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2021 ◽  
pp. 3932-3941
Hiba Tarq Jaleel ◽  
Ahmed S. Al-Banna ◽  
Ghazi H. Al-Sharaa

The shale volume is one of the most important properties that can be computed depending on gamma ray log. The shale volume of Mishrif Formation (carbonate formation from middle Cenomanian- early Turonian) was studied for the regional area of the middle and southern parts of Iraq. The gamma ray log data from seventeen  wells ( Kf-3,Kf-4, Ad-1,Ad -2,Dh-1, Bu-47, Ns-2, Ns-4, Am-1,Am-2,Hf-2,Hf-115,Mj-3,Mj-15, Su-7,Wq-15 and  Lu-7) distributed in the study area were used to compute the shale volume of Mishrif Formation. From the available data of the considered wells, a regional isopach map of Mishrif Formation was obtained. The isopach map indicates that the maximum thickness of Mishrif Formation is located at the eastern part of the study area. The results of the CPI and the shale volume map, which were computed using the Techlog and surfer software,  show that the maximum value of shale volume is located at the southern part of the study area (Su-7  well), while the minimum value is at the eastern  part (Hf-2well). According to the classification of Kamel and Mabrouk (2003), Mishrif Formation seems to be a Shaly Formation in the study area, except Halfaya oil field at the eastern part of the study area, which seems as a Clear Formation. The top map of the shale marker bed, which appears in most studied wells, shows a regional trend of the formation toward the northeast. According to the variation of the thickness of the shale marker bed, the study area is divided into four zones.

2021 ◽  
Denys Grytsai ◽  
Petro Shtefura ◽  
Vadym Dodukh

Abstract A methodology has been developed that, in conditions of limited geological and production data, ensures the integration of petrophysical, geological, and hydrodynamic models as components of a permanent 3D model, establishing physical relationships between parameters that describe the entire system. In the proposed method, the modelling is based on the results of the interpretation of continuous shale volume and porosity curves. Based on the analysis of core data, the multi-vector physical correlations with other parameters are made. To distinguish the reservoirs and non-reservoirs, the cut-off values of shale volume are defined; to exclude tight reservoirs with no filtration, the cut-off values of porosity are set. Using the Winland R35 method the radius of the pore throat is computed, allowing dividing the reservoirs into classes. For each class of reservoirs, the permeability vs porosity dependence is determined, and the Wright-Woody-Johnson method allows deriving equations for the bound water content. A system of configured workflows has been developed and allows automating re-modelling and simplifying its history matching. This technique was successfully applied to several 3D models of gas condensate fields, which, with a significant drilling level on the areas and a long development history, are characterized by limited geological and production data. Workflows System together with the proposed approach allowed simplifying the history matching process by splitting it into several stages. At each stage, depending on the type of input data, various parameters were matched (production, reservoir and wellhead pressures, etc.). Due to cross-functional correlation of all components, the model has significantly reduced the uncertainty parameters and allowed a detailed history matching of the development history for the entire well stock. The results obtained were tested by several geological and technological measures, including drilling new wells, and showed high convergence with the forecast indicators. The proposed approach to modelling and history matching in conditions of limited geological and production data allows: – ensuring integration and correlation of petrophysical, geological, and hydrodynamic models as components of a permanent 3D model; – automating and simplifying the modelling, history matching, and updating a model; – improving the quality of parameters’ matching results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
Daffa Dzakwan Shiddiq ◽  
Eleonora Agustine ◽  
Tumpal Bernhard Nainggolan ◽  
Imam Setiadi ◽  
Shaska Zulivandama

Tarakan Basin area of Bunyu Island Waters is known to have hydrocarbon potential with complex geological structures. This study aims to determine reservoir characterization and to obtain prospect of hydrocarbon reservoir zones based on petrophysical and seismic stratigraphy analysis with reference to Well DDS-1 and 2D seismic Line S88. Petrophysical analysis results 3 zones that have potential as hydrocarbon reservoirs. Based on petrophysical quantitative analysis, Zone 1 has values of 52.25% for shale volume, 18.48% for effective porosity, 39.84% for water saturation and 13.03 mD for permeability. Zone 2 has values of 54.66% for shale volume, 10.27% for effective porosity, 40.9% for water saturation and 1.14 mD for permeability. Zone 3 has values of 49.22% for shale volume, 9.33% for effective porosity, 56.33% for water saturation and 0.22 mD for permeability. Out of these three reservoir zones in Well DDS- 1, Zone 1 has the prospect of hydrocarbons which is supported by the net pay value. Based on seismic stratigraphy interpretation, the reservoir zone is correlated to the Tabul Formation, which comprises calcareous clay and limestone.

