Medical Emergency
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Ray Higginson ◽  
Bridie Jones ◽  
Tamara Kerr ◽  
Paul Burrows

Any medical emergency resulting in a compromised airway will require emergency airway management, but subsequent continued airway support and artificial mechanical ventilation may also be needed. This article explores some of the common mechanical ventilation strategies and modes used during the COVID-19 pandemic and will discuss why coronary care nurses need to be familiar with these.

Graciano Dieck-Assad ◽  
Omar Israel González Peña ◽  
José Manuel Rodríguez-Delgado

Worldwide, people’s quality of health has been decreasing due to bad eating habits that have generated an increase in diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, overweight, as well as an increase in hours of the daily workday and stress. This situation can generate sudden illness and work accidents where the need to have knowledge in emergency first response (EFR) is necessary for all. Unfortunately, workshops and courses to certify EFR individuals are usually taught only to healthcare professionals. Therefore, to address this need a EFR project has been developed at the Tecnológico de Monterrey (TEC) which consists of a multidisciplinary challenge to train, certify, and evaluate students’ competency as “emergency first responders” in medical emergencies and healthcare awareness. This EFR project has been performed for one week, every year since 2015, and constitutes a joint venture among academic departments, faculty, and industrial/government institutions, which work together in multidisciplinary projects, providing a source of innovative proposals. The EFR project at TEC has provided instruction and certification for 966 students between 2015 to 2019 and this study has analyzed results considering a sample size of 197 participants. The combination of exam evaluation, medical emergency skills verification, and project proposal results indicate that most students reach skill levels between 2 and 3 in EFR competency after successfully completing the program, regardless of their year of study or the undergraduate program they are enrolled on. This evaluation emphasizes the compromise of the institution and its students in preparation for new living under sanitary conditions for pandemic conditions such as COVID-19.

Mariusz Celiński ◽  
Mateusz Cybulski ◽  
Joanna Fiłon ◽  
Marta Muszalik ◽  
Mariusz Goniewicz ◽  

Introduction: Geriatric patients account for a large proportion of interventions of medical emergency teams (METs). The aim of this study was to analyse medical emergency interventions in the Biała Podlaska and Chełm (Poland) between 2016 and 2018 in a group of patients ≥ 65 years of age. Materials and Methods: We analysed medical records of 1200 older patients treated by METs in Biała Podlaska and Chełm (Lublin Province, Poland). The research was conducted from June 2019 to March 2020 at the Emergency Medical Service Station in Biała Podlaska and the Medical Rescue Station in Chełm (Independent Public Complex of Health Care Facilities). Results: A total of 92.5% of medical emergency service interventions took place at the patient’s home. The mean time of stay at the scene was 20 min. The highest number of interventions occurred between 8:00 p.m. and 8:59 p.m. There were no statistically significant differences in the type of ambulance used depending on the patient’s sex, while there was a statistically significant relationship between priority code and sex. Cardiovascular diseases were diagnosed in 40% of patients, and the symptoms were not precisely classified in almost the same percentage of patients. Mortality cases accounted for 3.1% of the 1200 interventions analysed. Ambulance dispatch resulted in the patient being transported to the hospital emergency department in 69.1% of cases. Conclusions: METs were called for a variety of diseases due to the fact that geriatric patients are not able to distinguish a life-threatening condition. Medical procedures performed by METs from Biała Podlaska and Chełm were closely related to the initial diagnoses made by these teams. It was irrelevant whether a specialist or non-specialist medical emergency service was used. Paramedics are very well trained to practice their profession and are able to provide treatment to older patients in a state of sudden life threat.

Catarina Marouço ◽  
Fernando Caeiro ◽  
Bernardo Costa ◽  
David Navarro ◽  

Severe hypercalcemia can be either acute or decompensate from a chronic state to a medical emergency, the hypercalcemic crisis. The presence of symptoms such as altered mental status or potentially fatal ECG abnormalities demand an expeditious decrease in serum calcium levels. Standard medical therapy consists of vigorous volume replacement, calcitonin and, depending on the etiology, bisphosphonates, cinacalcet or glucocorticoids. Hypercalcemic crisis is a rare indication for urgent hemodialysis and is reserved for patients with severe symptoms, ineffective medical therapy or end stage renal disease. The use of hemodialysis in this scenario is not commonly reported. We hereby report a patient who presented with altered mental status and acute kidney injury due to a hypercalcemic crisis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. Treatment included urgent hemodialysis to effectively lower calcium levels.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 25-31
Kuldeep Singh Shekhawat ◽  
Sivakumar Beena

