Control Groups
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Antonia Kohlert ◽  
Katharina Wick ◽  
Jenny Rosendahl

Abstract Background Autogenic training (AT) is frequently used as therapeutic approach in multimodal pain therapy. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the efficacy of AT in individuals suffering from chronic pain in comparison to passive and active control groups. Methods A comprehensive literature search in Medline, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and PubPsych and manual searches (last search April 7, 2021) were conducted to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Treatment guidelines and references of relevant articles and previous reviews were checked. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Full Text database, DART-Europe E-theses Portal, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), and the Theses Database of the German National Library were screened to identify any unpublished material. Results A total of 13 eligible studies (k = 15 comparisons) including 576 participants were identified. Random-effects meta-analyses revealed a significantly positive, moderate effect of AT on the primary outcome pain compared to passive control groups (g = 0.58, 95% CI [0.36; 0.79], k = 9, I2 = 0%). In comparison with other psychological interventions, no difference was found (g = − 0.05, 95% CI [− 0.30; 0.20], k = 6, I2 = 0%). Sensitivity analyses proved the robustness of findings. Overall risk-of-bias judgment was ‘some concerns’ in the majority of studies. Conclusions Beneficial effects of AT on pain reduction were demonstrated, but findings are prone to bias. Furthermore, high methodological quality RCTs are needed to strengthen the promising evidence of AT for individuals with chronic pain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 118-124
Bunga Tiara Carolin ◽  
Jenny Anna Siauta ◽  
Shinta Novelia

Stunting is one of the problems that hinders human development globally. In Indonesia, the incidence of stunting is around 30.8%, Banten Province 36.9% and in Tangerang Regency 38% where this is still far from the target set by WHO, which is 20%. The objective of this study is to identify the analysis of stunting among toddler in Mauk Public Health Center Tangerang District. This was an analytical survey with a case control design. The sample of this study was 132 people consisting of 66 cases and 66 control groups. Quota sampling sampling technique. The research instrument used a questionnaire. Data analysis used chi-square test. The results show that majority of respondents who did not experience stunting was 84.2%, good knowledge of the mother was 55.3%, the mother's height was not short 64.4%, not given exclusive breastfeeding was 51.5%, did not experience LBW was 72.7%, the small number of family members was 57.6%, and a low family income was 64.4%. The results of the bivariate analysis obtained knowledge (p = 0,000), history of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0,000), number of family members (p = 0,000), family income (p = 0.029), and history of LBW (p = 0.079). The variable most associated with stunting in children under five mong toddlers was maternal height (OR = 6.00). Therefore, it is hoped that health workers will improve the MCH, Family Planning and Nutrition programs to be better in the future, with more emphasis on the stunting locus program (special stunting locations), by increasing the fulfillment of balanced nutrition during the first 1000 days of life.

Somya Jain ◽  
Neetu Jindal ◽  
Renu Agarwal ◽  
Ajisha Raju ◽  
Shallu Bansal

Abstract Objective Various intrinsic and extrinsic stains cause discolored teeth, which is of great concern to patients, which can be treated by bleaching, enamel microabrasion, veneers, and crowns. However, bleaching leads to reduced bond strength if adhesive restorations are performed immediately.Thus, the application of antioxidant agents after bleaching has been recommended, which are proved to act as free radical scavengers, improving the bond strength. Materials and Methods A total of 120 extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were taken. Using a slow-speed diamond saw and a water coolant spray, the roots of all the teeth were removed approximately 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction. With the labial surface facing upward, each sectioned sample was embedded in the acrylic resin. Then, the central portion of the embedded tooth was ground flattened with 600-grit silicon carbide paper such that the labial enamel surface becomes smooth and evenly flat.All 120 samples were divided into two control groups (n = 20), i.e., positive control group (n = 10) and negative control group (n = 10) and five experimental groups (n = 100), such that each experimental group had 20 samples.The enamel surface in both the control groups and groups treated with antioxidants was thoroughly rinsed off with distilled water for 30 seconds and subjected to bonding procedure. Result Significant differences were observed among the experimental groups (p < 0.05). The samples that were treated with 10% sodium ascorbate (group III) demonstrated significantly higher mean shear bond strength than the other experimental groups (p < 0.05).