Mohammad Abdelfattah Sarhan

AbstractThe main aim of the article is to evaluate the gas potentiality for the post-Messinian megasequence in TAO Field, North Sinai Concession, offshore Nile Delta Basin. The detailed petrophysical analysis for three deviated wells in the study area (Tao-3 ST1 Well, Tao-5 STA Well and Tao-7 Well) revealed that the Pliocene Kafr El-Sheikh Formation includes eleven gas-bearing zones. These zones were named: A, B, C in Tao-3 ST1 Well and D, E, F in Tao-5 STA Well. In Tao-7 Well, the interesting zones are named G, H, I, J and K. All of these sandy intervals are relatively shallow in depth and differ in thickness between 4 and 56 m. These zones are characterized by shale volume (10%), total porosity (30–40%), effective porosity (30–35%), gas saturation (50–90%), high effective permeability to gas and low permeability to water. The seismic data displayed that listric faults and the associated rollover folds have an important role in forming structural traps for the examined gas-bearing zones in Tao Field and its surroundings. This work revealed that the success rate in discovering new gas prospects within the Pliocene–Pleistocene succession at North Sinai Concession is very high.

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (2D) ◽  
pp. 39-58
Hiba Tareq

The lithology of four formations from the Cretaceous period (Mishrif, Rumaila, Ahmadi, and Mauddud) was evaluated using the Acoustic Impedance and Vp/Vs ratio cross plot from Rock Physics Templates. Dipole sonic logs in Am-6-Am-10 well log were used to calculate compression velocity then the estimated shear velocity using Greenberg Castagna equations. RHOB and VP logs were used to calculate Acoustic Impedance. The ratio of Vp/Vs was measured then used with Acoustic Impedance colored by shale volume which is measured from gamma ray log, porosity and water saturation to estimate lithology type of the considered formations using cross plots and rock physics chart in the Techlog software. The lithology of the formations found to be of high porosity limestone alternating with hard limestone layers and the shale volume increases in the Ahmadi formation. The water bearing zone was found in all Formations, this zone is indicted by high Vp/ Vs ratio and low AI. The hydrocarbon bearing zones were indicated by low amount of both Acoustic Impedance and Vp/Vs ratio and this observation was shown in Mishrif and Mauddud formations.

Shamiha Shafinaz Shreya ◽  
Md Anwar Hossain Bhuiyan ◽  
Shakhawat Hossain ◽  
Tania Sultana

The previous studies on the petrophysical and volumetric analysis of Habiganj gas field were based on limited well data. As the accuracy of volumetric analysis relies greatly on petrophysical parameters, it is important to estimate them accurately. In this study we analyzed all eleven wells drilled in the Habiganj field to determine the petrophysical parameters. Analysis of the well logs revealed two distinct reservoir zones in this field termed as upper reservoir zone and lower reservoir zone. Stratigraphically, these two reservoir zones are in the Bokabil and Bhuban Formation of Surma Group. Petrophysical analysis shows significant differences between the two zones in terms of petrophysical parameters. Porosity in the upper reservoir zone ranges from 12% to 36%, with an average of 28%. This zone is highly permeable, as indicated by the average permeability of 500 mili Darcy (mD). The average water saturation in this zone is around 18% suggesting high gas saturation. The lower reservoir zone has an average porosity, permeability, and water saturation of 12%, 60mD, and 43%, respectively, indicating poor reservoir quality. An analysis of log motifs indicates that the upper reservoir zone is composed of stacked sands of blocky pattern. The sands in this interval are clean, as indicated by the lower shale volume of 12-15%. The average thickness of this zone is 230m, and the presence of this zone in all the drilled wells suggests high lateral continuity. The lower reservoir zone consists of sand bodies of serrated pattern. The sands have high shale volume and are laterally discontinuous. Overall, the upper reservoir zone has superior petrophysical properties to the lower reservoir zone. Although the reservoir quality of the lower reservoir zone is poorer than that of the upper zone, this zone can be considered as the secondary target for hydrocarbon production. Petrophysical parameters of this study were estimated from all the eleven wells drilled in this field; hence the values are more accurate. The reported values of the petrophysical parameters in this study are recommended to use to re-estimate the reserves in Habiganj field. The Dhaka University Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 10(1), 2021, P 1-10

