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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xue Yu ◽  
Lei Miao ◽  
Jun Zhu ◽  
Juan Liang ◽  
Li Dai ◽  
...  

Abstract Background This retrospective study aimed to determine the epidemiological features of deaths caused by unintentional suffocation among infants in China. Methods The data used in this study were obtained from China’s Under 5 Child Mortality Surveillance System (U5CMSS) from October 1, 2015, to September 30, 2016. A total of 377 children under 1 year of age who died from unintentional suffocation were included in the survey. Primary caregivers were interviewed individually using the Unintentional Suffocation Mortality among Children under 5 Questionnaire. EpiData was used to establish the database, and the results were analysed using SPSS 22.0. Results Most (85.9%) unintentional infant suffocations occurred in rural areas, and 67.5% occurred in infants 0 to 3 months old. Among the primary caregivers of the infants, most (82.7%) had a junior middle school education or below, and 83.1% of them lacked unintentional suffocation first aid skills. Of the 377 unintentional suffocated-infant deaths, the causes of death were accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed (ASSB) (193, 51.2%), inhalation suffocation (154, 40.8%), other unintentional suffocation (6, 1.6%), and unknown (24, 6.4%). Among the infant deaths due to ASSB, overlaying (88.6%) was the most frequently reported circumstance. A total of 93.8% of cases reported occurred during co-sleeping/bed sharing with parents, and in 72.8% of the cases, the infants were covered with the same quilt as their parents. In our study, most inhalation suffocation deaths (88.3%) involved liquid food (such as breast milk and formula milk). A total of 80.5% of infant deaths reportedly occurred after eating; in 28.2% of those cases, the infants were held upright and patted by their caregivers, and 57.2% of them were laid down to sleep immediately after eating. Conclusions To reduce the occurrence of unintentional suffocation, local government should strengthen knowledge and awareness of unintentional suffocation prevention and safety among parents and caregivers. Additionally, health care providers should educate parents and caregivers about safety issues of unintentional suffocation, and relevant policies should be introduced to provide environments and activities that reduce the risk of suffocation, such as promoting the Safe to Sleep Campaign. It is important to enhance the focus on infant unintentional suffocation as a health issue.


2021 ◽  
pp. 082585972110457
Author(s):  
Emir Celik ◽  
Muhammed Samil Aslan ◽  
Nilay Sengul Samanci ◽  
Mehmet Karadag ◽  
Tarik Saglam ◽  
...  

Introduction Hospitalization is a stressful experience both for primary caregivers (PCs) and cancer patients alike. Although there is significant evidence that PCs of cancer patients can experience significant caregiver burden (CB), less is known about the relationships between PCs and patient symptom severity that influence CB. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, measures of the symptom severity were obtained from cancer patients. The PCs were assessed for CB. Associations between patients' symptoms and demographic characteristics and CB were investigated using multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 98 participants (patient-caregiver dyads) filled the questionnaires. According to the Zarit Burden Interview results, 65.3% of PCs had a high CB. Pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, drowsiness, well-being, and dyspnea had significantly higher mean values in those with high CB (p < .05). Financial difficulties, first-degree relationships with the patient, higher anxiety levels, and more pronounced tiredness appear to be the variables most predictive with high CB. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study showed CB of PCs among a group of hospitalized incurable cancer patients. PCs of more symptomatic cancer patients had a higher CB, according to our findings. This emphasized the significance of palliative care. Appropriate guidance should be provided for the psychostress caused by the CB.


2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (5) ◽  
pp. 4184-4202
Author(s):  
A. Fuchsia Howard ◽  
Kelsey Lynch ◽  
Scott Beck ◽  
Maria-José Torrejón ◽  
Jonathan Avery ◽  
...  

Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be demanding for primary caregivers; yet, there is insufficient evidence describing the caregiver-reported outcomes (CROs) that matter most to caregivers. CROs refer to caregivers’ assessments of their own health status as a result of supporting a patient. The study purpose was to describe the emotions that were most impactful to caregivers of patients with CRC, and how the importance caregivers attribute to these emotions changed from diagnosis throughout treatment. Guided by qualitative Interpretive Description, we analyzed 25 caregiver and 37 CRC patient interviews, either as individuals or as caregiver-patient dyads (six interviews), using inductive coding and constant comparative techniques. We found that the emotional aspect of caring for a patient with CRC was at the heart of caregiving. Caregiver experiences that engendered emotions of consequence included: (1) facing the patient’s life-changing diagnosis and an uncertain future, (2) needing to be with the patient throughout the never-ending nightmare of treatment, (3) bearing witness to patient suffering, (4) being worn down by unrelenting caregiver responsibilities, (5) navigating their relationship, and (6) enduring unwanted change. The broad range of emotions important to caregivers contributes to comprehensive foundational evidence for future conceptualization and the use of CROs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 54-59
Author(s):  
Amool R. Singh ◽  
Sanjay Kumar Nayak ◽  
Surekha Kumari ◽  
Masroor Jahan

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lesley Andrew ◽  
Ruth Wallace ◽  
Nicole Wickens ◽  
Jilen Patel

Abstract Background Early childhood caries disproportionately affects vulnerable groups and remains a leading cause of preventable hospital admissions for Western Australian children. The Western Australia State Oral Health Plan seeks to improve child oral health through universal and targeted health promotion initiatives with primary caregivers. These initiatives require evidence of primary caregiver oral health knowledge and behaviours and baseline data on early childhood caries. The objective of this systematic scoping review was to understand current oral health knowledge and practices of primary caregivers of children aged 0–4 years, identify influential socioecological determinants, and identify data on early childhood caries in the Western Australian context. Methods A systematic scoping review framework identified articles published between 2010 and 2021, using Scopus, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, selected article reference lists, and oral health websites. The lack of Western Australian specific literature prompted the inclusion of Australia-wide articles. Articles were screened via author consensus, with eight selected. Results Western Australia and nation-wide data on early childhood caries are limited and mostly dated. WA data from children aged 2–3 years, collected in 2006, suggests the prevalence is 2.9% in this state, with national data of children from 0 to 3 years, collected from 2006 and 2008, suggesting an early childhood caries prevalence of 3.4–8% of children aged 18 months, rising sharply by 36 months of age. Nationally, fewer than half the primary caregivers reported following evidence-based oral health recommendations for their young children. Perceptions of the role of dental services for young children tends to be focussed on treatment, rather than surveillance and prevention. Knowledge of dietary and oral hygiene practices is inconsistent and awareness of the Child Dental Benefit Schedule low. Young children’s oral health status is clearly associated with socioecological factors, including socioeconomic status. Conclusions Recent early childhood caries data and evidence of primary care-givers’ oral health knowledge and behaviours are unavailable in Western Australia, a similar situation exists nationwide. To realise the Western Australian and National Oral Health Plans, research is required to address this knowledge gap.


2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Subhash Das ◽  
Priti Arun ◽  
Ravi Rohilla ◽  
Kantadorshi Parashar ◽  
Aratrika Roy

Abstract Background The elderly are a vulnerable section of the population who are prone to physical, mental, social, and economic deprivation. The effect of COVID-19 had a worldwide impact on all age groups, with a particularly higher mortality and morbidity rate among the elderly population. The present study was undertaken to know about the psychological morbidity in the geriatric population during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was cross-sectional and was done through a telephonic survey. Eligible elderly subjects were contacted telephonically, and the Geriatric Anxiety Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale were administered. To evaluate the functional ability of elderly subjects, the Everyday Abilities Scale for India (EASI) scale was administered. For the telephonic survey, verbal consent was sought. Results A total of 92 elderly subjects were included. Male outnumbered the females with a ratio of 1.8:1. Spouse and children were primary caregivers in 83.7% of the subjects. 90.2% were married, and 66.3% had earned a graduate/professional level of education. Chronic illness was present in 50% of subjects. The most common co-morbidities were hypertension (27.2%) and diabetes (21.7%). The proportion of elderly with anxiety and depression was 8.7% and 15.2% respectively. Conclusion The elderly showed lower levels of anxiety and depression. Higher resilience among the elderly and good family support may be the reasons for such an unexpected finding. However, more studies are required to validate the findings of the current study.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leah Ruppanner ◽  
Caitlyn Collins ◽  
Liana Christin Landivar ◽  
William Scarborough

