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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. U. Asghar ◽  
A. Rahman ◽  
Z. Hayat ◽  
M. K. Rafique ◽  
I. H. Badar ◽  

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
K. Tayyab ◽  
S. Aslam ◽  
M. A. Ghauri ◽  
A. S. Abbas ◽  
A. Hussain

Abstract Biofloc technology is much highlighted these days because of its tremendous effects on aquaculture. Microbes were enriched on cheapest organic carbon source i. e., powdered banana peels and were incorporated in different aquaria rearing grass carp fingerlings under different C/N treatments (10:1, 15:1 and 20:1) and 10% water daily water exchange. The initial growth of fingerlings was recorded. The experiment was settled in triplicates for 60 days and run parallel to control group provided with commercial feed and daily water exchange. Its effect was evaluated by measuring the growth of fingerlings and water parameters of each aquarium. The average % gain in weight and length of fingerlings was obtained significantly highest (28.12 ± 0.30g and 17.29 ± 0.46cm respectively) in aquaria containing pure powdered banana peels with 10% water exchange and C/N ratio was adjusted at 20: 1 (T3) than other treatments and control. Ammonia and other water parameters were also under control in T3 than other experimental and control groups. By all counts, it was concluded that the highest C/N ratio in biofloc system had the potential to increment C. idella growth rate by reducing toxicity and could be used as fish meal substitute.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 68-71
Xiaowei He

ABSTRACT Introduction: The mental health of college students is getting more and more attention from society. Physical exercise as a means of psychotherapy and mental health has become common at home and abroad. Objective: We explore the effect of prescribing physical exercise in the treatment of depression in college students. Methods: College students who had been diagnosed with depression were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, each with 18 patients. The control group received drug treatment. The observation group received sports therapy in addition to drug therapy. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in HAMD scores between the observation and control groups in the first week (P<0.01). Conclusions: Exercise can play a role in treating depression patients rapidly, safely, and efficiently. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Kebebe Bidira ◽  
Dessalegn Tamiru ◽  
Tefera Belachew

Abstract Background Under-nutrition is a global problem and one of the most serious public health issues. Globally, 156 million under-five children were stunted, and 50 million were wasted in 2016. Malnutrition among preschool-age children is caused by low socioeconomic status, food insecurity, poor feeding practices, and infectious diseases. This intervention aimed to evaluate the effect of nutrition education delivered through trained health professionals in improving the nutritional status of preschool -aged children. Methods A quasi-experimental design among 588 preschool –aged children was used. A multistage sampling technique followed by a systematic random sampling technique was used to identify caregivers with preschool-aged children. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. The baseline difference in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics between the two groups was examined using a chi-square test and an independent sample t-test was used to determine the mean difference in under-nutrition between the intervention and control groups. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the change in the difference in outcome between the intervention and control groups as well as the association of predictors with under-nutrition in children. The Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals was reported to show the strength of the association. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant in multivariable analysis. Results In this study, the nutritional status of preschool age children was significantly associated with nutrition education intervention [AOR = 0.566, 95% CI: (0.347, 0.923)], place of delivery [AOR = 0.724, 95% CI: (0.551, 0.951)], ARI in the last 2 weeks [AOR = 1.823, 95% CI: (1.226, 2.710)], source of drinking water [AOR = 0.624, 95% CI: (0.484, 0.805)] and household food security [AOR = 1.311, 95% CI: (1.030, 1.669)] . Conclusions Findings of this study showed that nutrition education can effectively reduce the magnitude of under-nutrition among preschool children. Under-nutrition was e significantly associated with nutritional education, place of delivery, ARI in the last 2 weeks, source of drinking water, and food security. Therefore, both government and non-government should consider the impacts of nutrition education to alleviate under-nutrition and improve the health status of preschool-age children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Ákos Bajtel ◽  
Tivadar Kiss ◽  
Barbara Tóth ◽  
Szabolcs Kiss ◽  
Péter Hegyi ◽  

