immunosuppressive microenvironment
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Nano Today ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 101381
Yanfei Li ◽  
Hongliang Qian ◽  
Xin Huang ◽  
Xiang Zhou ◽  
Bingbing Zhao ◽  

2022 ◽  
David G. Meckes ◽  
Monica Abou Harb ◽  
Li Sun

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) circulate throughout the body and carry cargo that can be conferred to proximal or distant cells, making them major delivery vehicles for cellular communication. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infected cells release EVs that contain viral proteins such as the major viral oncogene, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). LMP1 has been shown to regulate the cellular gene expression of programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1). PD-L1, a protein that suppresses the immune system by binding to PD-1, (a receptor found on cytotoxic T cells). PD-L1 has been recently found to be packaged into small EVs contributing to immune evasion of lung cancer cells. Recent studies establish that MVs are shed in very large amounts by tumor cells, and that elevated levels of MVs correlate to disease metastasis and cancers being more aggressive. Here, we demonstrate PD-L1 enrichment in MVs released from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and an important function of EBV LMP1 in regulating PD-L1 levels in MVs. These PD-L1+ MVs containing LMP1 likely contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in EBV-associated cancers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Saket Jain ◽  
Eric J. Chalif ◽  
Manish K. Aghi

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor with a median survival ranging from 6.2 to 16.7 months. The complex interactions between the tumor and the cells of tumor microenvironment leads to tumor evolution which ultimately results in treatment failure. Immunotherapy has shown great potential in the treatment of solid tumors but has been less effective in treating glioblastoma. Failure of immunotherapy in glioblastoma has been attributed to low T-cell infiltration in glioblastoma and dysfunction of the T-cells that are present in the glioblastoma microenvironment. Recent advances in single-cell sequencing have increased our understanding of the transcriptional changes in the tumor microenvironment pre and post-treatment. Another treatment modality targeting the tumor microenvironment that has failed in glioblastoma has been anti-angiogenic therapy such as the VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab, which did not improve survival in randomized clinical trials. Interestingly, the immunosuppressed microenvironment and abnormal vasculature of glioblastoma interact in ways that suggest the potential for synergy between these two therapeutic modalities that have failed individually. Abnormal tumor vasculature has been associated with immune evasion and the creation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment, suggesting that inhibiting pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF can increase infiltration of effector immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. Remodeling of the tumor vasculature by inhibiting VEGFR2 has also been shown to improve the efficacy of PDL1 cancer immunotherapy in mouse models of different cancers. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in our understanding of the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment specially the tumor vasculature and its interactions with the immune cells, and opportunities to target these interactions therapeutically. Combining anti-angiogenic and immunotherapy in glioblastoma has the potential to unlock these therapeutic modalities and impact the survival of patients with this devastating cancer.

2022 ◽  
Shannon Coy ◽  
Shu Wang ◽  
Sylwia A Stopka ◽  
Jia-Ren Lin ◽  
Rumana Rashid ◽  

Glioblastoma develops an immunosuppressive microenvironment that fosters tumorigenesis and resistance to current therapeutic strategies. Here we use multiplexed tissue imaging and single-cell RNA-sequencing to characterize the composition, spatial organization, and clinical significance of extracellular purinergic signaling in glioblastoma. We show that glioblastoma exhibit strong expression of CD39 and CD73 ectoenzymes, correlating with increased adenosine levels. Microglia are the predominant source of CD39, while CD73 is principally expressed by tumor cells, particularly in tumors with amplification of EGFR and astrocyte-like differentiation. Spatially-resolved single-cell analyses demonstrate strong spatial correlation between tumor CD73 and microglial CD39, and that their spatial proximity is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Together, this data reveals that tumor CD73 expression correlates with tumor genotype, lineage differentiation, and functional states, and that core purine regulatory enzymes expressed by neoplastic and tumor-associated myeloid cells interact to promote a distinctive adenosine-rich signaling niche and immunosuppressive microenvironment potentially amenable to therapeutic targeting.

Xuefei Liu ◽  
Ziwei Luo ◽  
Xuechen Ren ◽  
Zhihang Chen ◽  
Xiaoqiong Bao ◽  

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is dominated by an immunosuppressive microenvironment, which makes immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) often non-responsive. Understanding the mechanisms by which PDAC forms an immunosuppressive microenvironment is important for the development of new effective immunotherapy strategies.Methods: This study comprehensively evaluated the cell-cell communications between malignant cells and immune cells by integrative analyses of single-cell RNA sequencing data and bulk RNA sequencing data of PDAC. A Malignant-Immune cell crosstalk (MIT) score was constructed to predict survival and therapy response in PDAC patients. Immunological characteristics, enriched pathways, and mutations were evaluated in high- and low MIT groups.Results: We found that PDAC had high level of immune cell infiltrations, mainly were tumor-promoting immune cells. Frequent communication between malignant cells and tumor-promoting immune cells were observed. 15 ligand-receptor pairs between malignant cells and tumor-promoting immune cells were identified. We selected genes highly expressed on malignant cells to construct a Malignant-Immune Crosstalk (MIT) score. MIT score was positively correlated with tumor-promoting immune infiltrations. PDAC patients with high MIT score usually had a worse response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) immunotherapy.Conclusion: The ligand-receptor pairs identified in this study may provide potential targets for the development of new immunotherapy strategy. MIT score was established to measure tumor-promoting immunocyte infiltration. It can serve as a prognostic indicator for long-term survival of PDAC, and a predictor to ICB immunotherapy response.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Jialu Xu ◽  
Qingle Ma ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Ziying Fei ◽  
Yifei Sun ◽  