In this article we investigate how state-to-state differences in U.S. childcare costs and gender norms are associated with maternal employment. Although an abundance of research has examined factors that influence mothers’ employment, few studies explore the interrelationship between maternal employment and culture, policy, and individual resources across U.S. states. Using a representative sample of women in the 2017 American Community Survey along with state-level measures of childcare costs and gender norms, we examine the relationship between these state conditions and mothers’ probability of employment. We pay careful attention to differences in mothers’ level of education. Our results suggest that expensive childcare is associated with lower maternal employment, particularly for those with less education. For the college educated, expensive childcare is negatively associated with maternal employment in states with traditional gender norms that uphold mothers as primary caregivers. Among mothers with lower levels of education, gender norms have a limited association with employment. These findings suggest that highly educated mothers mobilize resources to remain in the labor force when paid work is supported by local gender norms. For less-educated mothers, expensive childcare predicts lower employment regardless of gender norms, indicating that structural constraints outweigh normative expectations among those with fewer resources.


2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (3) ◽  
pp. 397-411
Author(s):  
Ansa Talib ◽  
Subha Malik ◽  
Shehla A. Yasin

Care giving is a difficult task especially when it involves physical or mental retardation, and it leaves marked negative impact on primary caregivers. Alzheimer is one such ailment where the patient is totally dependent on others for each bit of their life, so the care giving of Alzheimer patients become more burdensome. The aim of this research was to examine the burden and difficulties of caregivers dealing with Alzheimer's patient, especially those living at home. Case study method was employed for this research. Eight caregivers were selected purposively, and content analysis was used to examine their perspective regarding burden and challenges. In the assessment of content, the gathered qualitative information was analyzed in a deductive manner. The results of the analysis showed that caregivers face daily challenges in terms of physical and psychological health issues, social support and resources, family conflicts, crisis, and criticism. The outcomes further elaborated that due to different roles and responsibilities as caregivers they face both positivity and negativity in their lives which in most cases leads them to religiosity. The results of this study can add to positive social change by contributing to the development and implementation of programs that may take into account considerable differences in future.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3423
Author(s):  
Juan Zheng ◽  
Jie Liu ◽  
Wenhan Yang

(1) Background: Anemia has comprehensive adverse effects on the growth and development of children. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of different types of anemia on early-life neurobehavioral development. (2) Methods: A total of 2601 children aged 6–24 months, whose parents agreed to participate in this study, underwent routine blood tests and neurobehavioral development assessment. The children’s parents or other primary caregivers were interviewed with a face-to-face questionnaire at the time of enrollment in the study. Anemia was determined by hemoglobin < 110 g/L and classified into iron-deficiency and non-iron-deficiency anemia according to the levels of serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Neurobehavioral development was assessed by the China Developmental Scale for Children and divided into five domains: gross motor, fine movement, adaptability, language, and social behavior. The development quotient (DQ) was used to measure the level of total neurobehavioral development and each domain of neurobehavioral development. (3) Results: The prevalence of anemia in children aged 6–24 months was 26.45%, of which iron-deficiency anemia only accounted for 27.33%. Compared with children without anemia, those with iron-deficiency anemia had a significantly lower developmental quotient (DQ) for total neurobehavioral development and gross motor and adaptability development. The partial regression coefficients were −1.33 (95% CI −2.36, −0.29; p = 0.012), −1.88 (95% CI −3.74, −0.03; p = 0.047), and 1.48 (95% CI −2.92, −0.05; p = 0.042), respectively. Children with non-iron-deficiency anemia had significantly lower DQ for total neurobehavioral development and gross motor and fine movement development than those without anemia. The partial regression coefficients were −0.94 (95% CI −1.64, −0.25; p = 0.008), −1.25 (95% CI −2.48, −0.03; p = 0.044), and −1.18 (95% CI −2.15, −0.21; p = 0.017), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in total neurobehavioral development and the five domains of neurobehavioral development between children with non-iron-deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. The partial β values were 0.40 (95% CI −1.53, 2.33; p = 0.684), 0.21 (95% CI −1.39, 1.81; p = 0.795), 0.63 (95% CI −1.03, 2.28; p = 0.457), 0.16 (95% CI −1.78, 2.10; p = 0.871), 0.35 (95% CI −1.32, 2.01; p = 0.684), and 0.34 (95% CI −0.77, 1.46; p = 0.545), respectively. (4) Conclusions: Both iron-deficiency anemia and non-iron-deficiency anemia were negatively correlated with the neurobehavioral development of children. Negative correlations were found between iron-deficiency anemia and gross motor and adaptability development and between non-iron-deficiency anemia and gross motor and fine movement development.


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