Dronabinol, a natural cannabinoid, and its semi-synthetic derivative, nabilone, are marketed as medicines in several countries. The aim of our work was to systematically evaluate the frequency of adverse events related to dronabinol or nabilone treatment compared to placebo. Scientific databases were searched for placebo-controlled clinical studies of patients receiving either dronabinol or nabilone therapy with placebo control groups. This meta-analysis was reported following the PRISMA guidelines using the PICO format, and it was registered with the PROSPERO register. There were 16 trials included in the meta-analysis. In the nabilone studies, drowsiness was more than 7 times as frequent in patients treated with nabilone than in the placebo group (OR: 7.25; 95% CI: 1.64–31.95), and the risk of dizziness (OR: 21.14; 95% CI: 2.92–152.75) and dry mouth was also higher (OR: 17.23; 95% CI: 4.33–68.55). The frequency of headache was not different in the two groups. In case of dronabinol, the frequency of dry mouth (OR: 5.58; 95% CI: 3.19–9.78), dizziness (OR: 4.60 95% CI: 2.39–8.83) and headache (OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.07–7.85) was significantly higher in the dronabinol groups, whereas in case of nausea, drowsiness and fatigue there was no difference. The severity of adverse events was typically mild-to-moderate and transient. In a risk-benefit assessment, these adverse effects are acceptable compared to the achievable benefit. However, considering the diversity of the adverse effects, more studies are needed to provide a more accurate assessment on the side effect profiles of these two compounds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Francesco Bennardo ◽  
Selene Barone ◽  
Camillo Vocaturo ◽  
Ludovica Nucci ◽  
Alessandro Antonelli ◽  

This systematic review aimed to answer the question: “Is the use of magnetic mallet effective in oral and implant surgery procedures in terms of tissue healing, surgery outcome, and complication rate compared to traditional instruments?” A literature search of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases (articles published until 1 October 2021) was conducted, in accordance with the PRISMA statement, using the keywords “magnetic mallet”, “electric mallet”, “oral surgery”, “implantology”, and “dental implant”. Of 252 articles, 14 were included in the review (3 for teeth extraction, and 11 for implant dentistry). Out of a total of 619 dental extractions (256 patients) performed with the magnetic mallet (MM), no complications were reported. Implants inserted totaled 880 (525 patients): 640 in the MM groups (382), and 240 in control groups (133). The survival rate of implants was 98.9% in the MM groups, and 95.42% in the control groups. Seven patients experienced benign paroxysmal positional vertigo after implant surgery, all in control groups. Results are not sufficient to establish the effectiveness of MM in oral and implant surgery procedures. Randomized controlled trials with a large sample size are needed.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 192
Stuart J. Patterson ◽  
Tim H. Clutton-Brock ◽  
Dirk U. Pfeiffer ◽  
Julian A. Drewe

Individuals vary in their potential to acquire and transmit infections, but this fact is currently underexploited in disease control strategies. We trialled a trait-based vaccination strategy to reduce tuberculosis in free-living meerkats by targeting high-contact meerkats (socially dominant individuals) in one study arm, and high-susceptibility individuals (young subordinates) in a second arm. We monitored infection within vaccinated groups over two years comparing the results with untreated control groups. Being a member of a high-contact group had a protective effect on individuals’ survival times (Hazard Ratio = 0.5, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.29–0.88, p = 0.02) compared to control groups. Over the study, odds of testing positive for tuberculosis increased more than five-fold in control groups (Odds Ratio = 5.40, 95% CI = 0.94–30.98, p = 0.058); however, no increases were observed in either of the treatment arms. Targeted disease control approaches, such as the one described in this study, allow for reduced numbers of interventions. Here, trait-based vaccination was associated with reduced infection rates and thus has the potential to offer more efficient alternatives to traditional mass-vaccination policies. Such improvements in efficiency warrant further study and could make infectious disease control more practically achievable in both animal (particularly wildlife) and human populations.

