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2022 ◽  
Julie De Groot

How did citizens in Bruges create a home? What did an ordinary domestic interior look like in the sixteenth century? And more importantly: how does one study the domestic culture of bygone times by analysing documents such as probate inventories? These questions seem straightforward, yet few endeavours are more challenging than reconstructing a sixteenth-century domestic reality from written sources. This book takes full advantage of the inventory and convincingly frames household objects in their original context of use. Meticulously connecting objects, people and domestic spaces, the book introduces the reader to the rich material world of Bruges citizens in the Renaissance, their sensory engagement, their religious practice, the role of women, and other social factors. By weaving insights from material culture studies with urban history, At Home in Renaissance Bruges offers an appealing and holistic mixture of in-depth socio-economic, cultural and material analysis. In its approach the book goes beyond heavy-handed theories and stereotypes about the exquisite taste of aristocratic elites, focusing instead on the domestic materiality of Bruges’ middling groups. Evocatively illustrated with contemporary paintings from Bruges and beyond, this monograph shows a nuanced picture of domestic materiality in a remarkable European city.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 686
Cristiane Francisca Barbosa ◽  
Dehon Aparecido Correa ◽  
Jefferson Santana da Silva Carneiro ◽  
Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo Melo

Biochar, a carbon-rich material obtained by pyrolysis of organic wastes, is an attractive matrix for loading nutrients and producing enhanced efficiency fertilizers. In this study, poultry litter (PL) was enriched with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and MgO to produce a biochar-based fertilizer (PLB), which was loaded with urea in a 4:5 ratio (PLB:urea, w/w) to generate a 15–15% N–P slow-release fertilizer (PLB–N) to be used in a single application to soil. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in which a common bean was cultivated followed by maize to evaluate the agronomic efficiency and the residual effect of fertilization with PLB–N in Ultisol. Six treatments were tested, including four doses of N (100, 150, 200, and 250 mg kg−1) via PLB–N in a single application, a control with triple superphosphate (TSP—applied once) and urea (split three times), and a control without N-P fertilization. The greatest effect of PLB–N was the residual effect of fertilization, in which maize showed a linear response to the N doses applied via PLB–N but showed no response to conventional TSP + urea fertilization. Biochar has the potential as a loading matrix to preserve N availability and increase residual effects and N-use efficiency by plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 117
Fransiska Angelina G Rezekinta ◽  
Anwar Kasim ◽  
Novizar Nazir ◽  
F Failisnur

Alevtina N. Pavlova

The article is devoted to the analysis of epistolary sources on the history of educating non-Russian peoples of eastern Russia. The correspondence gives an opportunity to present the work of N.I. Ilminsky on education, methods of his activity, difficulties encountered along the way. The correspondence focuses on the development of Orthodox education among non-Russian peoples. The specific composition of letters is diverse. By correspondents, the sources are divided into the following groups: letters to senior statesmen, to figures of the Russian Orthodox Church, to local education figures. By the content, the correspondence is divided into groups of materials: about translation and publishing activities, about organizing the network of non-Russian schools, about training and appointment of teachers and priests, about introducing church worship in native languages. The letters significantly complement our understanding of N.I. Ilminsky’s personality and his educational activities. Currently, many scientists believe that it is necessary to conduct a deeper study and interpretation of historical events concerning educating the population of the country, including non-Russian peoples of the eastern part of Russia, taking into account their diversity. Epistolary sources provide rich material for historical reconstruction, their information potential is rich and diverse. The research methodology is based on historical methods: historical-genetic and historical-comparative. The historical-genetic method enables to trace the course of events in their chronological sequence, the dynamics of processes related to the history of educating non-Russian peoples of eastern Russia. The comparative historical method, which puts the fait accompli as the basis of all arguments and conclusions, was an important method in the historical reconstruction of educational process of the non-Russian peoples of the region under study on the basis of Orthodox education. A variety of epistolary sources made it possible to conduct a holistic historical reconstruction of the period under study in the history of education and to formulate analytical conclusions on the research problem. The author managed to analyze the collected material. The analysis performed gives the opportunity to make a conclusion about the diverse activities of N.I. Ilminsky on education.

2021 ◽  
Sarah Neville

Between 1525 and 1640, a remarkable phenomenon occurred in the world of print: England saw the production of more than two dozen editions identified by their imprints or by contemporaries as 'herbals'. Sarah Neville explains how this genre grew from a series of tiny anonymous octavos to authoritative folio tomes with thousands of woodcuts, and how these curious works quickly became valuable commodities within a competitive print marketplace. Designed to serve readers across the social spectrum, these rich material artifacts represented both a profitable investment for publishers and an opportunity for authors to establish their credibility as botanists. Highlighting the shifting contingencies and regulations surrounding herbals and English printing during the sixteenth and early seventeenth century, the book argues that the construction of scientific authority in Renaissance England was inextricably tied up with the circumstances governing print. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core at

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
Miroslav KYNCL ◽  

During biogas production, anaerobic digestion of plant material rich in nutrients results in the so-called whole digestate. The application of nutrient-rich material present in digestate could have fertilising effects, especially in intensively used agricultural soils, andin crop yields that can affect the nutrient cycle. The aim of this article is to inform about possibilities of using mixture of digestate andhaylage (use the fertilizing effect of both matters), and at the same time contribute to the improvement of agrochemical properties ofsoil. This study evaluates the effect of applying the mixture of digestate and haylage on germination and early stages of plant development. This article deals with primary test mixtures of digestate and haylage at ratios 10:1, 5:1 and 3:1 and compares the results withwhole digestate applications. Simplified statistically calculated quantities showed that all examined mixtures better fertilizing effect incomparison with the control growing media. Based on the chemical analysis of the growing medias, a growing media with mixtures ofdigestate and haylage characterizing as growing medias with a high content of nutrients and a low amount of hazardous metal wasinvestigated. The examined growing media thus met the limits for organic and commercial fertilizers. Fertilizing effects of growingmedia with mixture of digestate an haylage can also be noted on increasing the proportion of macronutrients in the soil, reducingfertilization only throughout whole digestate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 61-76
Tyson Schmidt

