ecological importance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 966
Hieu Xuan Cao ◽  
Giang Thi Ha Vu ◽  
Oliver Gailing

Due to the economic and ecological importance of forest trees, modern breeding and genetic manipulation of forest trees have become increasingly prevalent. The CRISPR-based technology provides a versatile, powerful, and widely accepted tool for analyzing gene function and precise genetic modification in virtually any species but remains largely unexplored in forest species. Rapidly accumulating genetic and genomic resources for forest trees enabled the identification of numerous genes and biological processes that are associated with important traits such as wood quality, drought, or pest resistance, facilitating the selection of suitable gene editing targets. Here, we introduce and discuss the latest progress, opportunities, and challenges of genome sequencing and editing for improving forest sustainability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dong Zhang ◽  
Yiliang He ◽  
Karina Yew-Hoong Gin

Cyanobacteria are one of the dominant autotrophs in tropical freshwater communities, yet phages infecting them remain poorly characterized. Here we present the characterization of cyanophage S-SRP02, isolated from a tropical freshwater lake in Singapore, which infects Synechococcus sp. Strain SR-C1 isolated from the same lake. S-SRP02 represents a new evolutionary lineage of cyanophage. Out of 47 open reading frames (ORFs), only 20 ORFs share homology with genes encoding proteins of known function. There is lack of auxiliary metabolic genes which was commonly found as core genes in marine cyanopodoviruses. S-SRP02 also harbors unique structural genes highly divergent from other cultured phages. Phylogenetic analysis and viral proteomic tree further demonstrate the divergence of S-SRP02 from other sequenced phage isolates. Nonetheless, S-SRP02 shares synteny with phage genes of uncultured phages obtained from the Mediterranean Sea deep chlorophyll maximum fosmids, indicating the ecological importance of S-SRP02 and its related viruses. This is further supported by metagenomic mapping of environmental viral metagenomic reads onto the S-SRP02 genome.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Francesca Vannucchi ◽  
Valerio Lazzeri ◽  
Irene Rosellini ◽  
Manuele Scatena ◽  
Claudia Caudai ◽  

Hay meadows are secondary grasslands maintained by mowing, and their ecological importance resides in the inherent biodiversity and carbon stocking. We investigated the plant community and soil properties of a sub humid acid grassland near the Fucecchio marshes (Italy), managed as a hay meadow, mowed once a year, and not fertilized. Part of the meadow had been abandoned for three years. We analysed the soil properties (i.e., organic carbon and total nitrogen content, available phosphorus, pH, cation-exchange capacity, texture, and conductibility) and the plant community structure (composition, functionality, and species richness) of the two sides of the meadow (mowed and abandoned). Our aim was to highlight the changes in soil properties and vegetation community, and to find out to what extent abandonment can affect those dynamics. Our results showed that after short-term abandonment, soil pH, C and N increased; litter biomass and perennial forbs increased; and annual forbs decreased. New species colonising after abandonment, thus enriching the flora, may keep spreading and eventually hinder the growth of the specialists if mowing is not resumed. Certain valuable meadow habitats need constant human intervention to maintain their peculiar vegetation, most especially if they are a buffer zone in the proximity of natural protected areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (3) ◽  
Tayanna Bernardo Oliveira Nunes Messias ◽  
Emmanuella de Oliveira Moura Araújo ◽  
Amanda Marília da Silva Sant’Ana ◽  
Jorge Eduardo Cavalcante Lucena ◽  
Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco ◽  

ABSTRACT: Known as an animal of multiple functions, the Equus asinus has always been used for various purposes, such as entertainment, horseback riding, means of transport, agricultural traction and dairy farming. Although, donkeys are associated with a vast heritage of social, cultural, economic and ecological importance, they have lost their importance in the activities of rural properties, both in the developed economies of European countries and in the Northeast region of Brazil. Specific studies of production systems aimed rational exploitation of the donkey species in Brazil do not exist. New perspectives for the use of donkey in the Brazilian semiarid region through the dairy industry has aroused scientific interest and the interest of investors. The donkey, allied to the low production costs and rusticity of the species, has the capacity to contribute to the economy with products of high biological value and therapeutic characteristics. Thus, this review provided a broad view of the donkey bred in the Northeast of Brazil, observing its characteristics and relevance for the region. The benefits of donkey milk and the need to promote the production and marketing of this milk in the dairy production chain will also be discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 61 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-65
María de Jesús González-Guadarrama ◽  
Silvia Elena Castillo-Blum ◽  
María Aurora Armienta

