genetic manipulation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 966
Hieu Xuan Cao ◽  
Giang Thi Ha Vu ◽  
Oliver Gailing

Due to the economic and ecological importance of forest trees, modern breeding and genetic manipulation of forest trees have become increasingly prevalent. The CRISPR-based technology provides a versatile, powerful, and widely accepted tool for analyzing gene function and precise genetic modification in virtually any species but remains largely unexplored in forest species. Rapidly accumulating genetic and genomic resources for forest trees enabled the identification of numerous genes and biological processes that are associated with important traits such as wood quality, drought, or pest resistance, facilitating the selection of suitable gene editing targets. Here, we introduce and discuss the latest progress, opportunities, and challenges of genome sequencing and editing for improving forest sustainability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Sukhyeong Cho ◽  
Yun Seo Lee ◽  
Hanyu Chai ◽  
Sang Eun Lim ◽  
Jeong Geol Na ◽  

Abstract Background Ectoine (1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) is an attractive compatible solute because of its wide industrial applications. Previous studies on the microbial production of ectoine have focused on sugar fermentation. Alternatively, methane can be used as an inexpensive and abundant resource for ectoine production by using the halophilic methanotroph, Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z. However, there are some limitations, including the low production of ectoine from methane and the limited tools for the genetic manipulation of methanotrophs to facilitate their use as industrial strains. Results We constructed M. alcaliphilum 20ZDP with a high conjugation efficiency and stability of the episomal plasmid by the removal of its native plasmid. To improve the ectoine production in M. alcaliphilum 20Z from methane, the ectD (encoding ectoine hydroxylase) and ectR (transcription repressor of the ectABC-ask operon) were deleted to reduce the formation of by-products (such as hydroxyectoine) and induce ectoine production. When the double mutant was batch cultured with methane, ectoine production was enhanced 1.6-fold compared to that obtained with M. alcaliphilum 20ZDP (45.58 mg/L vs. 27.26 mg/L) without growth inhibition. Notably, a maximum titer of 142.32 mg/L was reached by the use of an optimized medium for ectoine production containing 6% NaCl and 0.05 μM of tungsten without hydroxyectoine production. This result demonstrates the highest ectoine production from methane to date. Conclusions Ectoine production was significantly enhanced by the disruption of the ectD and ectR genes in M. alcaliphilum 20Z under optimized conditions favoring ectoine accumulation. We demonstrated effective genetic engineering in a methanotrophic bacterium, with enhanced production of ectoine from methane as the sole carbon source. This study suggests a potentially transformational path to commercial sugar-based ectoine production. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Jilong Qin ◽  
Yaoqin Hong ◽  
Karthik Pullela ◽  
Renato Morona ◽  
Ian R. Henderson ◽  

Abstract The study of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens relies on molecular and genetic approaches. However, the generally low transformation frequency among natural isolates poses technical hurdles to widely applying common methods in molecular biology, including transformation of large constructs, chromosomal genetic manipulation, and dense mutant library construction. Here we demonstrate that culturing clinical isolates in the presence of polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN) improves their transformation frequency via electroporation by up to 100-fold in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. The effect was observed for PMBN-binding uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Salmonella enterica strains but not naturally polymyxin resistant Proteus mirabilis. Using our PMBN electroporation method we show efficient delivery of large plasmid constructs into UPEC, which otherwise failed using a conventional electroporation protocol. Moreover, we show a 5-fold increase in the yield of engineered mutant colonies obtained in S. enterica with the widely used lambda-Red recombineering method, when cells are cultured in the presence of PMBN. Lastly, we demonstrate that PMBN treatment can enhance the delivery of DNA-transposase complexes into UPEC and increase transposon mutant yield by 8-fold when constructing Transposon Insertion Sequencing (TIS) libraries. Therefore, PMBN can be used as a powerful electropermeabilisation adjuvant to aid the delivery of DNA and DNA-protein complexes into clinically important bacteria.

Karla V. Teymennet-Ramírez ◽  
Fernando Martínez-Morales ◽  
María R. Trejo-Hernández

Yeast surface display (YSD) is a “whole-cell” platform used for the heterologous expression of proteins immobilized on the yeast’s cell surface. YSD combines the advantages eukaryotic systems offer such as post-translational modifications, correct folding and glycosylation of proteins, with ease of cell culturing and genetic manipulation, and allows of protein immobilization and recovery. Additionally, proteins displayed on the surface of yeast cells may show enhanced stability against changes in temperature, pH, organic solvents, and proteases. This platform has been used to study protein-protein interactions, antibody design and protein engineering. Other applications for YSD include library screening, whole-proteome studies, bioremediation, vaccine and antibiotics development, production of biosensors, ethanol production and biocatalysis. YSD is a promising technology that is not yet optimized for biotechnological applications. This mini review is focused on recent strategies to improve the efficiency and selection of displayed proteins. YSD is presented as a cutting-edge technology for the vectorial expression of proteins and peptides. Finally, recent biotechnological applications are summarized. The different approaches described herein could allow for a better strategy cascade for increasing protein/peptide interaction and production.

