Perceived Stigma
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Myong Sun Cho

AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which self-esteem and depressive symptoms mediated the influence of stigma on life satisfaction among out-of-school youth in the Republic of Korea. Cross-sectional data were collected from 318 youth, aged 18 to 23 years (20.67 ± 1.12), who provided information on perceived stigma, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and personal characteristics. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was followed by a path analysis to investigate the mediation effects. Stigma was found to be negatively associated with life satisfaction. Self-esteem mediated the negative association between stigma and life satisfaction, while depressive symptoms mediated the positive association between stigma and life satisfaction. The path analysis results showed that the influence of depressive symptoms on life satisfaction had the largest path coefficient (β = −0.60, p < .01) and the influence of self-esteem on life satisfaction also has a large path coefficient (β = 0.52, p < .01). This study demonstrated that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are important to the relationship between stigma and life satisfaction. Implications are discussed regarding possible stigma-reduction strategies and interventions to help out-of-school youth integrate into society and lead successful and satisfying lives.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Shradha S. Parsekar ◽  
Suma Nair

Abstract Introduction Collusion and concealing cancer diagnosis is often practiced in India. To get more insights on the perception and practice of disclosing cancer diagnosis, a qualitative study was conducted in south India. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted separately among women diagnosed with breast cancer and their caregivers. Prior permissions from hospital administration and ethical clearance was obtained. Using purposive sampling, 39 caregivers and 35 women diagnosed with breast cancer were recruited from tertiary care hospital. Results Families practiced collusion so as to protect the patient from emotional consequence viz. shock, fear of death and uncertainty about prognosis and treatment. This practice was more common among families who had patient with advanced stage of illness and/or 49 years of age and above. Collusion was mostly seen among Participants concealed the cancer diagnosis from social contacts such as extended family, friends and neighbor. Resultant codes pertaining to nondisclosure were; ‘too many questions’, ‘avoid courtesy visits’, ‘negative suggestions’, ‘perceived stigma’, ‘obstacle in child’s marriage’, and ‘shock’. Conclusions Disclosing cancer diagnosis is considered as ‘bad news’ however, withholding information about health status of patient is not ethically appropriate. Additionally, nondisclosure resulted in diminished support from social contacts. Concordance between cancer diagnosis and patients’ ability to deal with the information is important. Key messages Although nondisclosure of cancer diagnosis and prognosis violates patient autonomy, it was perceived to be beneficial for the patient. A pragmatic disclosure strategy complemented with tailored counselling would be a feasible paradigm.

2021 ◽  
pp. 097206342110352
Shri Kant Singh ◽  
Nidhi Sharma ◽  
Santosh Kumar Sharma

Disclosure is governed by a host of individual, health and psychological factors that operate in and shape the decisions related to disclosure in a patient among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV).This article studies process of disclosure, how gender affects disclosure and how it differs among PLHIV by studying their life events integrating quantitative and qualitative information from 204 respondents. Mix method approach was used to collect the data from selected male and female respondents. A total of 204 completed interviews were carried out. Bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been used in the study. One-third respondents reported to not have disclosed status to their partner. Female PLHIV were significantly more likely (AOR: 2.8, p < .05) to disclose their HIV status to their spouse/regular partner. Three-fifths of women were tested after they lost their husbands to AIDS or living with HIV. Around 94% women reported self-perceived stigma and 83% feared of being discriminated. Female PLHIV are approximately 3 times (p < .05) more likely to have the fear of discrimination. Findings of the study reinforce the necessity of integrating gender in every HIV prevention efforts as disclosure of HIV status may provide opportunity for early initiation of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), which may ensure adherence to ART services and suppressing the viral load.

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. e052228
Lara Ahmaro ◽  
Laura Lindsey ◽  
Simon Forrest ◽  
Cate Whittlesea