  Abstract 22 This work discusses the importance of organic matter, specifically Aquatic Humic Substances (SHA) 23 within the speciation and distribution of metals within an aquatic system, in this case Xochimilco 24 Lake, a site with great ecological importance. This lake is the natural habitat of the endemic species 25 “axolotl” (ajolote). In this research, complexation reactions between SHA and metals (Cu, Mn, Pb 26 and Zn) were carried out under different reaction conditions, the source of AHS was water samples 27 taken in Xochimilco Lake in presence and absence of pH buffer dissolution and varying the 28 concentration of metals. The results show that there is a direct competition between the major 29 elements and trace elements to react with the AHS. Under the pH conditions of Xochimilco Lake 30 complexes formation is possible. 31

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012021
Haneen A Kh Karaghool

Abstract Pyridine is considered a heterocyclic aromatic chemical that is poisonous and carcinogenic to a variety of living species. The use of plant and endophytic- bacteria to improve the efficiency of pollutants extraction is considered a viable technique since the endophytic bacteria help in the adaptation of the plant itself in various ecosystems and have significant ecological importance because they improve the soil fertility and quality. This research aims to stimulate the pyridine phytodegradation by Phragmites australis plants using the endophytic bacterial strain, Acinetobacter by inoculation these bacterial cells to the plants to see if it might increase plant growth and pyridine phytodegradation. In the present study, the system of pyridine phytodegradation basins with the vertical subsurface flow (VSSF) was adopted, since this system has better ventilation. In addition, the retention time is several hours due to the penetration of water molecules to the layers of packing materials of the basin, which have a relatively high hydraulic conductivity. After conducting the experiments, samples were collected and tests were done to find out the optimum conditions. The results were recorded as 40 plants of P. australis/m2 of VSSF systems; bacterial cells concentration, 250 mg/L; pyridine concentration, 400 mg/L; temperature, 35 °C and pH, 8±2 for 10 hrs incubation duration. As a result, endophytic bacteria can break down toxic organic substances in combination with certain plants. When the endophytic bacterium, Acinetobacter was not used to enhance the role of Phragmites australis plants in the pyridine-phytodegradation process, the rate of phytodegradation was reduced to less than 30% at a pyridine concentration of 700 mg/L, indicating the importance of this endophytic bacterium in the pyridine phytodegradation process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (43) ◽  
pp. 282
Mamadou Ndiaye ◽  
Saboury Ndiaye ◽  
Sérigne Modou Sarr ◽  
Malick Diouf

The community forests of Senegal, and particularly those of the Groundnut Basin, play an important role in the lives of rural populations. They are significant sources of supply of various products and services. But despite their economic and ecological importance, community forests have never been the subject of an economic evaluation. This is likely to obscure the decision-making auspices of sustainable management of community forests. This study, based on vegetation surveys and socio-economic surveys, assessed the value of ecosystem goods and services. The results of the analysis showed that the forest has 21 species distributed among 08 families and that this diversity varies from one area to another. With this specific diversity, the basal area is evaluated at 2.64 m2/ha and the cover of 6081.17 m²/ha for a density of 327 individuals per hectare. The forest has a carbon storage capacity evaluated at 15.32 tons. The goods and services of the forest were estimated at 3,391,757 F CFA/year. This value is divided between direct uses estimated at 1,236,575 F CFA/year, indirect uses of 168,495 F CFA/year and an existence value of 1,986,687 F CFA/year. The study also showed that the exploitation of the forest is the most viable management option, as strict conservation imposes a social cost of 370,058 CFA francs per year on the population. In the context of decentralization, these results can serve as a basis for policy dialogue and decision-making processes on the sustainable management of forest resources

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 679-693
Marta Luciane Fischer ◽  
Juliana Zacarkin Santos

