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BMC Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Josine M. Stuber ◽  
Jeroen Lakerveld ◽  
Loes W. Kievitsbosch ◽  
Joreintje D. Mackenbach ◽  
Joline W. J. Beulens

Abstract Background Nudging is increasingly used to promote healthy food choices in supermarkets. Ordering groceries online is gaining in popularity and nudging seems efficacious there as well, but is never comprehensively tested in real-life. We evaluated the real-life effectiveness of nudging in an online supermarket on healthy food purchases. Methods We conducted a multi-arm, parallel-group, individually randomized controlled trial in an online supermarket. During 1 month, all customers were randomized to (1) control condition, (2) information nudges, (3) position nudges, and (4) information and position nudges combined. Allocation was concealed and customers were not blinded, but unaware of the intervention. Mean differences between the control condition and the intervention arms in the total percentage of healthy purchases were assessed with a linear mixed model. We tested for effect modification by area-level deprivation. Results Based on sales data from 11,775 shoppers, no overall significant effects were detected. Yet, effects were modified by area-level deprivation (pArm 2 < 0.001). Among shoppers from deprived areas, those allocated to information nudges purchased a 2.4% (95%CI 0.8, 4.0) higher percentage of healthy products compared to controls. No significant differences were observed for position (− 1.3%; 95%CI − 2.8, 0.3) and combined nudges (− 0.1%; 95%CI − 1.7, 1.5). Shoppers from non-deprived areas exposed to information nudges (− 1.6%; 95%CI − 3.2, − 0.1) and the combined nudges (− 2.1%; 95%CI − 3.6, − 0.6), but not position nudges (− 0.9%; 95%CI − 2.4, 0.7), purchased a lower percentage of healthy products. Conclusion Information nudges in an online supermarket can increase healthy product purchases, but only for those living in deprived areas. The adverse effects found on purchasing behaviors for those from non-deprived areas call for further research. Further research should also focus on real-life effects of online healthy food nudging as part of a broader nutrition intervention strategy, and on the equitability of the online nudging intervention within populations. Trial registration Retrospectively registered in the ISRCTN registry at May 21, 2021 (ISRCTN10491616).


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kerri L Miazgowicz ◽  
Judith Mary Reyes Ballista ◽  
Marissa D Acciani ◽  
Ariana R Jimenez ◽  
Ryan S Belloli ◽  
...  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is the causative agent of the human disease chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by debilitating acute and chronic arthralgia. No licensed vaccines or antivirals exist for CHIKV. Preventing the attachment of viral particles to host cells is an attractive intervention strategy. Viral entry of enveloped viruses from diverse families including Filoviridae and Flaviviridae is mediated or enhanced by phosphatidylserine receptors (PSRs). PSRs facilitate the attachment of enveloped viruses to cells by binding to exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) in the viral lipid membrane - a process termed viral apoptotic mimicry. To investigate the role of viral apoptotic mimicry during CHIKV infection, we produced viral particles with discrete amounts of exposed PS on the virion envelope by exploiting the cellular distribution of phospholipids at the plasma membrane. We found that CHIKV particles containing high outer leaflet PS (produced in cells lacking flippase activity) were more infectious in Vero cells than particles containing low levels of outer leaflet PS (produced in cells lacking scramblase activity). However, the same viral particles were similarly infectious in NIH3T3 and HAP1 cells, suggesting PS levels can influence infectivity only in cells with high levels of PSRs. Interestingly, PS-dependent CHIKV entry was observed in mosquito Aag2 cells, but not C6/36 cells. These data demonstrate that CHIKV entry via viral apoptotic mimicry is cell-type dependent. Furthermore, viral apoptotic mimicry has a mechanistic basis to influence viral dynamics in vivo in both the human and mosquito host.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Guillaume Coindard ◽  
Michaël Acquadro ◽  
Raphaël Chaumont ◽  
Benoit Arnould ◽  
Philippe Boisnault ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Smoking cessation is a major public health issue. In France, primary care physicians (PCP) are the first contact points for tobacco management. The objective of this study was to understand how PCPs are involved in the management of smoking cessation: ownership, commitment, barriers. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using group and individual semi-structured techniques with PCPs. A thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts was performed to identify concepts and sub-concepts of interest. Saturation was evaluated retrospectively to ensure adequate sample size. Results A sample of 35 PCPs were interviewed, 31 in four focus groups and four in individual interviews. PCPs discussed their roles in the management of tobacco smoking cessation, including the different strategies they are using (e.g., Minimal Intervention Strategy, Motivational Interviewing), the multiple barriers encountered (e.g., lack of time, patients’ resistance to medical advice), the support resources and the treatment and intervention they prescribed (e.g. nicotine replacement therapy, supporting therapist). Conclusions This study provides a better understanding of the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of PCPs in managing smoking cessation. Guiding and encouraging patients toward smoking cessation remains a major objective of PCPs. While PCPs reported that progress has been made in recent years in terms of tools, technology and general awareness, they still face major barriers, some of which could be overcome by appropriate training.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhuanji Fang ◽  
Huale Zhang ◽  
Shuisen Zheng ◽  
Lingling Weng ◽  
Jianying Yan

