poor people
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 838-852
Syamsuri Syamsuri ◽  
Annisa Silviana Yuniar ◽  
Nur Afifah

Economic inequality in Indonesia is growing with increasing poverty caused by unequal distribution. This can be seen in the number of poor people in 2020 reaching 27.55 million people compared to September 2019 reaching 24.79 million people. All government efforts to resolve economic disparities have been carried out, such as distribution of taxes, infrastructure, the flow of BLM funds, RPJMN. However, these efforts only prioritize large projects, so they have not been able to resolve the gap. Another effort is by waqf shares because the profits can be used for the benefit of the community which can be distributed evenly by the waqf manager. Share waqf is the use of funds from shareholders in the form of profits and capital distributed to waqf recipients by waqif in the form of employment, education, worship and other community needs. This study aims to determine the role of share waqf in resolving economic disparities. This study was written using a qualitative method with a literature review approach. Data collection comes from articles and books on gap settlement and the role of share waqf, as well as several government program reports. The data analysis technique used in this study is descriptive analysis. The results of this study can be concluded that share waqf has a role in resolving economic disparities by making the company's capital and stock dividends the object of waqf, then the wakif appoints a nadzir from the waqf institution to manage the waqf in the form of riil and non-riil sectors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 488-498
Yashmine Noor Islami ◽  
Dwi Ispriyanti ◽  
Puspita Kartikasari

Infant mortality (0-11 months) and maternal mortality (during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum) are significant indicators in determining the level of public health. Central Java Province which has 35 regencies/cities is included in the top five regions with the highest number of infant and maternal mortality in Indonesia. The data characteristics of the number of infants and maternal mortality are count data. Therefore, the Poisson Regression method can be used to analyze the factors that influence the number of infants and maternal mortality. In Poisson regression analysis, there must be a fulfilled assumption, called equidispersion. Frequently, the variance of count data is greater than the mean, which is known as the overdispersion. The research, binomial negative bivariate regression is used as a solutions to overcome the problem of overdispersion in poisson regression. This method produce a global model. In reality, the geographical, socio-cultural, and economic conditions of each region will be different. This illustrates the effect of spatial heterogeneity, so it needs to be developed into Geographically Weighted Negative Binomial Bivariate Regression (GWNBBR). The model of GWNBBR provides weighting based on the position or distance from one observation area to another. Significant variables for modeling infant mortality cases included the percentage of obstetric complications treated (X1), the percentage of infants who were exclusively breastfed (X3), and the percentage of poor people (X5). Significant variable for modeling maternal mortality cases is the percentage of poor people (X5). Based on the AIC value, GWNBBR model is better than binomial negatif bivariat regression model because it has a smaller AIC value. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Ratna Sugiyana ◽  
Dadan Kurniansyah ◽  
Mochamad Faizal Rizki

Asically, poor people are people who are weak in the ability to fulfill their basic needs such as clothing, food and shelter and also do not have the ability to do business because everything they have is so limited that they are unable to participate in a decent social life. One of the special programs issued by the government is the Family Hope Program as an effort to build a social protection system for the poor in order to maintain and improve the social welfare of the poor as well as an effort to break the chain of poverty. In this study, researchers used a descriptive method with a qualitative research approach. The data collection technique is done by literature study, observation, interview, documentation and triangulation. Data is determined from sources based on nonprobability sampling techniques. The informants in this study were 6 informants consisting of Social Service employees as key informants. PKH Coordinator and PKH Facilitator as secondary informants. And the community, especially the community members of the Family Hope Program as informants. This research uses Edy Sutrisno's theory of effectiveness which consists of understanding the program, being on target, on time, achieving goals and real change. The results of this study indicate that the Harapan Family Program has not been running effectively where there are still obstacles in the implementation process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
C. Tara Satyavathi ◽  
Rukam S. Tomar ◽  
Supriya Ambawat ◽  
Jasminkumar Kheni ◽  
Shital M. Padhiyar ◽  

AbstractPearl millet is an important staple food crop of poor people and excels all other cereals due to its unique features of resilience to adverse climatic conditions. It is rich in micronutrients like iron and zinc and amenable for focused breeding for these micronutrients along with high yield. Hence, this is a key to alleviate malnutrition and ensure nutritional security. This study was conducted to identify and validate candidate genes governing grain iron and zinc content enabling the desired modifications in the genotypes. Transcriptome sequencing using ION S5 Next Generation Sequencer generated 43.5 million sequence reads resulting in 83,721 transcripts with N50 of 597 bp and 84.35% of transcripts matched with the pearl millet genome assembly. The genotypes having high iron and zinc showed differential gene expression during different stages. Of which, 155 were up-regulated and 251 were down-regulated while during flowering stage and milking stage 349 and 378 transcripts were differentially expressed, respectively. Gene annotation and GO term showed the presence of transcripts involved in metabolic activities associated with uptake and transport of iron and zinc. Information generated will help in gaining insights into iron and zinc metabolism and develop genotypes with high yield, grain iron and zinc content.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Sukanto Limbong ◽  
Senada Siallagan