Perceptions of nature depend on experiences relating to biodiversity, thus this study investigated the representation of invertebrates in different sections of Brazilian society by means of a questionnaire available from March to December 2015 as a resource in terms of the conservation of nature and human health in order to design an ethical values guide for this relationship. This study tested the hypotheses that there are differences in the conception and representation: a) associated with gender, educational level, use of animals in vocational training, tutoring, and housing area; b) according to the role assigned to invertebrates as a resource, including in conservation and health; and c) that the different representations result in different value assignments used to intermediate decisions on how, when, and why to use invertebrates. Thus, through quantitative and cross-sectional research, our objective was to identify the popular representation of invertebrates. The analysis of the results of an online questionnaire with 281 respondents showed definitions and concepts that were predominantly similar to the tested variables, which suggests that the present study provides evidence for the understanding of the ecological importance of the invertebrates, the belief in their sentience, and disagreement with the substitutive use of vertebrates in experimentation. However, the naturalistic and ecological positions regarding nature prevailed, indicating the persistence of utilitarian values. The results cast interpretive clues that the only by cooperation between education and environmental bioethics will possible the confluence of values and interests of animals and human in favor of a critical, ethical, and sustainable society.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 36-44
Karina Massei ◽  
Carlos Alberto Isaza Valencia ◽  
Ana Carolina Assis Sampaio ◽  
Rogério dos Santos Ferreira ◽  
Christinne Costa Eloy

This interdisciplinary research has the playful art as a tool to raise awareness about the conservation of sharks and the environmental health of the Ocean, in addition to the search for the demystification of some concepts bringing to light the biological and ecological importance that this emblematic group represents for the natural balance of the Blue Planet. In the months of June and July 2018 at the visiting aquarium in Paraíba, a space for the propagation of non-formal environmental education, it was sought through the theatrical play "Swimming in Safety, a Sea of Hope" to apply the way of doing and teaching the concepts of sustainability and environmental preservation since the choice of the team, the actors and scenographic materials. Through exploratory and participant research, photographic and video records, we investigated the reactions of the audience before, during and after the play. The evaluation process was permanent in order to make constant improvements. The play tried to highlight not only information about the characteristics and importance of preserving sharks, but also the main threats such as the practice of finning, which through a plot between the pirate and the shark and the echinoderms, it was possible to explain the defence systems that each being has, all of which are important, showing that sharks are worth much more alive than dead. The expertise and performance of artistic activities such as juggling, magic and balance contributed to the success of the play. The results prove that this type of multidisciplinary experience, which promotes learning through enchantment, should be encouraged because it will certainly constitute a basis for future attitudes, especially in children, since they will feel encouraged to protect nature, according to the premises of the Decade of Oceanic Science and Ecological Restoration.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-74
Alexandre Dal Forno Mastella Alexandre ◽  
Mônica Moreno Gabira ◽  
Letícia Siqueira Walter ◽  
Rodrigo Condé Alves ◽  
Chaiane Rodrigues Scheider ◽  

Contextualization: M. scabrella is a native tree species of the Brazilian Mixed Ombrophilous Forest, with a high ecological importance and economic potential. Knowledge gap:   There is a lack of information about the use of resources that favour the seedlings production of this species. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the most appropriate doses of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) combined with the addition of remineralizer for production of M. scabrella seedlings. Methodology: Seedlings were produced using four doses of CRF (0, 4, 8, and 12 kg m-3) and four doses of remineralizer (0 %, 10 %, 20 %, and 30 %), in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme. At 180 days of seedling production, growth in height and stem diameter, shoot (SDB), root (RDB) and total biomass (TDB), and Dickson quality index (DQI) were evaluated. Results and conclusions: The use of remineralizer provided an increase in density and water retention capacity of substrates, as well as a reduction of macroporosity and total porosity. Combined with doses of 4 and 8 kg m-3, CRF contributed to the increase of biomass and DQI. The addition of 10 % remineralizer, associated with 4.0 kg m-3 CRF, provides adequate growth to produce M. scabrella seedlings. Above this percentage of remineralizer and CRF dose, species growth rate is reduced.

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