Objectives: To investigate the indications of obstetric emergency hysterectomy and analyze the clinical effects of subtotal hysterectomy and total hysterectomy. Methods: We included 247 hospitalized women who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy due to obstetric reasons in Fujian Province Maternity and Child Health Hospital (a provincial class-A hospital) and Ningde People’s Hospital (a primary Class-B hospital) between January 2002 and December 2018. We identified surgical indications and clinical characteristics of the patients. Furthermore, the patients from Fujian Provincial Maternity and Child Health Hospital were subdivided into subtotal hysterectomy group and total hysterectomy group to examine general operation conditions, and postoperative complications. Results: The main surgical indications for emergency obstetric hysterectomy in Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital were placental implantation (49.6%) and uterine weakness (31.9%), while uterine weakness (37.5%) was the most important indication in Ningde People’s Hospital. No differences were found in operation time, hospitalization time, intraoperative blood loss, postpartum blood loss, and intraoperative fresh frozen plasma transfusion between the subtotal hysterectomy group and the total hysterectomy group. Postoperative test parameters, including postoperative prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT), were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant difference was noted in postoperative vesicoureteral injury, pelvic hematoma, infection, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) incidence, but renal failure incidence was different (P=0.040). Conclusion: The treatment effect of subtotal hysterectomies for the cases without placenta accreta and placenta previa was similar in the two hospitals. There is no statistically significant difference in therapeutic effect between total hysterectomy and subtotal hysterectomy. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5335 How to cite this:Fang Z, Zhang H, Zheng S, Weng L, Yan J. A retrospective analysis of emergency hysterectomy intervention strategy in obstetrics. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5335 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261953
Author(s):  
Paula Zamorano ◽  
Paulina Muñoz ◽  
Manuel Espinoza ◽  
Alvaro Tellez ◽  
Teresita Varela ◽  
...  

During recent years, multimorbidity has taken relevance because of the impact of causes in the system, people, and their families, which has been a priority in the health care plan. Interventions strategies and their implementation are still an emerging topic. In this context, Centro de Innovación en Salud ANCORA UC, together with Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Sur Oriente, implemented as a pilot study High-Risk Multimorbidity Integrated Care strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this strategy in terms of health services utilization and mortality. A cohort study was conducted with high-risk patients with multimorbidity, stratified by ACG®, intervened between April 2017 and December 2019. The studied population was 3,933 patients who belonged to similar size and location primary care centers. The impact analysis was performed used generalized linear models. Results showed that intervened patients had a significantly lower incidence in mortality (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.40–0.77), hospital admissions, length of stay, and the number of hospital emergency consultancies. With the proper barriers and facilitators of a real context intervention, the implementation process allowed the systematization and consolidation of the intervention provided in this study. The training for new roles and the constant implementation support from the Centro de Innovación en Salud ANCORA UC team were essential in the progress and success of the intervention. A complete description of the high-risk intervention strategy is provided to contribute to this emerging topic and facilitate its scale-up. We can conclude that this complex intervention was feasible to be implemented in a real context. The Ministry of Health has taken the systematization and consolidation of the conditions for the national scale-up.


Author(s):  
Huayan Shen ◽  
Qiyu He ◽  
Xinyang Shao ◽  
Shoujun Li ◽  
Zhou Zhou

Background Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) consists of about 3% of all congenital heart diseases and 20% of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. It is always accompanied by a series of other cardiac malformations that affect the surgical intervention strategy as well as prognosis. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the phenotypes of the patients who had TGA with concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculoarterial connections and explored their association with prognosis. Methods and Results We retrospectively reviewed 666 patients with a diagnosis of TGA with concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculoarterial connections in Fuwai Hospital from 1997 to 2019. Under the guidance of the Human Phenotype Ontology database, patients were classified into 3 clusters. The Kaplan‐Meier method was used to analyze the prognosis, and the Cox proportional regression model was used to investigate the risk factors. In this 666‐patient TGA cohort, the overall 5‐year survival rate was 94.70% (92.95%–96.49%). Three clusters with distinct phenotypes were obtained by the Human Phenotype Ontology database. Kaplan‐Meier analysis revealed a significant difference in freedom from reintervention among 3 clusters ( P <0.001). To eliminate the effect of surgeries, we analyzed patients who only received an arterial switch operation and still found a significant difference in reintervention ( P =0.019). Conclusions We delineated a big cardiovascular phenotypic profile of an unprecedentedly large TGA cohort and successfully risk stratified them to reveal prognostic significance. Also, we reported the outcomes of a large TGA population in China.