AbstractMicrobe-based cancer immunotherapy has recently emerged as a hot topic for cancer treatment. However, serious limitations remain including infection associated side-effect and unsatisfactory outcomes in clinic trials. Here, we fabricate different sizes of nano-formulations derived from yeast cell wall (YCW NPs) by differential centrifugation. The induction of anticancer immunity of our formulations appears to inversely correlate with their size due to the ability to accumulate in tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN). Moreover, we use a percolation model to explain their distribution behavior toward TDLN. The abundance and functional orientation of each effector component are significantly improved not only in the microenvironment in tumor but also in the TDLN following small size YCW NPs treatment. In combination with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade, we demonstrate anticancer efficiency in melanoma-challenged mice. We delineate potential strategy to target immunosuppressive microenvironment by microbe-based nanoparticles and highlight the role of size effect in microbe-based immune therapeutics.

Mengxuan Zhu ◽  
Pengfei Zhang ◽  
Shan Yu ◽  
Cheng Tang ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Chemoresistance is a main obstacle in gastric cancer (GC) treatment, but its molecular mechanism still needs to be elucidated. Here, we aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) resistance in GC. Methods We performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on samples from patients who were resistant or sensitive to nab-paclitaxel, and identified Zinc Finger Protein 64 (ZFP64) as critical for nab-paclitaxel resistance in GC. CCK8, flow cytometry, TUNEL staining, sphere formation assays were performed to investigate the effects of ZFP64 in vitro, while subcutaneous tumor formation models were established in nude mice or humanized mice to evaluate the biological roles of ZFP64 in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (CHIP-seq) and double-luciferase reporter gene assay were conducted to reveal the underlying mechanism of ZFP64. Results ZFP64 overexpression was linked with aggressive phenotypes, nab-paclitaxel resistance and served as an independent prognostic factor in GC. As a transcription factor, ZFP64 directly binds to Galectin-1 (GAL-1) promoter and promoted GAL-1 transcription, thus inducing stem-cell like phenotypes and immunosuppressive microenvironment in GC. Importantly, compared to treatment with nab-paclitaxel alone, nab-paclitaxel plus GAL-1 blockade significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect in mouse models, particularly in humanized mice. Conclusions Our data support a pivotal role for ZFP64 in GC progression by simultaneously promoting cellular chemotherapy resistance and tumor immunosuppression. Treatment with the combination of nab-paclitaxel and a GAL-1 inhibitor might benefit a subgroup of GC patients.

2022 ◽  
Yusuke Nakamura ◽  
Jun Kinoshita ◽  
Takahisa Yamaguchi ◽  
Tatsuya Aoki ◽  
Hiroto Saito ◽  

Abstract Background The role of tumor–stroma interactions in tumor immune microenvironment (TME) is attracting attention. We have previously reported that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contribute to the progression of peritoneal metastasis (PM) in gastric cancer (GC), and M2 macrophages and mast cells also contribute to TME of PM. To elucidate the role of CAFs in TME, we established an immunocompetent mouse PM model with fibrosis, which reflects clinical features of TME. However, the involvement of CAFs in the immunosuppressive microenvironment remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of Tranilast at modifying this immune tolerance by suppressing CAFs. Methods The interaction between mouse myofibroblast cell line LmcMF and mouse GC cell line YTN16 on M2 macrophage migration was investigated, and the inhibitory effect of Tranilast was examined in vitro. Using C57BL/6J mouse PM model established using YTN16 with co-inoculation of LmcMF, TME of resected PM treated with or without Tranilast was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results The addition of YTN16 cell-conditioned medium to LmcMF cells enhanced CXCL12 expression and stimulated M2 macrophage migration, whereas Tranilast inhibited the migration ability of M2 macrophages by suppressing CXCL12 secretion from LmcMF. In PM model, Tranilast inhibited tumor growth and fibrosis, M2 macrophage, and mast cell infiltration and significantly promoted CD8 + lymphocyte infiltration into the tumor, leading to apoptosis of cancer cells by an immune response. Conclusion Tranilast improved the immunosuppressive microenvironment by inhibiting CAF function in a mouse PM model. Tranilast is thus a promising candidate for the treatment of PM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Yingying Sun ◽  
Xiaoqing Han ◽  
Chao Shang ◽  
Yawei Wang ◽  
Boya Xu ◽  

AbstractTumors modify myeloid cell differentiation and induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs), the main subgroup of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), are immature myeloid cells (IMCs) with immunosuppressive activity and exist in tumor-bearing hosts. The reason why these cells diverge from a normal differentiation pathway and are shaped into immunosuppressive cells remains unclear. Here, we reported that the increase of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mouse serum with tumor progression encouraged G-MDSCs to obtain immunosuppressive traits in peripheral blood through the PI3K-Akt/mTOR pathway. Importantly, we found that downregulation of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling in G-MDSCs was a prerequisite for their immunosuppressive effects. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS1), the action of which is dependent on IFN-I signaling, inhibited the activation of the PI3K-Akt/mTOR pathway by directly interacting with Akt, indicating that the differentiation of immunosuppressive G-MDSCs involves a transition from immune activation to immune tolerance. Our study suggests that increasing IFN-I signaling in G-MDSCs may be a strategy for reprograming immunosuppressive myelopoiesis and slowing tumor progression.

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