Physical Exercise
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2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (6) ◽  
pp. 1275-1286
Author(s):  
Silvia Caristia ◽  
Daiana Campani ◽  
Chiara Cannici ◽  
Edoardo Frontera ◽  
Giulia Giarda ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Igor M. Mariano ◽  
Ana Luiza Amaral ◽  
Paula A. B. Ribeiro ◽  
Guilherme M. Puga

Abstract Stressful situations are common in everyday life and disturb homeostasis. So, an exercise session is a strategy to mitigate blood pressure (BP) peaks in response to stress (i.e., BP reactivity), decreasing the cardiovascular risk of these individuals. This is a systematic review with a meta-analysis that aims to verify the effects of a single session of physical exercises on BP reactivity to stress. The searches were realized in digital databases (PUBMED, LILACS, EMBASE and PsycInfo) and 28 studies were included, totaling 846 individuals (meta-analysis stage: k = 24, n = 710). As for exercise characteristics, 23 of the 28 studies focused on aerobic exercises, and 24 studies focused on low to moderate intensities. Favorable metanalytic results (standardized mean differences through random-effects approach) for the exercises were found, with attenuated reactivity in systolic BP (pooled effect size = -0.35 [-0.46; -0.23], representing average reductions of 3.8 ± 3.5 mmHg), diastolic BP (pooled effect size = -0.49 [-0.68; -0.30], representing average reductions of 3.1 ± 3.6 mmHg), and mean BP (pooled effect size = -0.48 [-0.70; -0.26], representing average reductions of 4.1 ± 3.0 mmHg). So, acute physical exercise lowers systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure reactivity in response to stressor tasks.


Author(s):  
Ivan Dimauro ◽  
Elisa Grazioli ◽  
Cristina Antinozzi ◽  
Guglielmo Duranti ◽  
Alessia Arminio ◽  
...  

Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide and the most common cause of cancer-related death. To date, it is still a challenge to estimate the magnitude of the clinical impact of physical activity (PA) on those parameters producing significative changes in future BC risk and disease progression. However, studies conducted in recent years highlight the role of PA not only as a protective factor for the development of ER+ breast cancer but, more generally, as a useful tool in the management of BC treatment as an adjuvant to traditional therapies. In this review, we focused our attention on data obtained from human studies analyzing, at each level of disease prevention (i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary), the positive impact of PA/exercise in ER+ BC, a subtype representing approximately 70% of all BC diagnoses. Moreover, given the importance of estrogen receptors and body composition (i.e., adipose tissue) in this subtype of BC, an overview of their role will also be made throughout this review.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 927
Author(s):  
Claudio Ponticelli ◽  
Evaldo Favi

In patients with chronic kidney disease, sedentary behavior is widely recognized as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, and depression. Nevertheless, the real impact of physical inactivity on the health of kidney transplant (KT) recipients remains uncertain. Over the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in exploring the effects of regular physical exercise on transplant-related outcomes. There is now mounting evidence that physical activity may reduce the burden of cardiovascular risk factors, preserve allograft function, minimize immunosuppression requirement, and ameliorate the quality of life of KT recipients. Many positive feedbacks can be detected in the early stages of the interventions and with a minimal exercise load. Despite these encouraging results, the perceived role of physical activity in the management of KT candidates and recipients is often underrated. The majority of trials on exercise training are small, relatively short, and focused on surrogate outcomes. While waiting for larger studies with longer follow-up, these statistical limitations should not discourage patients and doctors from initiating exercise and progressively increasing intensity and duration. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge about the deleterious effects of physical inactivity after KT. The benefits of regular physical exercise are also outlined.


Author(s):  
Jessica O’Brien ◽  
Amy Mason ◽  
Marica Cassarino ◽  
Jason Chan ◽  
Annalisa Setti

Promoting physical activity amongst older adults represents a major public health goal and community-led exercise programmes present benefits in promoting active lifestyles. Commercial activity trackers potentially encourage positive behaviour change with respect to physical exercise. This qualitative study investigated the experiences and attitudes of older adults following a 6-week community-led walking programme utilising activity trackers. Eleven community-dwelling older women aged 60+ completed individual phone interviews following their involvement in the programme. The programme, codesigned with a group of senior citizens, equipped participants with wrist-worn activity trackers and included biweekly check-in sessions with a researcher to monitor progress and support motivation. Interviews explored participants’ experiences of the programme and of using activity trackers for the purpose of becoming more active. A thematic analysis produced three main themes: ‘programme as a source of motivation’, ‘user experiences with the technology’ and ‘views on social dimension of the programme’. Overall, participants highlighted the self-monitoring function of activity trackers as most beneficial for their exercise levels. This study provides insights into the personal and social factors perceived by older adults in relation to being part of a community-led programme using activity trackers. It highlights the role of the programme and trackers in maintaining motivation to stay active.


Author(s):  
Cai Zhidong ◽  
Xing Wang ◽  
Jilin Yin ◽  
Dehai Song ◽  
Zhitong Chen

Abstract Background This systematic and meta-analytic review aimed to investigate the effects of physical exercise on the working memory of older adults, and to identify the moderators of these effects. Methods We searched six electronic databases for randomized controlled trials on the effects of physical exercise on working memory that were published before or on May 15, 2020. The PEDro scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. Stata 14.0 software was used to perform the meta-analysis, subgroup analysis, and publication bias testing. Results A total of 28 studies and 2156 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was fair to excellent, and there was no publication bias. Overall, we found that physical exercise had a significant effect on working memory in older adults (standardized mean difference = 0.30, p < 0.0001). The effects of physical exercise on working memory were moderated by exercise frequency, intensity, type, duration, cognitive status, and control subgroup (active/passive), but not by intervention period or age of participant. Conclusion Physical exercise can effectively improve the working memory of older adults. The recommended physical exercise is multi-component exercise or mind–body exercise of moderate intensity for 45–60 min 3 times a week, for more than 6 months.


Author(s):  
Victor Domingos Lisita Rosa ◽  
Angela Adamski da Silva Reis ◽  
Rafael Ribeiro Alves ◽  
Caroline Souza dos Anjos ◽  
Ruffo Freitas-Junior

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