2022 ◽  
Chia-Yi Lee ◽  
Hung-Chi Chen ◽  
Jing-Yang Huang ◽  
Chi-Chun Lai ◽  
Shun-Fa Yang ◽  

Introduction: To investigate the risk of mood disorders in patients who experienced retinal detachment (RD) by using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Methods: Participants with a diagnosis of RD were regarded as the study group, and an age- and sex-matched group without a diagnosis of RD served as the control group. The outcomes related to mood disorders after RD included (1) psychiatric outpatient department visits; (2) behavioural therapy; (3) sleep or anxiety-related disorders; and (4) major depressive disorder (MDD). Results: A total of 4,129 participants diagnosed with RD and 16,516 non-RD individuals were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences in the four mood disorder-related outcomes between the study and control groups. However, the patients with recurrent RD who received more than two treatments and female patients with RD who needed surgical treatment showed a higher probability of developing MDD than did the non-RD subjects (incidence rate: 0.96 versus 0.36; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 2.382, 95% CI: 1.032–5.496, log-rank P= 0.0325; and aHR: 6.895, 95% CI: 1.659–28.656, log-rank P= 0.0060, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with recurrent RD and multiple surgeries and females with RD who needed surgical treatment were at greater risk for developing MDD.

2022 ◽  
Mina Ohadi ◽  
Safoura Khamse ◽  
Samira Alizadeh ◽  
Stephan H Bernhart ◽  
Hossein Afshar ◽  

Abstract The human SBF1 (SET binding factor 1) gene, alternatively known as MTMR5, is predominantly expressed in the brain, and its epigenetic dysregulation is linked to late-onset neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease. This gene contains a (GCC)-repeat at the interval between +1 and +60 of the transcription start site (SBF1-202 ENST00000380817.8). Sequencing of the SBF1 (GCC)-repeat in a sample of 542 Iranian individuals, consisting of late-onset NCDs (N=260) and controls (N=282) revealed a predominantly bi-allelic locus for this STR, consisting of 8 and 9 repeats, with allele frequencies ranging from 0.39 to 0.55, and four other alleles with frequencies of <0.03 across the two groups. Overall heterozygosity for the observed alleles was significantly less than expected in the NCD and control groups, at 22.3% and 16.31%, respectively (p=0.000). Specifically, the heterozygous 8/9 genotype was significantly less than expected in both case and control groups (Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, p=0.000), and significantly enriched in the NCD group (Yates corrected p=0.001). Skewed heterozygous genotypes were also detected for other allele combinations, such as 6/8 vs 6/9 across groups (p=0.000). Bioinformatics studies revealed that the number of (GCC)-repeats may change the RNA secondary structure and interaction sites across human exon 1. This STR was specifically expanded beyond 2-repeats in primates. In conclusion, we report a novel biological phenomenon in which there is indication of purifying selection against heterozygous genotypes at a STR locus in human, and skewed genotype compartment in late-onset NCD vs. controls. In view of the location of this STR in the 5′ UTR, RNA/RNA or RNA/DNA heterodimer formation of the involved genotypes and possible deleterious downstream events should be considered.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Marcela Kovářová ◽  
Petr Maděra ◽  
Tomáš Frantík ◽  
Jan Novák ◽  
Štěpán Vencl

The aboveground biomass of dry knotweed was administered daily to large groups of young (1- to 3-year-old) stallions of the Czech Warmblood, Czech-Moravian Coldblood and Silesian Norik breeds, fed individually for 4 and 6 months in two successive winter experiments. Their fitness was compared with control groups consisting of equally numerous subgroups comparable in age, breed, body mass and initial blood parameters. The effects of knotweed on the horses’ fitness were evaluated based on changes in blood characteristics. Even if administered in small amounts, 150 g per day, knotweed could (1) increase the thrombocyte numbers, (2) increase the globulin content (thus improving the horses’ immunity, which is desired in large groups of animals), (3) stimulate lipid metabolism in cold-blooded horses and (4) decrease the concentration of cholesterol. The long-lasting effect of knotweed on both the urea and triglyceride–cholesterol ratio presumably reflected, between the two experiments, the temporary protein starvation of horses on pastures with poor quality of grass in a dry summer.

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