Antioxidant System
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PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11834
Baizhao Ren ◽  
Juan Hu ◽  
Peng Liu ◽  
Bin Zhao ◽  
Jiwang Zhang

Waterlogging was one of the main abiotic stresses affecting maize yield and growth in the North China Plain, while ridge tillage effectually improved soil environment, enhanced crop stress resistance to waterlogging, and increased grain yield of waterlogged maize. In order to explore the responses of nitrogen (N) efficiency and antioxidant system of summer maize to waterlogging stress under different tillage, a field experiment was conducted to explore N use efficiency, leaf activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of waterlogged maize Denghai 605 (DH605) and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) under different tillage system (ridge planting and flat planting). Our results showed that ridge tillage was beneficial to ameliorate waterlogging damages on antioxidant system by increasing SOD, POD, and CAT activities, and decreasing MDA content. Moreover, ridge tillage significantly increased N efficiency of waterlogged maize. N translocation amount (NTA), N translocation efficiency (NTE), N contribution proportion (NCP), N harvest index (NHI), and N use efficiency (NUE) of waterlogging treatment under ridge planting system (W-V3+R) for DH605 was increased by 108%, 69%, 60%, 8% and 16%, while ZD958 increased by 248%, 132%, 146%, 13% and 16%, respectively, compared to those of waterlogging treatment under flat planting system (W-V3). Ultimately, ridge tillage led to a significant yield improvement by 39% and 50% for DH605 and ZD958, respectively, compared to that of W-V3. In conclusion, ridge tillage was conducive to retard leaf aging, and enhance nitrogen efficiency, thereby resulting in a yield improvement of waterlogged summer maize.

2021 ◽  
Vol 222 ◽  
pp. 112540
Muhammad Riaz ◽  
Muhammad Kamran ◽  
Muhammad Rizwan ◽  
Shafaqat Ali ◽  
Yaoyu Zhou ◽  

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 3670
Can Huang ◽  
Patricia Santofimia-Castaño ◽  
Juan Iovanna

Nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) is a small intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) activated in response to various types of cellular stress, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mainly produced during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, and directly impact redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. Ferroptosis is a ROS-dependent programmed cell death driven by an iron-mediated redox reaction. Substantial evidence supports a maintenance role of the stress-inducible protein NUPR1 on cancer cell metabolism that confers chemotherapeutic resistance by upregulating mitochondrial function-associated genes and various antioxidant genes in cancer cells. NUPR1, identified as an antagonist of ferroptosis, plays an important role in redox reactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanism behind the observed impact of NUPR1 on mitochondrial function, energy metabolism, iron metabolism, and the antioxidant system. The therapeutic potential of genetic or pharmacological inhibition of NUPR1 in cancer is also discussed. Understanding the role of NUPR1 in the antioxidant system and the mechanisms behind its regulation of ferroptosis may promote the development of more efficacious strategies for cancer therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yuhei Nishimura ◽  
Yasunari Kanda ◽  
Hideko Sone ◽  
Hiroaki Aoyama

The developing brain is extremely sensitive to many chemicals. Perinatal exposure to neurotoxicants has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder, and schizophrenia. Studies of the molecular and cellular events related to developmental neurotoxicity have identified a number of “adverse outcome pathways,” many of which share oxidative stress as a key event. Oxidative stress occurs when the balance between the production of free oxygen radicals and the activity of the cellular antioxidant system is dysregulated. In this review, we describe some of the developmental neurotoxins that target the antioxidant system and the mechanisms by which they elicit stress, including oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and plasma membrane redox system in rodent models. We also discuss future directions for identifying adverse outcome pathways related to oxidative stress and developmental neurotoxicity, with the goal of improving our ability to quickly and accurately screen chemicals for their potential developmental neurotoxicity.