ObjectivesChlamydia testing among young people in community pharmacies in North East England has been low compared with other remote settings offering testing for the past few years. To understand why this may be, to maximise service provision, the perceptions of young men and women about pharmacy testing and possible chlamydia treatment were gathered and interpreted.DesignIndepth, semistructured interviews.SettingFour youth centres in North East England.ParticipantsThe study included 26 young people aged 16–23. The sample of participants comprised those with a history of chlamydia testing as well as those never tested.InterviewsFace-to-face interviews were conducted between October 2018 and May 2019. The interview schedule covered young people’s perceptions of sexually transmitted infections, provision of pharmacy sexual and reproductive health and chlamydia testing, and potential chlamydia treatment. Data from the interviews were subjected to thematic analysis.ResultsThe geographical accessibility and long opening times of community pharmacies in North East England were perceived benefits of the service. However, young people had concerns about being judged by pharmacy staff or overheard by customers when requesting the test. Men did not want to be seen by their peers accessing the pharmacy. These barriers were associated with a perceived stigma of chlamydia. Despite this, young people thought that pharmacist advice on the test kit would be important to ensure they complete it correctly. Those never tested favoured how the kit could be taken home to complete the urine sample. The option of including chlamydia treatment was reported to be convenient and comforting.ConclusionSupporting pharmacies in North East England to offer a confidential chlamydia testing service is necessary to overcome young people’s perceived barriers to testing. Delivering testing as an integrated sexual health package with other pharmacy services, together with treatment where suitable, will increase acceptance for testing and timely access to treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 396-408

Introduction: Stigma is strongly associated with leprosy that affects the social status of leprosy patients. The main problem of leprosy is that it presents a negative stigma and a very poor image to the patient. Stigma is a sign that represents unwanted traits that are contrary to one's personality within the community. Stigma is also a social process that results in the patient being unwanted. The purpose of this study was to determine perceived stigma among community members living close to leprosy center in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the communities around leprosy center from June to October 2019. A total of 260 persons were selected by simple random sampling to answer question on demographic, socioeconomic status, placement distance, information source, infected family, knowledge, attitude and stigma. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. Results: The mean stigma score obtained was 11.41 (SD=5.38). Negative attitude among community were significantly correlated with higher stigma scores (aOR 0.365, 95% CI 0.20, 0.53). Conclusion: The stigma scores obtained in this study were lower compare to other countries and negative attitudes are a major contributing factor to the stigma toward leprosy patients. This negative attitude can be avoided by raising awareness of leprosy among community living nearby to leprosy center.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (8) ◽  
pp. e0256236
Kabtamu Nigussie ◽  
Alemu Lemma ◽  
Addisu Sertsu ◽  
Henock Asfaw ◽  
Habtamu Kerebih ◽  

Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with depression and anxiety among people with epilepsy and attending out-patient treatment at central Gondar zone primary public hospitals, northwest, Ethiopia. Method An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May—June, 2020 at central Gondar zone primary public hospitals. A total of 589 participants were chosen by systematic sampling technique. Data was collected by utilizing Amharic version interviewer-administered structured and semi-structured questioners. Depression and anxiety were assessed by using hospital anxiety and depression scale. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to recognize variables related to both depression and anxiety. Association was described by using “adjusted odds ratio” (AOR) along with 95% full Confidence interval (CI). Finally, P-values < 0.05 in adjusted analysis were taken as a cut off for significant association. Result Out of 556 participants included in the study, 30.9%, 33.1% had depression and anxiety respectively. Being divorced/widowed (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI, 1.18–4.99), using two and above number of antiepileptic medications (AOR = 1.77,95% CI,1.02–3.09), very frequent seizure frequency (AOR = 2.68, 95% CI,1.30–5.51), current substance use (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI, 1.03–3.22), perceived stigma (AOR = 5.67,95% CI,3.14–8.18), and hazardous alcohol use (AOR = 2.84, 95% CI,1.32–6.09) were statistically associated with depression. While, being a single (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI, 1.04–2.63), using two and above number of antiepileptic medications (AOR = 2.27, 95% CI, 1.42–3.62), duration of illness ≥16 years (AOR = 2.82, 95% CI, 1.26–6.31), and perceived stigma (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI, 1.63–3.82) were statistically associated with anxiety at a p-value < 0.05. Conclusion This study showed that the magnitude of depression and anxiety were relatively high among people with epilepsy. Using two and above number of antiepileptic medications and perceived stigma were statistically associated with both depression and anxiety. Screening, early identification and providing appropriate intervention of depression and anxiety among people with epilepsy should be great concern for the health care providers.