Introduction: Dentist can encounter a medical emergency during any phase of the dental treatment. It isessential for the clinician to accurately identify and manage a life threatening situation in patients undergoingdental treatment. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge on medical emergencies and itsmanagement among dental clinical students of a dental college in Pondicherry.Materials and Methods: A retrospective questionnaire study was conducted among 135 under-graduate(UG) students to assess their knowledge on various medical emergency conditions and its management fromtheir level of perception in clinical postings.Results: The overall knowledge regarding identification and management of medical emergencies amongthe study population was found to be inadequate.Conclusion: Every dentist must be prepared for an emergency and believing it can be a real possibilityis of paramount importance. It cannot be completely prevented but efficiently managed with appropriateknowledge of signs, symptoms and management techniques.

Mafalda Sá Pereira ◽  
Raquel Freitas ◽  
Pedro Correia Azevedo

Cardiac tamponade is a life-threatening medical emergency and can arise in many clinical situations. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with adrenoleukodystrophy and Addison’s disease who was admitted to the emergency department with severe abdominal pain that turned out to be cardiac tamponade of unknown aetiology.  An association between cardiac tamponade and Addison’s disease has been reported in the literature, so this aetiology should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with unexplained cardiac tamponade.

2021 ◽  
Mina Azimirad ◽  
Carin Magnusson ◽  
Allison Wiseman ◽  
Tuomas Selander ◽  
Ilkka Parviainen ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (7) ◽  
pp. 275-279
Grace Marrion

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a complication of diabetes, is a medical emergency in children and is one of the main causes of childhood mortality. It is the first presentation of diabetes in 30–40% children with the condition, and is more common in younger children. However, it is commonly misdiagnosed as the signs and symptoms in children vary. Treatment should be given as soon as possible, and this is usually only possible in a hospital setting. Therefore, early recognition and transportation to hospital by paramedics ensures the best possible outcome. Children are far more likely to have type 1 than type 2 diabetes, and several factors are associated with childhood diabetes, including genetics, medication, viral infections and environmental issues. Several tools and guidelines can be used to assess children prehospitally. These should be used in conjunction with the clinician's knowledge and standard observations. Paramedics should take an appropriate history, as this could prove invaluable for hospital specialists.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (7) ◽  
pp. 557
Ewa Rzońca ◽  
Grażyna Bączek ◽  
Marcin Podgórski ◽  
Robert Gałązkowski

The purpose of the study was to present the characteristics of Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and Emergency Medical Service (EMS) interventions concerning newborns in Poland. The study involved a retrospective analysis of missions by Polish Medical Air Rescue crews concerning newborns, carried out in Poland between January 2011 and December 2020. Polish Medical Air Rescue crews were most commonly dispatched to urban areas (86.83%), for patient transfer (59.67%), using an airplane (65.43%), between 7 AM and 6:59 PM (93.14%), and in the summer (28.67%). Further management involved handing over the neonatal patient to a ground neonatal ambulance team. Most of the patients studied were male (58.02%), and the most common diagnosis requiring the HEMS or EMS intervention was a congenital heart defect (31.41%). The most common medical emergency procedure performed by Polish Medical Air Rescue crew members for the neonatal patients was intravenous cannulation (43.07%). The odds ratio for congenital malformations was higher in male newborns. The type of Polish Medical Air Rescue mission was associated with the location of the call, time of the call, ICD-10 diagnosis associated with the dispatch, selected clinical findings, most commonly performed medical emergency procedures, and mission duration and distance covered.

Sunil Tekale ◽  
Vishnu Gore ◽  
Pravin Kendrekar ◽  
Shivaji Thore ◽  
László Kótai ◽  

: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was firstly identified in the city of Wuhan of China in December 2019, which was spread and become a global issue due to its high transmission rate. To date, the outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in infection to 150,356,672 people and the death of 3,167,010 patients. It paralyzed the economy of all the countries worldwide. Unfortunately, no specific FDA-approved antiviral treatment or vaccine is available to curb the outbreak. Considering the possible mutations of SARS-CoV-2, the current medical emergency required a longer time for drug design and vaccine development. Drug repurposing is a promising option for potent therapeutic against the pandemic. The present review encompasses various drugs or appropriate combinations of already FDA-approved antimalarial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic therapeutic candidates for use in the clinical trials as a ray of hope against COVID-19. It is expected to deliver better clinical and laboratory outcomes of drugs as a prevention strategy for the eradication of the disease.

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