Author(s):  
Maria Jose Alberdi-Erice ◽  
Esperanza Rayón-Valpuesta ◽  
Homero Martinez

Salutogenesis focuses on factors that generate health and is a useful construct for identifying factors that promote health and for guiding activities to this end. This article describes health assets identified in a community diagnosis and how to leverage them with actions for improvement to deepen the understanding of this concept and its impact on health promotion. An intervention strategy was designed following the principles of participatory action research (PAR). The study was carried out in Mañaria (Basque Country, Spain) using semi-structured and in-depth interviews, participant observation, desk review, and photographs, alongside different participatory strategies. Twenty-six women were interviewed, 21 of whom were community inhabitants, and five were key informants who worked in public or private institutions. Participant recruitment stopped when data saturation was reached. Data were analysed through discourse analysis, progressive coding, and categorisation. Six meta-categories emerged, and for each of these categories, health assets were identified together with actions to improve the community’s health. The latter were presented by the community to the authorities to trigger specific actions towards improving the health of the community. Identification of health assets led to different actions to improve the health of the community including improving the existing physical and social environments, personal and group skills, and the promotion of physical, social, emotional and cultural well-being.


Author(s):  
Lingbo Zhao ◽  
Yingru Wu ◽  
Xiayu Huang ◽  
Lin Zhang

Cyberbullying is an important issue which prevails among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the association between network anonymity and cyberbullying behavior and examine the mediating role of network morality and the moderating role of self-control in the linkage of network anonymity and cyberbullying behavior. A total of 620 participants were recruited from three high schools in southeast China and were required to complete a questionnaire measuring network anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, network morality, and self-control. A moderated mediation model was conducted by using PROCESS Macro for SPSS 3.5. The results showed that network anonymity was negatively associated with cyberbullying behavior among Chinese adolescents. Network morality mediated the association and self-control moderated the indirect association between network anonymity and cyberbullying behavior via network morality. These findings indicate that improving the network morality and self-control of adolescents with the joint efforts of individuals, families, government, and society as a whole may be an effective intervention strategy for cyberbullying behavior under the framework of digital citizens.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elena G. Olson ◽  
Andrew C. Micciche ◽  
Michael J. Rothrock ◽  
Yichao Yang ◽  
Steven C. Ricke

Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen with over a million United States cases a year and is typically acquired through the consumption of poultry products. The common occurrence of Campylobacter as a member of the poultry gastrointestinal tract microbial community remains a challenge for optimizing intervention strategies. Simultaneously, increasing demand for antibiotic-free products has led to the development of several alternative control measures both at the farm and in processing operations. Bacteriophages administered to reduce foodborne pathogens are one of the alternatives that have received renewed interest. Campylobacter phages have been isolated from both conventionally and organically raised poultry. Isolated and cultivated Campylobacter bacteriophages have been used as an intervention in live birds to target colonized Campylobacter in the gastrointestinal tract. Application of Campylobacter phages to poultry carcasses has also been explored as a strategy to reduce Campylobacter levels during poultry processing. This review will focus on the biology and ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophages in poultry production followed by discussion on current and potential applications as an intervention strategy to reduce Campylobacter occurrence in poultry production.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Songjing Chen ◽  
Sizhu Wu

Abstract Background Lung cancer screening and intervention might be important to help detect lung cancer early and reduce the mortality, but little was known about lung cancer intervention strategy associated with intervention effect for preventing lung cancer. We employed Deep Q-Networks (DQN) to respond to this gap. The aim was to quantitatively predict lung cancer optimal intervention strategy and assess intervention effect in aged 65 years and older (the elderly). Methods We screened lung cancer high risk with web-based survey data and conducted simulative intervention. DQN models were developed to predict optimal intervention strategies to prevent lung cancer in elderly men and elderly women separately. We assessed the intervention effects to evaluate the optimal intervention strategy. Results Proposed DQN models quantitatively predicted and assessed lung cancer intervention. DQN models performed well in five stratified groups (elderly men, elderly women, men, women and the whole population). Stopping smoking and extending quitting smoking time were optimal intervention strategies in elderly men. Extending quitting time and reducing smoked cigarettes number were optimal intervention strategies in elderly women. In elderly men and women, the maximal reductions of lung cancer incidence were 31.81% and 24.62% separately. Lung cancer incidence trend was deduced from the year of 1984 to 2050, which predicted that the difference of lung cancer incidence between elderly men and women might be significantly decreased after thirty years quitting time. Conclusions We quantitatively predicted optimal intervention strategy and assessed lung cancer intervention effect in the elderly through DQN models. Those might improve intervention effects and reasonably prevent lung cancer.


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