N. Harasym ◽  
H. Baran ◽  
N. Bodnarchuk ◽  
V. Otchych ◽  

The effect of histamine and quercetin, as well as their combined effect on the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and the content of reduced glutathione in the blood plasma of rats was studied. It was found that the addition to the blood of quercetin at a concentration of 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0; 5.0 mM causes an increase in superoxide dismutase activity. It was found that histamine at concentrations of .01 and 0.1 μm leads to a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by 31 and 17 %, respectively. Whereas the biogenic amine in the lowest and highest concentrations does not change the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma. At simultaneous introduction into blood of histamine in the maximum concentration (10.0 μm) and quercetin in concentration of 0,1; 0.5; 3.0 mM normalizes the activity of superoxide dismutase. And only the combined action of histamine of this concentration and quercetin at a concentration of 5.0 mM reduces the activity of the enzyme by 21 %. Histamine at a concentration of 0.01 μm and the simultaneous action of quercetin at a concentration of 0.1; 0.5; 3.0; 5.0 mM increases the activity of superoxide dismutase, which indicates the generation of reactive oxygen species, in particular the superoxide anion radical. It was found that the addition of whole concentrations of quercetin to whole blood causes a decrease in plasma catalase activity. The combined action of quercetin and histamine causes a decrease in catalase activity. It was found that the addition to the blood of quercetin at a concentration of 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0 mM causes a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione. Quercetin at a concentration of 3.0 and 5.0 mM causes an increase in reduced glutathione by 27 and 14 %, respectively, compared to the reference plasma. Histamine at concentrations of 10.0, 1.0 and 0.01 μm leads to an increase in the amount of reduced glutathione by 24, 26 and 19 %, respectively. And at a concentration of 0.1 μm, the biogenic amine reduces the GSH content by 39 %. With simultaneous introduction into the blood of histamine at a concentration of 10.0 μm and quercetin at a concentration of 0.1; 0.5; 3.0 mM there is an increase in the content of reduced glutathione. And only at a concentration of 5.0 mM quercetin on the background of the action of histamine (10.0 μm), the content of reduced glutathione is slightly reduced. However, with the combined action of histamine at a minimum concentration (0.01 μM) and quercetin at a concentration of 0.1; 0.5; 3.0 and 5.0 mM there is a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione. After performing a dispersion analysis, it was found that the state of the antioxidant system, both enzymatic and non-enzymatic, is significantly affected by histamine. The smallest, but significant share of the effect is on the action of quercetin in the blood plasma of rats. The indirect and significant effect of the simultaneous action of histamine and quercetin on the antioxidant system of rat plasma was revealed.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0254493
Denis V. Kurkin ◽  
Dmitry A. Bakulin ◽  
Evgeny I. Morkovin ◽  
Anna V. Kalatanova ◽  
Igor E. Makarenko ◽  

This study was the first to compare the neuroprotective activity of Cerebrolysin®, Actovegin® and Cortexin® in rodent models of acute and chronic brain ischemia. The neuroprotective action was evaluated in animals with acute (middle cerebral artery occlusion) or chronic (common carotid artery stenosis) brain ischemia models in male rats. Cortexin® (1 or 3 mg/kg/day), Cerebrolysin® (538 or 1614 mg/kg/day) and Actovegin® (200 mg/kg/day) were administered for 10 days. To assess the neurological and motor impairments, open field test, adhesive removal test, rotarod performance test and Morris water maze test were performed. Brain damage was assessed macro- and microscopically, and antioxidant system activity was measured in brain homogenates. In separate experiments in vitro binding of Cortexin® to a wide panel of receptors was assessed, and blood-brain barrier permeability of Cortexin® was assessed in mice in vivo. Cortexin® or Cerebrolysin® and, to a lesser extent, Actovegin® improved the recovery of neurological functions, reduced the severity of sensorimotor and cognitive impairments in rats. Cortexin® reduced the size of necrosis of brain tissue in acute ischemia, improved functioning of the antioxidant system and prevented the development of severe neurodegenerative changes in chronic ischemia model. Radioactively labeled Cortexin® crossed the blood-brain barrier in mice in vivo with concentrations equal to 6–8% of concentrations found in whole blood. During in vitro binding assay Cortexin® (10 μg/ml) demonstrated high or moderate binding to AMPA-receptors (80.1%), kainate receptors (73.5%), mGluR1 (49.0%), GABAA1 (44.0%) and mGluR5 (39.7%), which means that effects observed in vivo could be related on the glutamatergic and GABAergic actions of Cortexin®. Thus, Cortexin, 1 or 3 mg/kg, or Cerebrolysin®, 538 or 1614 mg/kg, were effective in models acute and chronic brain ischemia in rats. Cortexin® contains compounds acting on AMPA, kainate, mGluR1, GABAA1 and mGluR5 receptors in vitro, and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier in mice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 117 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Seyed Yahya SALEHI-LISAR ◽  