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (20) ◽  
pp. 9759
Changhyup Park ◽  
Jaehwan Oh ◽  
Suryeom Jo ◽  
Ilsik Jang ◽  
Kun Sang Lee

This paper presents a Pareto-based multi-objective optimization for operating CO2 sequestration with a multi-well system under geological uncertainty; the optimal well allocation, i.e., the optimal allocation of CO2 rates at injection wells, is obtained when there is minimum operation pressure as well as maximum sequestration efficiency. The distance-based generalized sensitivity analysis evaluates the influence of geological uncertainty on the amount of CO2 sequestration through four injection wells at 3D heterogeneous saline aquifers. The spatial properties significantly influencing the trapping volume, in descending order of influence, are mean sandstone porosity, mean sandstone permeability, shale volume ratio, and the Dykstra–Parsons coefficient of permeability. This confirms the importance of storable capacity and heterogeneity in quantitatively analyzing the trapping mechanisms. Multi-objective optimization involves the use of two aquifer models relevant to heterogeneity; one is highly heterogeneous and the other is less so. The optimal well allocations converge to non-dominated solutions and result in a large injection through one specific well, which generates the wide spread of a highly mobile CO2 plume. As the aquifer becomes heterogeneous with a large shale volume and a high Dykstra–Parsons coefficient, the trapping performances of the combined structural and residual sequestration plateau relatively early. The results discuss the effects of spatial heterogeneity on achieving CO2 geological storage, and they provide an operation strategy including multi-objective optimization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (2C) ◽  
pp. 39-47
Hussein Y. Ali

Evaluating a reservoir to looking for hydrocarbon bearing zones, by determining the petrophysical properties in two wells of the Yamama Formation in Siba field using Schlumberger Techlog software. Three porosity logs were used to identify lithology using MN and MID cross plots. Shale volume were calculated using gamma ray log in well Sb-6ST1 and corrected gamma ray in well Sb-5B. Sonic log was used to calculate porosity in bad hole intervals while from density log at in-gauge intervals. Moreover, water saturation was computed from the modified Simandoux equation and compared to the Archie equation. Finally, Permeability was estimated using a flow zone indicator. The results show that the Yamama Formation is found to be mainly limestone that confirmed by cuttings description and this lithology intermixed with some dolomite, in addition to gas and secondary porosity effects. Generally, the formation is considered clean due to the low shale volume in both wells with the elimination of the uranium effect in well Sb-5B. The calculated porosity was validated by core porosity in YC and YD units. Modified Simandoux gives a better estimation than the Archie equation since it takes into account the conductive of matrix in addition to the fluid conductivity. Five equations were obtained from porosity permeability relationship of core data based on five hydraulic flow units reorganized from the cross plot of reservoir quality index against normalized porosity index. The overall interpretation showed that YC and YD units are the best quality hydrocarbon units in the Yamama Formation, while YA came in the second importance and has properties better than YB. Moreover, YE and YFG are poor units due to high water saturation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2956-2969
Humam Q. Hameed ◽  
Afrah H. Saleh

    The objective of this paper is determining the petrophysical properties of the Mauddud Formation (Albian-Early Turonian) in Ratawi Oil Field depending on the well logs data by using interactive petrophysical software IP (V4.5). We evaluated parameters of available logs that control the reservoir properties of the formation, including shale volume, effective porosity, and water saturation. Mauddud Formation is divided into five units, which are distinguished by various reservoir characteristics. These units are A, B, C, D, and E. Through analyzing results of the computer processed interpretation (CPI) of available wells, we observed that the main reservoir units are B and D, being distinguished by elevated values of effective porosity (10%-32%) and oil saturation (95%-30%) with low shale content (6%-30%). Whereas, units A, C, and E were characterized by low or non-reservoir properties, due to high water saturation and low values of effective porosity caused by increased volume shale.

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