At the 2009 version of this symposium I presented a paper that outlined how protests at Waitangi during the 1980s were played out architecturally through the media. Despite the heavy focus on biculturalism during the 1980s, reporting of proceedings at Waitangi on February 6th each year clearly showed a trifurcation of space. Television networks and the national newspapers showed that the "landscape of nationhood" was in fact inhabited by three actors in the symbolically important rituals - the State, tame Māori, and wild Māori.This trifurcation of space also played out a hundred years earlier at Parihaka. Sue Abel's examinations of media constructions of nationhood and cultural interaction can be identified in reports on happenings at Parihaka pā through the 1880s. From the passive resistance to the Crown's persistent surveying of the land and building of roads, the frequent large hui held at Parihaka that drew Māori from around the country, through to the invasion of the pā by a government force of more than 1500 troops – there was rich material for spatial representation by the media of the time. While the channels were different (dominated by newspapers and Parliamentary reports, with no television networks), this paper shows that the message of trifurcation was as strong in the 1880s as it would be in the 1980s.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. 139-147
Mertsalov Victor I. ◽  

In her monograph T. A. Konstantinova investigates the formation and development of archival work in Eastern Transbaikalia over the course of 100 years. The author examined step by step the working conditions, the multilateral activities of archival institutions and, first of all, the State Archives of the Trans-Baikal Territory. The factual material is new, with a few exceptions. It testifies that the period of formation of archival work in the region lasted from 1917 to 1939, and the period of its development ‒ from 1939 to 1991. The style of the study is characterized by the maximum setting for the facts to speak for themselves. They are presented with a laconic author’s accompaniment. There are only few estimates by T. A. Konstantinova. The volume context is minimal. The chapters’ titles have the context property. The first three chapters reveal the formation of archival affairs in the years when the Soviet government overcame the grave consequences of the Civil War and carried out a deep reconstruction of the country. The last three chapters reflect the development of archiving in the context of a stable state of government. The final chapter covers the period of 1991‒2018. It shows that archival work has not fallen apart together with the Soviet state. It has withstood and rebuilt in the new historical realities. The text and the Appendix of the monograph contain rich material on personalities, identified by the author on the basis of archival data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 945 (1) ◽  
pp. 012062
Siti Nooriza Abd Razak ◽  
Nasir Shafiq ◽  
Laurent Guillaumat ◽  
Mohamed Mubarak Abdul Wahab ◽  
Syed Ahmad Farhan ◽  

Abstract Geopolymer concrete (GEO) is a cementless concrete produced from the reaction of an aluminosilica-rich material, in particular, fly ash, with an alkaline solution, which can either be sodium or potassium-based. In light of the potential of fly ash-based GPC as an alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)-based concrete as a green building material, an investigation on the fire performance of GEO, in comparison to OPC-based concrete, is essential. The results of an experimental study on the fire performance of fly ash-based GEO that was subjected to a flame test using a methane burner torch, after 28 days of curing, to simulate a real fire event, are presented. Concrete specimens were exposed to a fire flame at 500 °C and 1200 °C for two hours and subsequently cooled to the ambient temperature, prior to testing. Visual inspection was performed on the specimens to observe for any cracking, spalling and change in colour. Losses of mass and residual compressive strength were measured. The results were compared with those of OPC-based reference specimens. The findings revealed that, in contrast to OPC-based concrete, the strength of GPC increased when exposed to fire at 500 °C. GEO also suffered a smaller loss of mass as compared to OPC-based concrete due to the smaller amount of loss in moisture from burning. It was also observed that no spalling had occurred on the GEO, with less cracking on the exposed surface in relation to OPC-based concrete, hence indicating that the structural integrity of GEO was successfully maintained.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1358
Javier Carrillo-Rosúa ◽  
Iñaki Esteban-Arispe ◽  
Salvador Morales-Ruano

The Palai-Islica deposit (Almería, SE Spain) is an Au-Cu epithermal deposit hosted in Neogene calc-alkaline andesites and dacites from the Cabo de Gata-Cartagena volcanic belt in the Betic Cordillera. Major element compositions of apatite from Palai-Islica orebody and related hydrothermally altered and unaltered volcanic rock from the region hosting the deposit were obtained to clarify the processes involved in their formation. Apatite in the host volcanic rocks is rich in chlorapatite and hydroxylapatite components (50–57% and 24–36%) and poor in fluorapatite components (12–21%), indicating assimilation processes of cortical Cl-rich material in the magmatic evolution. Apatite in the orebody sometimes has corrosion textures and is mostly fluorapatite (94–100%). Apatite from the hydrothermally altered host rock of the orebody systematically bears signs of corrosion and has variable and intermediate fluorapatite (19–100%), chlorapatite (1–50%), and hydroxylapatite (0–47%) components. The style of zonation and the composition are related to the proximity to the orebody. These features can be interpreted as the result of hydrothermal modification of high Cl, OH-rich volcanic apatites into F-rich apatites. The enrichment of F is related to the intensity of hydrothermal alteration and could therefore constitute a geochemical index of alteration and of mineralization processes.

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