This is an ethnography study which aimed to find out the real condition of poverty in Indonesia. Preliminary study showed that there are massive social impacts in the new normal due to COVID-19. There are three kinds of poverty that can be seen in real terms namely extreme poverty, absolute poverty, and relative poverty. Moreover, when viewed from the biblical approach, there are two words used that helped us in our  research on poverty, namely "race” = “poor people" and "dal” which is more translated as “weaker” than “poor”. The Bible does not state a single view on poverty but mentioned some Bible passages. The first is idleness poverty. This poverty is caused by laziness or negligence over personal responsibility to look for means to meet needs. The Bible uses ants as an opposite example of laziness in the book of Proverbs 6:6. The second is theodise poverty. This poverty is illustrated by Job who was stripped off of his riches, yet he was able to accept and embrace whatever the Lord gave to him. 

2022 ◽  
pp. 279-299

Previous chapters showed that there is no magic strategy to alleviate poverty or eliminate poverty completely in every community. This chapter presents the closing arguments of “why people are poor” and what poor people might do in the future to overcome their poverty trap. We ask, which way forward do Africans envisage as a future pathway out of chronic poverty in the 21st century? This question forms the central themes of this chapter and has provoked lively debates among villagers as to the successive stages of household progress from extreme poverty to economic self-reliance. Such moves in and out of poverty are apparent when looking at poverty in either absolute or relative terms. Hence, how can we ensure a more diverse, inclusive, and sustainable future for all?

2022 ◽  
pp. 187-216

Microfinance is believed by many people in Africa to allow poor people to protect, diversify, and increase their sources of income, which is known to be the essential path out of poverty and hunger. This chapter examines whether microfinance can really help to reduce poverty. The enduring question is: Can microfinance be the game changer that will lift the many poor rural women and men in Africa out of the misery of extreme poverty? Is this strategy bliss or myth? First, the author provides a context and rationale for microfinance in African countries. Second, the chapter follows a brief overview of the literature on the impact of microfinance on women's empowerment and whether credit lending transactions benefit the intended recipients. Finally, the chapter reviews the arguments of both sides of the debate and draws out future research trends.

2022 ◽  
pp. 79-110

In this chapter, attention shifts to the locality and context of extreme poverty in rural areas and sheds light on the challenges rural people face to overcome poverty. Due to limited information, inadequate access to markets and social services, and lack of opportunities to take ownership of productive assets, little is known about how populations overcome their struggles in extreme poverty in rural areas. The discussion exemplifies the need to examine culture, politics, and the social-historical context in which poor people live. The chapter concludes that rural poverty and the challenges to eliminate its causes and consequences are associated with lack of education, land and livestock, infrastructural technical support, the absence of good enough governance, as well as inability to secure non-farm alternatives to diminishing farm opportunities.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Arkaja Singh

Recognition of the right to water in Indian courts has had little impact on the ground. This paper explores the seeming disjuncture between what happens in the court and the everyday reality of living with a less-than-perfect claim on city water services in India’s urban slums. The paper seeks to understand and contextualise a court ruling which looks like it declares a right to water for people in urban slums, but in effect gives them little beyond what they already had. The paper also looks at the ‘everyday reality’ of municipal administration and the provision of drinking water in slums through in-house connections and community taps. In both case studies, the author looks to understand how the practice relates to frameworks of law and policy that shape the rationality and scope of action of the actors concerned, both judges and municipal officials. She found that the issue of land was the main stumbling block in both places, but it was conceptualized a little differently in each situation. These case studies underscore the critical importance of making the local interface between poor people and the state more empowering in order for rights to become local and meaningful.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012042
Rahmaddiansyah ◽  
Fajri ◽  
Zulkarnain ◽  
Muhammad Dimas ◽  

Abstract The plantation is a strategic sector in poverty alleviation. In the Aceh Tengah district, coffee is one of the leading plantation commodities that can increase the pace of the regional economy. Gayo coffee has a distinctive aroma and has a high price. Although generally, the people there are active in producing coffee, there are still poor people. It is necessary to analyse the impact of coffee production in reducing poverty in farming communities in Aceh Tengah district. This study uses a probit regression analysis method to see the characteristics of coffee farmers with significantly different non-coffee farmers. It then uses a Propensity Score Matching (PMS) analysis to see the impact of coffee production in reducing poverty farming communities in Aceh Tengah district. This study indicates that the characteristics significantly differ between coffee farmers and non-coffee farmers are age, education, access to food, eating little food, and assets having a motorbike. The per capita consumption of coffee farmers is not higher than that of non-coffee farmers, but the holdings of coffee farmers are more than those of non-coffee farmers.

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