2021 ◽  
pp. 025371762110293
Sushma Bhatnagar ◽  
Sanjeev Kumar ◽  
Puneet Rathore ◽  
Riniki Sarma ◽  
Rajeev Kumar Malhotra ◽  

Background: Year 2020 started with global health crisis known as COVID-19. In lack of established tools and management protocols, COVID-19 had become breeding ground for fear and confusion, leading to stigma toward affected individuals. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of stigma in discharged COVID-19 patients from a COVID hospital in India. Participants were approached telephonically using a semistructured questionnaire to record their experiences. Questions were asked regarding stigma at six major domains of daily life. Among total 1,673 discharged participants, 600 were conveniently selected and out of them 311 responded on telephonic interviews. Result: We found that 182 (58.52%) participants (95% CI: 53.04–64.00) have self-perceived stigma, 163 (52.41%) participants (95% CI: 46.86–57.96) experienced quarantine-related stigma, 222 (71.38%) participants (95% CI: 66.36–76.40) experienced neighborhood stigma, 214 (68.81%) participants (95% CI: 63.66–73.95) experienced stigma while going out in marketplaces, 180 (57.88%) participants (95% CI: 52.39–63.37) experienced stigma at their work place, and 207 (66.56%) participants (95% CI: 61.31–71.80) reported stigma experienced by their family members. With a total of 84.5% (95% CI: 80.06–88.39) participants experiencing stigma at some domain and about 42.8% of participants facing stigma at all six domains. The commonest noted cause of stigma was fear of getting infected, reported by 184 (59.2%) participants. Conclusion: This study shows high prevalence of stigma in COVID-19 patients suffering in their common domains of daily lives.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dan Luo ◽  
Meijing Zhou ◽  
Lifu Sun ◽  
Zheng Lin ◽  
Qiugui Bian ◽  

Background: Improving Quality of Life (QOL) is an essential objective in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. An accumulating body of research has been conducted to explore the association between perceived stigma and QOL among patients with chronic illness. Still, underlying mechanisms behind this pathway have not been thoroughly examined.Objective: To investigate (a) the effect of perceived stigma on QOL among patients with inflammatory bowel disease; and (b) the mediating role of resilience in the association between perceived stigma and QOL.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a convenient sample of patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease from four tertiary hospitals in Jiangsu Province, China. Patients completed the Perceived Stigma Scale in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (PSS-IBD), the Resilience Scale for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (RS-IBD), and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ). A bootstrapping analysis was implemented using the SPSS macro PROCESS.Results: A total of 311 patients with Cohn's disease and ulcerative colitis participated in this study, and 57.6% were men. The mean disease duration was 3.51 ± 1.04 years. Approximately 40% of the sample exceeded the criterion score for moderate stigma. Patients who perceived moderate or severe stigma reported lower QOL compared with those with mild stigma. After controlling for sociodemographic and clinical variables, we observed that perceived stigma was negatively associated with resilience. Moreover, resilience was found to mediate the relationship between perceived stigma and all aspects of QOL.Conclusions: These findings suggested that QOL of patients with inflammatory bowel disease was associated with perceived stigma and resilience and identified the mediating effects of resilience in the relationship between perceived stigma and QOL. Furthermore, this suggests that integrating intervention techniques to target resilience into the QOL improvement program of individuals with perceived stigma is possible.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (8) ◽  
pp. e0255824
Yitayish Damtie ◽  
Bereket Kefale ◽  
Melaku Yalew ◽  
Mastewal Arefaynie ◽  
Bezawit Adane ◽  

Background Depressive symptoms are the most common psychiatric complication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. They are associated with poor drug adherence, treatment failure, and increase the risk for suicide. There was limited evidence of depressive symptoms among HIV-positive patients in the study area. So, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among HIV-positive patients attending public health facilities of Dessie town, North-central Ethiopia, 2019. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted on 380 HIV-positive patients attending ART clinics in Dessie town, North-central Ethiopia, 2019. Samples were selected using systematic random sampling and the data were collected by using structured, pretested, and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at a cut-off point of 5 was used to assess depressive symptoms. The data were entered by Epi data version 3.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 25. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) along with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to measure the association. The level of significance was declared at a p-value of less than 0.05. Result The prevalence of depressive symptoms among HIV positive patients was 15.5% (95% CI: (12.4%, 19.2%)). Age 40–49 years compared to 30–39 years (AOR = 2.96, 95% CI: (1.01, 8.68)), age ≥50 years compared to 30–39 years (AOR = 3.81, 95% CI: (1.05, 13.8)), having perceived stigma (AOR = 10.2, 95%CI: (4.26, 24.4)) taking medication other than Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: (1.25, 5.33)) and history of opportunistic infections (AOR = 5.17, 95% CI: (1.31, 20.4)) were factors associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion The prevalence of depressive symptoms was low compared to previous studies. Age, perceived stigma, taking medication other than ART, and history of opportunistic infections were factors associated with depressive symptoms. Health education and counseling programs should be strengthened and target older patients, patients who took medications other than ART, patients who experienced perceived stigma and patients with a history of history opportunistic infections.

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