BMC Nutrition ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Christine Chimanuka Murhima’Alika ◽  
Ghislain Maheshe Balemba ◽  
Pacifique Mwene-Batu Lyabayungu ◽  
Guy Mulinganya Mulume’oderhwa ◽  
Grace Munthali ◽  

Abstract Background Malnutrition is a public health problem, as wasting affects 7.5% of children worldwide. The harmful effects of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) can last a lifetime, but how SAM in childhood affects later breastfeeding ability is not clear. In the present study, we assessed the human milk output and body composition among mothers with a history of childhood SAM. Methods This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Miti-Murhesa Health Zone (Democratic Republic of Congo) from January 15 to March 17, 2020. We selected lactating mothers with breastfed infants aged 2–12 months. Two categories of mothers were included: those who had been treated for SAM during their childhood (years 1988–2003; n = 39) and a community control with no history of SAM (n = 40). The weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated as weight/height2. Body composition and human milk output were assessed using standard deuterium dilution methods. Student t and chi2 tests ware applied to compare two groups. Results The mean age ± standard deviation of the mothers was 24.4 ± 5.1 and 26.0 ± 6.1 years for the SAM and control groups, respectively (p = 0.186). The age of their infants was 5.4 ± 2.3 months in both groups (p = 0.962). In the SAM and control groups, the mean maternal BMI was 23.8 ± 2.3 and 23.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2 (p = 0.849), mean Fat Mass 27.1% ± 5.0 and 27.1% ± 5.8% (p = 0.708), and the mean Fat Free mass 72.9% ± 5.0 and 72.9% ± 5.8% (p = 0.998), respectively. Human milk output was 833.7 ± 152.1 g/d in SAM group and 827.4 ± 171.4 g/d in the control group (p = 0.864). Conclusions We found no significant difference in human milk output and body composition in mothers treated for SAM during childhood compared to community controls.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Shengjue Xiao ◽  
Tongneng Xue ◽  
Qinyuan Pan ◽  
Yue Hu ◽  
Qi Wu ◽  

Objective. This study is aimed at exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and provides potential clinical prognostic biomarkers for STEMI. Methods. The GSE60993 dataset was downloaded from the GEO database, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between STEMI and control groups were screened. Enrichment analysis of the DEGs was subsequently performed using the DAVID database. A protein–protein interaction network was constructed, and hub genes were identified. The hub genes in patients were then validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Furthermore, hub gene-miRNA interactions were evaluated using the miRTarBase database. Finally, patient data on classical cardiovascular risk factors were collected, and plasma microRNA-146a (miR-146a) levels were detected. An individualized nomogram was constructed based on multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results. A total of 239 DEGs were identified between the STEMI and control groups. Expression of S100A12 and miR-146a was significantly upregulated in STEMI samples compared with controls. STEMI patients with high levels of miR-146a had a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) than those with low levels of miR-146a (log-rank P = 0.034 ). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified five statistically significant variables, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, white blood cells, and miR-146a. A nomogram was constructed to estimate the likelihood of a MACE at one, two, and three years after STEMI. Conclusion. The incidence of MACEs in STEMI patients expressing high levels of miR-146a was significantly greater than in those expressing low levels. MicroRNA-146a can serve as a biomarker for adverse prognosis of STEMI and might function in its pathogenesis by targeting S100A12, which may exert its role via an inflammatory response. In addition, our study presents a valid and practical model to assess the probability of MACEs within three years of STEMI.

Leila Farhad-Mollashahi ◽  
Zohreh Dalirsani ◽  
Marieh Honarmand ◽  
Saeedeh Salimi ◽  
Soudeh Shahabi Nezhad

Abstract Objectives Geographic tongue is the mucositis of the dorsal surface of the tongue with no definite etiology, although it may be associated with atopic conditions. In this study, the salivary immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) levels were assessed in patients with geographic tongue to examine the relationship between this condition and allergy-related biomarkers. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 geographic tongue patients and 45 controls, and the salivary IgE and ECP levels were assessed. The data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 using the Mann–Whitney test with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results The salivary IgE level in the case and control groups was 123.76 ± 8.1 and 74.34 ± 6.2 IU/mL, respectively, and the salivary ECP level was 9.4 ± 6.0 and 7.6 ± 3.2 ng/mL, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of salivary IgE (p = 0.007) and ECP (p = 0.001) levels. Conclusion Salivary IgE and ECP levels increase in patients with geographic tongue. They can, therefore, be used for the initial diagnostic workup and to investigate the possible association of geographic tongue with allergic reactions.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 958
Naomi Epel ◽  
Ariela Abir Zohar ◽  
Adi Artom ◽  
Anne Marie Novak ◽  
Shahar Lev-Ari