2022 ◽  
Tong Jia ◽  
Bizhen Cheng ◽  
Huahao Feng ◽  
Muhammad Jawad Hassan ◽  
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal ◽  

Abstract White clover (Trifolium repens) is one of the most widely cultivated livestock forage legumes co-cultivated worldwide with pasture grass in a mixed-sward setting, however, its persistence and aesthetic quality are severely affected by abiotic stresses. In this study, regeneration of white clover plants was conducted through a callus system for 4-5 months with a regeneration frequency of 36-41%. Inoculating 4-day-old cotyledons into MS media fortified with 0.4 mg·L-1 6-BA and 2 mg·L-1 2,4-D significantly increased the callus formation rate. Roots and cotyledons were better induced, followed by hypocotyls, leaves, and petioles. The development of differentiated structures performed effectively on MS supplemented with 1 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA. Further, we determined factors affecting the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient transformation for root-derived callus and 4-day-old cotyledons. The parameters that facilitated transient transformation were: Agrobacterium suspension density of 0.5 (OD600), 20 mg·L-1 AS, and 4-days co-cultivation duration. Subsequently, we developed two transformation protocols: transformation after callus formation in root segments (Protocol A) and transformation before callus initiation in 4-day-old cotyledons (Protocol B). The transformation frequencies varied from 1.92% to 3.17% in Protocol A and from 2.76% to 3.47% in Protocol B. We offer the possibility to regenerate multiple transgenic white clover from a single genetic background. In addition to assistance in identification of functional genes associated with yield, resistance and aesthetic quality, our research will also contribute to successful genetic manipulation and genome editing in white clover.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mariela Luján Tomazic ◽  
Virginia Marugan-Hernandez ◽  
Anabel Elisa Rodriguez

Parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa are the causative agents of important diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis or cryptosporidiosis in humans, and babesiosis and coccidiosis in animals. Whereas the first human recombinant vaccine against malaria has been approved and recently recommended for wide administration by the WHO, most other zoonotic parasitic diseases lack of appropriate immunoprophylaxis. Sequencing technologies, bioinformatics, and statistics, have opened the “omics” era into apicomplexan parasites, which has led to the development of systems biology, a recent field that can significantly contribute to more rational design for new vaccines. The discovery of novel antigens by classical approaches is slow and limited to very few antigens identified and analyzed by each study. High throughput approaches based on the expansion of the “omics”, mainly genomics and transcriptomics have facilitated the functional annotation of the genome for many of these parasites, improving significantly the understanding of the parasite biology, interactions with the host, as well as virulence and host immune response. Developments in genetic manipulation in apicomplexan parasites have also contributed to the discovery of new potential vaccine targets. The present minireview does a comprehensive summary of advances in “omics”, CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, and in systems biology approaches applied to apicomplexan parasites of economic and zoonotic importance, highlighting their potential of the holistic view in vaccine development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xiaoling Ding ◽  
Xinchen Sun ◽  
Huihui Cai ◽  
Lei Wu ◽  
Ying Liu ◽  

Macrophages play critical roles in tumor progression. In the tumor microenvironment, macrophages display highly diverse phenotypes and may perform antitumorigenic or protumorigenic functions in a context-dependent manner. Recent studies have shown that macrophages can be engineered to transport drug nanoparticles (NPs) to tumor sites in a targeted manner, thereby exerting significant anticancer effects. In addition, macrophages engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) were shown to actively migrate to tumor sites and eliminate tumor cells through phagocytosis. Importantly, after reaching tumor sites, these engineered macrophages can significantly change the otherwise immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment and thereby enhance T cell-mediated anticancer immune responses. In this review, we first introduce the multifaceted activities of macrophages and the principles of nanotechnology in cancer therapy and then elaborate on macrophage engineering via nanotechnology or genetic approaches and discuss the effects, mechanisms, and limitations of such engineered macrophages, with a focus on using live macrophages as carriers to actively deliver NP drugs to tumor sites. Several new directions in macrophage engineering are reviewed, such as transporting NP drugs through macrophage cell membranes or extracellular vesicles, reprogramming tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) by nanotechnology, and engineering macrophages with CARs. Finally, we discuss the possibility of combining engineered macrophages and other treatments to improve outcomes in cancer therapy.

2022 ◽  
pp. 307-332
Patricia A. Rosa ◽  
Mollie W. Jewett

2022 ◽  
pp. 97-122
Ashutosh Pandey ◽  
Gaurav Kant ◽  
Shadma Afzal ◽  
Manish Pratap Singh ◽  
Nand Kumar Singh ◽  

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