material and consequently environmental pollution. They are an inexpensive and non-invasive way to be used as a dietary intervention to improve health, as they were shown here to drive the composition of the obese microbiota to a healthier profile.

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