<p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of organic pollutants influencing different aspects of plants physiology. Physiological responses associated with the impact of phenanthrene (500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) were analysed on Panicum miliaceum L. Seed germination was delayed in all treatments and 2000 ppm of phenanthrene (PHE) significantly retarded the germination rate (28 %) compared to control. The results revealed after 30 day of cultivation, only 1500 and 2000 ppm of PHE had negative impacts on growth parameters as well as photosynthetic pigment contents. Plants exposed to 500 and 1000 ppm of PHE showed an increase in the growth parameters without any symptoms of toxicity, indicating the high tolerance of seedlings to PHE. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were elevated in treated plants. In higher concentrations, H2O2 content also increased despite a reduction in malondialdehyde content. Furthermore, PHE had no effect on root phenol and shoot flavonoid contents and on shoot and root protein contents. Taken together, only higher concentrations of PHE triggered oxidative stress. It can be concluded PHE was not very toxic to P. miliaceum probably because of higher activity of antioxidant system involving in elimination of produced ROS even in plants treated by PHE higher concentrations.</p>

Damián Balfagón ◽  
Fátima Terán ◽  
Tadeu dos Reis de Oliveira ◽  
Claudete Santa-Catarina ◽  
Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

Abstract Key message The activation of the antioxidant system under stress combination is a transmissible trait from the rootstock to the scion. Therefore, rootstock selection is key to improve crop performance and a sustainable production under changing climate conditions. Abstract Climate change is altering weather conditions such as mean temperatures and precipitation patterns. Rising temperatures, especially in certain regions, accelerates soil water depletion and increases drought risk, which affects agriculture yield. Previously, our research demonstrated that the citrus rootstock Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) is more tolerant than Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni) to drought and heat stress combination, in part, due to a higher activation of the antioxidant system that alleviated damage produced by oxidative stress. Here, by using reciprocal grafts of both genotypes, we studied the importance of the rootstock on scion performance and antioxidant response under this stress combination. Carrizo rootstock, under stress combination, positively influenced Cleopatra scion by reducing H2O2 accumulation, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymatic activities and inducing SOD1, APX2 and catalase (CAT) protein accumulations. On the contrary, Cleopatra rootstock induced decreases in APX2 expression, CAT activity and SOD1, APX2 and CAT contents on Carrizo scion. Taken together, our findings indicate that the activation of the antioxidant system under stress combination is a transmissible trait from the rootstock to the scion and highlight the importance of the rootstock selection to improve crop performance and maintain citrus yield under the current scenario of climate change.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (3) ◽  
pp. 451-464
Manuel Valenzuela-Jiménez ◽  
Diana Aguilera-Rivera ◽  
Wilson Wasielesky Jr. ◽  
Idelette Hernández-López ◽  
Gabriela Rodríguez-Fuentes ◽  

The effect of biofloc (BFT) and clear water (CW) at low (ls) and high-water salinity (hs) in wild juveniles of Penaeus setiferus were evaluated. Four treatments were implemented: hsBFT, lsBFT, hsCW, and lsCW. After 45 days, final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and survival rate (SR) were evaluated. Antioxidant activity in muscle and hepatopancreas were measured: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation (PO). The FW and SR was low for lsCW (P < 0.05), whereas the WG and HSI was high in hsBFT and lsBFT (P < 0.05). The integrative biomarker response index (IBR) showed differences between muscle (M) and hepatopancreas (HP). Results showed an increase of SOD and CAT measured from HP for lsBFT treatment. For M, CAT and GST were high only in BFT (regardless of the water salinity). LPO determined from M and HP recorded the high values at hs and ls, respectively. The PO determined in HP showed substantial damage in BFT (regardless of the salinity), whereas the same determination from M was only important for lsCW treatment. When the analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed, SOD, LPO, and PO were significant in response to salinity (P < 0.05). In contrast, for CAT, the higher activity was due to the rearing system and salinity interaction (P < 0.05). Results suggest that BFT could diminish the stress by stimulating the antioxidant system to maintain the redox balance through a higher enzyme activity and decrease damage in the proteins and lipids of the cells.

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