(1) Background: Self-esteem plays an important role in developing emotional resilience and wellbeing in children. Yet, there has been little related research on Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy on this topic. Our aims were to assess the effect of the Child Self-Esteem CBT (CSE-CBT) protocol on children’s self-esteem in grades five and six; to assess the effect of the CSE-CBT protocol on the therapeutic process; and to explore the feasibility of delivering the CSE-CBT protocol in a school setting. (2) Methods: Eighty elementary school children in grades five and six, divided into four intervention and four control groups, attended 12 structured sessions using the CSE-CBT protocol, led by specially trained teachers. The children completed questionnaires to assess their self-esteem at the beginning and at the end of the study, and answered weekly questionnaires that assessed therapeutic process. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the data. (3) Results: The CSE-CBT protocol had a significant effect on improving children’s self-esteem over the course of the study, regardless of the children’s working alliance with the teacher leading the group. (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that the CSE-CBT protocol has the potential to benefit children’s self-esteem and indicate that school teachers can be trained to administer the CBT-protocol.

Nanomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Reza Hosseinpour-Moghadam ◽  
Shahram Rabbani ◽  
Arash Mahboubi ◽  
Sayyed Abbas Tabatabai ◽  
Azadeh Haeri

Aim: To develop quercetin-loaded poly(caprolactone) (PCL)/soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) films coated with silver (Ag) to prevent the formation of postoperative adhesions (POA). Materials & methods: Films were prepared using the solvent casting method, coated with Ag, and underwent  in vitro tests. In vivo studies were conducted employing an animal model of sidewall defect and cecum abrasion. Results: Films showed sustained release behavior of quercetin and Ag. Coating films with Ag improved their antimicrobial activity. In vivo studies confirmed superior antiadhesion properties of films compared with the control groups evaluated by gross observation, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry analyses. Conclusion: Ag-Q-PCL-PC films are a potential candidate to prevent POA by acting as a sustained release delivery system and physical barrier.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 67-74 ◽  
Sangeeta Jain ◽  
Rajesh Kumar Kumawat ◽  
Mratyunjay Rajkumar Gupta

Objectives: Homoeopathic dilutions are used to increase active principles in medicinal plants, detoxify plants, increase plant growth rate and fruit production, improve plant metabolism and control diseases. This controlled experimental prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effect of homoeopathic medicines Zincum metallicum 6CH and Z. metallicum 12CH on plant growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. in a natural environment. This study helps assess and establish the role of homoeopathy in propagating plant growth. Materials and Methods: A. esculentus seeds were cultivated in a designated area of the Homoeopathy University campus. Among these, 30 received Zincum 6CH (20 drops in 1 litre water), while 30 received Zincum 12CH (20 drops in 1 L water) and 30 received normal water. After 60 days, the entire plant was measured for height, pod length and productivity. Results: After 60 days, the number of fruits (plant productivity) in the groups receiving Zincum 6CH and 12CH was 335 and 267, respectively; in the group receiving normal water, the number of fruits was 159. The heights of plants receiving Zincum 6CH (M = 48.4 cm, SD = 2.65) and 12CH (M = 40.1 cm, SD = 2.39) were comparatively more than in plants receiving normal water (M = 31.6 cm SD = 2.26). The length of pods in plants receiving Zincum 6CH (M=13.3 cm, SD = 0.96) and 12CH (M = 10.3 cm, SD = 0.97) was comparatively more than in plants receiving normal water (M = 8.9 cm SD = 0.62). Conclusion: The application of potentised homoeopathic medicines Zincum 6CH and 12CH on A. esculentus demonstrated a beneficial result, as observed through significant differences in plant productivity, mean plant height and mean pod length among the experimental and control groups. Zincum 6CH showed more efficacy than 12CH in all aspects of growth.

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