Penicillium Sp
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2021 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 29-35
Author(s):  
Tian-Tian Guo ◽  
Meng-Meng Song ◽  
Wen-Rong Han ◽  
Jun-Heng Zhu ◽  
Qing-Chao Liu ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaoyan Pang ◽  
Weihao Chen ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  
Xuefeng Zhou ◽  
Bin Yang ◽  
...  

Three new tetramic acid derivatives (1–3) and a new polyketide (4) along with eight known compounds (5–12) were isolated from cultures of the deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium sp. SCSIO06868. Four new structures were elucidated by analysis of one-dimensional/two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Their absolute configurations were established by X-ray crystallography analysis and comparison of the experimental and reported electronic circular dichroism (ECD) values or specific optical rotation. Compound 3 exhibited potent, selective inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values of both 2.5 μg/ml. Also, compound 3 showed weak antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 main protease, which was responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Author(s):  
Louise Morin ◽  
Andrew B. Bissett ◽  
Rieks D. van Klinken

Pathogens that attack invasive plants can positively affect the integrity and functioning of ecosystems. Stem-tip dieback and extensive wilting followed by sudden death have been observed in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata (bitou bush), one of Australia’s worst invasive shrubs. Metabarcoding and culturing methods were used to investigate if fungi are implicated in this syndrome. Metabarcoding results revealed significantly different endophytic fungal communities within healthy and diseased bitou bush, and co-located native plants. There was no difference in fungal communities between soil sampled in the root zone of healthy and diseased bitou bush at the same site. Two Diaporthe sp. operational taxonomic units (OTUs), dominant at sites with extensive wilting, explained 30% of the similarity between diseased bitou bush across all sites. Two other OTUs, Austropleospora osteospermi and Coprinellus sp., explained 20 and 40% of the similarity between diseased plants, respectively, and were only dominant at sites with dead or stunted, partially defoliated but not wilted bitou bush. A Penicillium sp. OTU explained 90% of the similarity between healthy bitou bush. Various Diaporthe spp. dominated isolations from diseased bitou bush. Manipulative experiments confirmed Diaporthe spp. pathogenicity on bitou bush excised and in-situ stems. In another experiment, Diaporthe masirevicii infected flowers and from there colonized stems endophytically, but wilting and sudden death of bitou bush did not occur within the experimental timeframe. Our study provides circumstantial evidence that bitou bush sudden death syndrome is the result of a shift in the composition of its endophytic fungal community, from mutualist to pathogenic species.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 036-042
Author(s):  
Akien-Alli IJ ◽  
Dokubo, KO ◽  
Otali CC ◽  
Braide W

The effects of agrochemicals pollution on soil nutrients, soil microbes as well as plants cultivated on the soil were studied. Insecticide and herbicide were used to impact on the soil samples across concentration gradients. Bean and maize seeds were planted in separate experiments to monitor the effects of the agrochemicals on the plants. The microbial diversity and the physicochemical characteristics of the soil before and after pollution were determined using standard methods. Chlorophyll contents of the leaves were also determined after planting. Results indicated that bacterial isolates such as Enterococcus sp 54(40%), Staphylococcus sp 8(13%), Bacillus sp 46(34%) and Micrococcus sp 15(11%) and fungal isolates such as Penicillium sp 41(34%), Saccharomyces sp 67(56%), Yeast sp 4(3%), Geotrichum sp 6 (5%) and Aspergillus sp 1(1.8%) were recovered from treated and untreated soil with the percentages representing after planting. From the results, the herbicide treated soils indicated that the Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC) increased after cultivation while the Total Heterotrophic Fungal Count (THFC) decreased after cultivation. On the other hand, the insecticides treated soils recorded a general decrease in THFC and THBC after cultivation. The total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (AP) had no significant differences before and after planting while the exchangeable potassium (EP) had significant increase recorded after planting. Plants generally had poor growth characteristics recorded by stem girth and length, as well as chlorophyll content.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1913
Author(s):  
Dobrivoj Poštić ◽  
Ratibor Štrbanović ◽  
Marijenka Tabaković ◽  
Tatjana Popović ◽  
Ana Ćirić ◽  
...  

Seed treatments with zinc, boron, biostimulant Coveron and MIX (zinc + boron + Coveron) were applied to three lettuce and three celeriac cultivars. Seeds of three wheat cultivars were treated under laboratory conditions with Trichoderma harzianum and eight Bacillus spp. Seed germination, seedling growth, and the presence of the following pathogens were determined: Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp., and Mucor sp. The Coveron treatment was the most effective on lettuce seeds tested in the germination cabinet. Seed germination was higher by 4% than in the control. Alternatively, germination of seeds treated with boron in the greenhouse was higher by 12% than in the control. The Coveron treatment had the highest effect on the shoot length, which was greater by 0.7 and 2.1 cm in the germination cabinet and the greenhouse, respectively. This treatment was also the most effective on the root length. Zn, B, and MIX treatments increased celeriac seed germination by 14% in the germination cabinet. The Zn treatment was the most efficient on seeds tested in the greenhouse. The germination was higher by 15%. A significant cultivar × treatment interaction was determined in both observed species under both conditions. The maximum effect on wheat seed germination (8%) was achieved with the T. harzianum treatment in the Salazar cultivar. A significant interdependence (p ≤ 0.01 to p ≤ 0.001) was established between seed germination and the seedling growth. The interrelationship between seed germination and pathogens of all cultivars was negative.


Author(s):  
Zaedar A. Rosmana ◽  
T. Kuswinanti Nasaruddin

Anthracnose disease which is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides fungi becomes a resistor factor in cocoa production. Infect on young leaves creates leaf blight, consequently those leaves can die completely or only several parts starting from leaf blade and then fall, but infection at mature leaves spots appear in random border form and leave hole in the same location. Branches with infected leaves will experience die back and look like a broom, in the other side, infection at young fruit turns fruit to be dried and wrinkled while at mature fruits showed dried and rotten tips. This research is aimed at finding potential endophytic fungi from cocoa plant that can resist the growth of pathogenic fungi, C. gloeosporioides which cause anthracnose on cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao L). Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi on cocoa plant from Banggai district in Central Sulawesi results showed 10 isolates of endopphytic fungi: 2 isolates from leaves organ isolation; 4 isolates from stem; and 4 isolates from fruit pod. They both identified morphologically and macroscopically and found to have similarity to Trichoderma sp, Penicillium sp, Aspergilus sp that has resistance capability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides colony through antagonist mechanism marked by the presence of resistance zone. Trichodermasp demonstrated the highest percentage at isolate G in 56,92%.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Yi-Wei Hu ◽  
Wei-Hao Chen ◽  
Meng-Meng Song ◽  
Xiao-Yan Pang ◽  
Xin-Peng Tian ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (9) ◽  
Author(s):  
IDA INDRAWATI ◽  
NIA ROSSIANA ◽  
Muhammad Faizal Fathurrohim

Abstract. Rossiana N, Fathurrohim MF, Indrawati I. 2021. Diversity of endophytic bacteria and microfungi in Syzygium cumini fruit from West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 3943-3948. Syzygium cumini L. Skells is a native evergreen tropical tree in Southeast Asia belong to the Myrtaceae family, known as the Java plum, jambul, jambolan, jamblang, or jamun. The bacterial and fungal endophytes associated with fruit have not been determined and functionally characterized. The endophytic microbes live inside the surface-sterilized fruits and have no visibly harmful effects on the plants. The purposes of the study were to isolate, characterize, and determine the diversity of endophytic bacteria and fungi in S. cumini fruit. The endophytes from S. cumini fruit were observed morphologically for identification. The result of isolation and identification showed there are four bacterial isolate endophytes (B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and Bacillus sp.) and four fungal endophytes (Candida guilliermondii, Penicillium sp., Mycelia sterilia, and Aspergillus sp.) isolated from S. cumini fruit.   Keywords:Biodiversity, Bacterial endophyte, Fungi endophyte, Jamblang


Author(s):  
David N. Ogbonna ◽  
Lucky B. Kpormon ◽  
Matthew E. Origbe

The contamination of water is a serious environmental problem as it adversely affects the human health and the biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems. The organisms that inhabit the water space use oxygen for metabolic activities and the blocking of the water surface of the river by total petroleum hydrocarbons tend to reduce the dissolved oxygen available within the system thereby making the survival of aquatic life difficult particularly the non-hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of water samples from Bodo/Bonny River impacted by crude oil spill. Water and dead fish samples were collected from four stations while the fifth sample was collected from a link fish pond which served as control.  Microbiological analysis of samples collected was analysed accordingly using standard analytical methods.  Bacterial isolates from the sampling stations show that Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sp, Escherichia coli, Vibrio sp, Salmonella sp, Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp, Actinomycetes, Clostridium, Listeria sp, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas sp and fungal isolates namely,  Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus, Mucor sp and Candida sp were identified. Percentage occurrence of both isolates show that E. coli 15%, Vibrio species 13%, Pseudomonas 12%, Klebsiella 12% and Shigella 9% while Aspergillus niger had 37.18%, while Mucor had 25.64%, Penicillium sp 11.38%, Aspergillus flavus 11.38% and Candida sp 10.26%.Microorganisms isolated from the river water that survived the harsh influences associated with oil spill from this study shows that most of the microorganisms could be genetically cloned as hydrocarbon utilizing organisms for cleanup of oil contaminated environments because of their existence and sustenance to mankind.


Author(s):  
Marcela Bernal-Ruiz ◽  
Alejandro Correa-Lozano ◽  
Laura Gomez-Sánchez ◽  
Balkys Quevedo-Hidalgo ◽  
Lilia Carolina Rojas-Pérez ◽  
...  

Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is the main solid waste from the brewing process. It is recognized as a valuable resource for biobased industries because of its composition, high availability, and low cost. The objective of this study was to employ BSG as a substrate to produce the enzymes endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase, as well as reducing sugars using Penicillium sp. HC1. For enzyme production, we evaluated BSG submerged fermentation at different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%, w/v) and two sources of nitrogen (yeast extract and ammonium sulfate) on different days (6, 10, and 12) in a 100 mL Erlenmeyer flask. The highest enzyme activity was obtained after 10 days. The enzyme extract obtained using 3% BSG (w/v) and 5 g L-1 of ammonium sulfate showed the highest xylanase activity (25013 ± 1075 U L-1). Using BSG 5% (w/v) without nitrogen supplementation, the endoglucanase activity was 909.7±14.2 U L-1 while underthe same conditions but using BSG 3% (w/v), the β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activity was 3268.6 ±229.9 U L-1 and 103.15±8.1 U L-1, respectively. Maximum reducing sugar concentrations using an enzyme dosage of 1000 U g-1 of xylanase were: 2.7 g L-1 xylose, 1.7 g L-1 arabinose, and 3.3 g L-1 glucose after 6 h of hydrolysis. Result s demonstrated it is possible to produce enzymes and reducing sugars using Penicillium sp. HC1 and BSG as substrate and BSG grinding only as pretreatment. 


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